<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #225: Life in the 1970s and '80s

        作者:Jerilyn Watson 發布日期:9-24-2013

        Cast members of "Dallas" accept the pop culture award at the TV Land awards show in 2006 in Santa Monica, California. The awards honor classic shows and performers. From left: Charlene Tilton, Linda Gray, Larry Hagman, Patrick Duffy, Sheree Wilson, Mary C
        Cast members of "Dallas" accept the pop culture award at the TV Land awards show in 2006 in Santa Monica, California. The awards honor classic shows and performers. From left: Charlene Tilton, Linda Gray, Larry Hagman, Patrick Duffy, Sheree Wilson, Mary C

        STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember.

        This week in our series, we look back at some of the social issues and cultural changes in America in the nineteen seventies and eighties.

        (MUSIC)

        In some ways, the nineteen eighties seemed like the opposite of the nineteen sixties. The sixties were years of protest for social justice and change. Many Americans demonstrated against the Vietnam War. Blacks demonstrated for civil rights. Women demonstrated for equality. Many people welcomed new social programs created by the government.

        By the nineteen eighties, however, many people seemed more concerned with themselves than with helping society. To them, success was measured mainly by how much money a person made. People wanted to live the good life, and that took money.

        The changes started to become evident during the nineteen seventies. For a while, these years brought a continuation of the social experiments and struggles of the sixties.

        But then people began to see signs of what society would be like in the eighties. There were a number of reasons for this change.

        One reason was the end to America's military involvement in Vietnam after years of war. Another was the progress of civil rights activists and the women's movement toward many of their goals.

        A third reason was the economy. During the nineteen seventies, the United States suffered a recession. Interest rates and inflation were high. A shortage of imported oil as a result of tensions in the Middle East only added to the problems.

        As the nineteen seventies went on, many Americans became tired of economic struggle. They also became tired of social struggle. They had been working together for common interests. Now, many wanted to spend more time on their own interests.

        This change appeared in many parts of society. It affected popular culture, education and politics.

        ARCHIE BUNKER (CARROLL O'CONNOR): "Let me hear your idea again."

        MICHAEL (ROB REINER): "OK, I want us to watch Jack Lemmon and a group of famous scientists discuss pollution and ecology on channel thirteen."

        ARCHIE: "Good. And I wanna watch football highlights on channel two. Now guess what's gonna happen."

        (MUSIC)

        "All in the Family" cast
        "All in the Family" cast
        One of the most popular television programs of that time was a comedy series that often dealt with politics and serious social issues. The show was called "All in the Family." The family was led by a factory worker named Archie Bunker. Carroll O'Connor played Archie, and Jean Stapleton played his wife, Edith. The Bunkers lived in a working-class neighborhood in the Queens borough of New York City.

        Archie represented the struggles of the blue-collar working man against the social changes in America. He loved his country and was socially conservative -- in the extreme.

        ARCHIE: "What about John Wayne? And before you say anything, lemme warn you -- when you're talking about the Duke, you ain't just talking about an actor; you're talking about the spirit that made America great."

        MICHAEL: "Are you kidding?"

        His opinions on subjects like race and women's equality were always good for an argument with his liberal daughter and even more liberal son-in-law.

        MICHAEL: "Good. I can mail my letter today and it'll get to Washington by Monday."

        EDITH (JEAN STAPLETON): "Washington -- are you writing to Washington?

        GLORIA (SALLY STRUTHERS): "That's right. Michael wrote the president."

        ARCHIE: "Write to the president, about what?"

        GLORIA: "All the things we've been talking about - the pollution of our air, the pollution of our water, the way us housewives have no protection from foods without nutrition, how they make products with harmful things in them. Like you saw what happened to Michael from that shirt."

        ARCHIE: "You, Michael Stivic, Meathead, you have the nerve to write to the president of the United States about your rash?"

        Edith would always try to make peace.

        EDITH: "Maybe he knows a good skin man [dermatologist]."

        (MUSIC: "Happy Days" theme)

        Another popular program, "Happy Days," about family life in the nineteen fifties, offered an escape from the social issues of the day.

        (MUSIC)

        Music also changed. In the nineteen sixties, folk music was popular. Many of those folk songs were about social problems. But in the nineteen seventies, there was hard rock and punk.

        TV HOST: "Here is Wonder Mike, Hank and Master G -- the Sugarhill Gang."

        And in nineteen seventy-nine a group called the Sugarhill Gang brought rap music to national attention with a hit called "Rapper's Delight."

        (MUSIC: "Rappers Delight")

        In bookstores, the growing number of self-help books offered another sign of social change. These books advised people about ways to make themselves happier. One of the most popular self-help books was "I'm OK -- You're OK" by Wayne Dyer. It was published in nineteen sixty-nine and led the way for many other popular psychology books throughout the seventies.

        (MUSIC)

        Politically, the United States went through several changes during the nineteen seventies. For most of the sixties the nation was governed by liberal Democratic administrations. Then in nineteen sixty-eight a conservative Republican, Richard Nixon, was elected president.

        Nixon won a second term four years later, but had to resign in nineteen seventy-four because of the Watergate scandal. Nixon's vice president, Gerald Ford, took his place. Two years later, Ford was defeated by Jimmy Carter, a Democrat who until then was little known nationally.

        The election showed that Americans were angry with the Republican Party because of Watergate. But they soon became unhappy with President Carter. They blamed him for failing to improve the economy and for failing to end a crisis involving American hostages in Iran. He lost his re-election campaign to Ronald Reagan.

        RONALD REAGAN: "Are you better off than you were four years ago?"

        (MUSIC)

        Michael Douglas in "Wall Street"
        Michael Douglas in "Wall Street"
        Reagan, a Republican, won two terms and led the nation during most of the nineteen eighties. For many people, the Reagan years offered a renewed sense of economic opportunity. Reagan reduced taxes, which increased his popularity. But the national debt grew as he raised military spending to put pressure on the Soviet Union.

        (MUSIC)

        The self-centeredness of many people in the seventies and eighties gave rise to terms like the "me" generation." And there was the rise of "yuppies" -- young urban professionals remaking older neighborhoods in cities, often displacing poorer people.

        Popular entertainment at that time was often about financial success.

        ANNOUNCER: "Premiering Sunday, April second, 'Dallas,' where money buys power and passion breeds conflict ... "

        (MUSIC: "Dallas" theme)

        "Dallas" was a TV drama about a Texas oil family with more money, and more problems, than they knew what to do with. It became a hit not just in the United States but around the world. Actor Larry Hagman played JR.

        JR EWING (LARRY HAGMAN): "Your daddy lacked the killer instinct. He forgave those who transgressed against him. People just weren't afraid of him. And he overlooked ol' JR's golden rules.

        CASEY (ANDREW STEVENS): "And what might they be?"

        JR EWING: "Don't forgive and don't forget. And do unto others, before they do unto you. And, most especially, keep your eye on your friends, 'cause your enemies will take care of themselves. Oh, and one other thing - the oil business is a little bit like a poker game. It's good to get caught bluffing early on, 'cause, after that, somebody's gonna call you when you've got a winning hand."

        (MUSIC)

        "Dynasty" was another popular series about rich people behaving badly. One of its stars was veteran actor John Forsythe.

        BLAKE CARRINGTON (JOHN FORSYTHE): "Those banks are going to find out that they've got more than they can handle. Denver- Carrington [company] is Blake Carrington, and they'll come begging to me to run the company again. I know they will. And I'll make them get down on their knees when they come begging."

        There was also "Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous," a series about real-life wealthy people, hosted by Robin Leach.

        ROBIN LEACH: "Our bustling capital city combines the chic with the freak, the 'Oh, God' with the avant garde. So let's go 'upper deck' with a couple of my good friends, and run away with the rich and famous ..."

        And at the movie theater, there was the nineteen eighty-seven film "Wall Street."

        GORDON GECKO (MICHAEL DOUGLAS): "The point is, ladies and gentlemen, that greed, for lack of a better word, is good. Greed is right. Greed works."

        Michael Douglas played a character named Gordon Gecko, who earns his wealth by raiding companies and illegally trading on inside information.

        GORDON GECKO (MICHAEL DOUGLAS): "Greed clarifies, cuts through, and captures the essence of the evolutionary spirit. Greed, in all of its forms, greed for life, for money, for love, knowledge, has marked the upward surge of mankind. And greed - you mark my words, will not only save Teldar Paper, but that other malfunctioning corporation called the U.S.A. Thank you very much. [Applause]"

        (MUSIC: "Rambo" theme)

        Good triumphed over evil in the "Rambo" action films starring Sylvester Stallone. He played a troubled hero who had fought in Vietnam. The films were violent. But they represented a more positive view than society had shown in the past toward veterans of that unpopular war.

        In the nineteen eighties people came to fear a new disease that could be spread by sex or blood. It was the rise of the AIDS epidemic.

        At the same time a new drug -- crack cocaine -- started a wave of violence in American cities.

        Technology was also on the rise.

        ANNOUNCER: "You don't have to be a genius to use a computer. Let Computer Land show you how easy it is to manage your own small business or home finances with the Atari 800. Record keeping, information, communication, and a world of new ideas from Atari."

        Personal computers appeared in more and more offices, schools and homes.

        Michael Jackson performs with his brothers at Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles on December 3, 1984
        Michael Jackson performs with his brothers at Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles on December 3, 1984
        The nineteen eighties brought stardom to young entertainer Michael Jackson.

        (MUSIC: "Beat It"/Michael Jackson)

        And no history of the eighties would be complete without noting the rise of Music Television -- better known as MTV.

        (MUSIC: "Money for Nothing"/Dire Straits)

        You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and pictures at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. I'm Steve Ember, inviting you to join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        __

        Contributing: Jerilyn Watson

        This was program #225.

        在某些方面,80年代的美國跟60年代恰好相反。60年代是大家為爭取社會公正與變遷而抗爭的年代。很多人為反對越戰抗議示威;黑人為爭取民權走上街頭,婦女也為平權而大聲疾呼。與此同時,很多人都對政府新推出的社會福利項目表示歡迎。

        然而,到了80年代的時候,很多人重新把目光轉向自我,不再關心社會。對他們來說,

        一個人成功與否的主要衡量標準是他賺錢的能力,大家都渴望過上好日子,改善生活質量,這些自然需要錢。

        這種變化70年代時就已經有了苗頭。70年代初是60年代社會實驗和抗爭的延續,但是與此同時,向80年代的轉變也在潛移默化中浮現。

        促成這種變化的原因有幾個,原因之一是美國結束了對越戰的軍事介入,另一個原因是民權活動和婦女運動都取得了長足進展。第三個原因是美國經濟的變化。20世紀70年代,美國經歷了經濟衰退,利率和通脹高漲,中東局勢緊張造成進口石油短缺,更是雪上加霜。

        70年代時,美國人飽受經濟壓力,開始對爭取社會權益感到疲憊。他們為共同利益進行了斗爭,如今該花更多的時間來關心自身利益了。

        這種變化體現在了社會生活的方方面面,對文化、教育和政治都產生了影響。當時最受歡迎的電視系列節目之一是一部經常涉及政治和嚴肅社會話題的喜劇情景劇,叫"全家福"。一家之主阿奇.邦克爾在工廠上班,他的太太叫艾迪斯。邦克爾一家住在紐約皇后區的一個工薪階層居民區。

        阿奇塑造了一個典型的美國藍領工人形象,他熱愛自己的國家,但是在社會問題上極端保守,反對社會變革。他對種族和婦女平權等問題的看法跟自由派女兒和思想更激進的女婿經常產生激烈碰撞,阿奇的太太艾迪斯則一貫在中間和稀泥。

        另外一個深受觀眾喜愛的節目是"歡樂時光",講的是20世紀50年代的家庭生活,讓觀眾忘掉眼前的社會問題。

        80年代的音樂也發生了變化。60年代流行民謠,很多民謠歌曲都涉及社會問題。但是到了70年代,重搖滾和朋克出現了。1979年,一個名叫"糖山幫"的樂隊用單曲"說唱藝人的快樂",讓嘻哈音樂走上了美國的音樂舞臺。

        與此同時,各大書店里勵志書籍的增加也是社會變化的一種體現。這些書籍教大家如何讓自己變得更快樂,其中最著名的一本勵志書籍是托馬斯.哈里斯撰寫的"我很好--你很好",這本書1969年出版后,引發了70年代大量心理學書籍的出現。

        70年代,美國在政治上也經歷了一系列變化。60年代大部分時間,美國總統都是自由派民主黨人,但是1968年,保守派共和黨人尼克松當選總統。四年過后,尼克松當選連任,但是1974年由于水門事件而被迫辭職,由副總統福特繼任。兩年后,福特輸給了一個知名度并不高的民主黨人卡特。

        這次大選顯示,水門事件讓美國民眾對共和黨深惡痛絕,但是沒過多久,他們又開始對卡特感到不滿。他們責怪卡特沒能改善經濟,也沒能結束伊朗人質事件??ㄌ卦?976年大選中輸給了里根。

        里根是共和黨人,他擔任了兩屆美國總統,帶領美國走過了80年代的大部分時光。在很多人看來,里根領導下的美國經濟重新有了希望。里根降低稅率,并因此廣受民眾支持,但是里根為了向蘇聯施加壓力而增加軍費開支,也積累了美國的國債。

        20世紀七、八十年代美國人的自我中心也讓這一代人被稱為"自我一代"。這段時間里還出現了所謂的雅皮士,他們都是年輕的城市專業人員,他們重新塑造城市里的老社區,讓窮人離開那里。

        那段時間娛樂節目很多都是關于財富的,其中一個很受歡迎的電視連續劇叫"達拉斯",講的是一個德克薩斯石油家族的故事,他們有花不完的錢,也有解決不完的問題。這部連續劇不僅在美國,而且在世界上很多國家都有很高的收視率。當時其他一些著名節目還包括電視連續劇"豪門恩怨",和介紹真實人物的節目"富人和名人的生活方式"。

        以金融財富為主題的電影包括1987年上映的影片"華爾街"。邁克爾.道格拉斯在電影里飾演的角色戈登.蓋柯,非法利用內幕消息炒作股市。

        好萊塢著名影星史泰龍出演的蘭博系列也很受歡迎,主角是一個參加過越戰的英雄,影片充滿暴力,但主題是正義最終戰勝邪惡,展現了一個比已往更為積極正面的越戰老兵的形象。

        20世紀80年代,一種通過性交和血液傳染的疾病開始成為人們的夢魘,這就是艾滋病。與此同時,一種新的毒品,可卡因也開始進入美國城市。

        科學技術在80年代也突飛猛進,個人電腦在辦公室、教室和家庭里,如雨后春筍般出現。

        80年代的美國樂壇,一顆流行樂巨星冉冉升起,他就是年輕的邁克爾.杰克遜。80年代美國歷史,同時還見證了音樂電視MTV的誕生。

        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频