<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #223: The 'Reagan Revolution,' a Crisis With Iran Ends

        作者:Jerilyn Watson 發布日期:9-22-2013

        Freed U.S. hostage David Roeder arriving at the Rhein-Main air base in Frankfurt, Germany, on January 21, 1981. He was among 52 Americans held hostage in Iran for 444 days.
        Freed U.S. hostage David Roeder arriving at the Rhein-Main air base in Frankfurt, Germany, on January 21, 1981. He was among 52 Americans held hostage in Iran for 444 days.

        STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember.

        This week in our series, we look at the presidential campaign of nineteen eighty and the election of Ronald Reagan.

        (MUSIC)

        The months before Election Day in November of nineteen eighty were difficult for President Jimmy Carter. Many Americans blamed the Democrat for the nation's economic problems, including high inflation and high unemployment. Many also blamed him for not gaining the release of fifty-two American hostages in Iran.

        About a year earlier, Muslim extremists had seized the United States embassy in Tehran and taken the Americans as prisoners. President Carter urged all Americans to support his administration during the crisis.

        Ronald Reagan and wife, Nancy, at the Century Plaza Hotel in Los Angeles after his election victory on November 4, 1980
        Ronald Reagan and wife, Nancy, at the Century Plaza Hotel in Los Angeles after his election victory on November 4, 1980

        As the months went by, however, he made no progress in bringing the hostages home. The Iranians rejected negotiations for their release, and an attempt to rescue them failed. The president appeared powerless.

        Carter's political weakness led another Democrat, Ted Kennedy, to compete against him for the party's nomination. Kennedy was a powerful senator from Massachusetts and brother of former President John Kennedy.

        But at their national convention the Democrats nominated Carter for a second term, along with his vice president, Walter Mondale.

        Kennedy chose not to support them very strongly, so the Democratic Party was divided for the general election.

        (MUSIC)

        The Republican Party, however, was united behind a strong candidate -- Ronald Reagan, a former actor and former governor of California. Reagan's running mate for vice president was George H. W. Bush. Bush had served in Congress and as head of the Central Intelligence Agency. He had also represented the United States as ambassador to China and to the United Nations.

        The inability of the Carter administration to solve the hostage crisis and other problems made many Americans feel that their country was weak. Reagan promised to give them confidence once more in the nation's strength.

        Carter and Reagan debated each other several weeks before the election. To some people, Carter seemed angry and defensive while Reagan seemed calm and thoughtful.

        RONALD REAGAN: "Next Tuesday is Election Day. Next Tuesday, all of you will go to the polls and make a decision. I think when you make that decision, it might be well if you would ask yourself: Are you better off than you were four years ago? Is it easier for you to go and buy things in the stores than it was four years ago? Is there more, or less, unemployment in the country than there was four years ago? Is America as respected throughout the world as it was?

        "And if you answer all of those questions 'yes,' why then, I think your choice is very obvious as to who you'll vote for. If you don't agree -- if you don't think that this course we've been on for the last four years is what you would like to see us follow for the next four -- then, I could suggest another choice that you have."

        (MUSIC)

        On Election Day, voters gave Reagan a huge victory. It became known as the "Reagan Revolution."

        Inauguration Day was January twentieth, nineteen eighty-one. Ronald Reagan became the nation's fortieth president and, at sixty-nine, the oldest ever elected.

        In his inaugural speech, the new president talked about the goals of his administration. A major goal was to reduce the size of the federal government. Reagan and other conservatives believed that the nation's economy was suffering because of high taxes and unnecessary laws.

        Government, he said, was not the solution to the problem. Government was the problem.

        He urged Americans to join him in what he called a "new beginning."

        RONALD REAGAN: "The economic ills we suffer have come upon us over several decades. They will not go away in days, weeks, or months. But they will go away. They will go away because we as Americans have the capacity now -- as we have had in the past -- to do whatever needs to be done to preserve this last and greatest bastion of freedom."

        (MUSIC)

        Ronald Reagan was born in nineteen eleven in the small community of Tampico, Illinois. He was a good student and a good athlete. During summers, he worked as a lifeguard at a river and saved a number of swimmers. He studied economics and sociology and was on the swim team at Eureka College, a small school in Illinois.

        While in college, he became interested in acting. But he did not have enough money to go to New York or Hollywood to study to become an actor. Instead, he tried out for a job as a sports announcer on radio.

        To show his abilities, he made a recording of a football game in which he announced all the plays. But the game was imaginary. He invented all the action. A radio station in Davenport, Iowa, liked his creativity and gave him the job.

        Later, "Dutch" Reagan, as he was called, worked at a radio station in Des Moines, Iowa. And then he moved to the big city -- Chicago, where he worked as an announcer for the Chicago Cubs baseball team.

        In March of nineteen thirty-seven, the Cubs were in California for spring training. Reagan went along, and while he was there he took a screen test with Warner Brothers. The movie studio liked the friendly, handsome young man and offered him a job. In fact, in his first movie, he played a radio announcer.

        Before long, Ronald Reagan was a Hollywood star. He appeared in many movies - some good, some ordinary, but most very popular with the public.

        In the nineteen-forty film "Knute Rockne -- All American," Reagan played Notre Dame University college football player George Gipp. His deathbed speech contained a line that would often be associated with the Reagan presidency.

        GEORGE GIPP (RONALD REAGAN): "Ask them to go in there with all they've got and win just one for the Gipper. I don't know where I'll be then, but I'll know about it, and I'll be happy."

        (MUSIC: "Kings Row")

        In "Kings Row," Reagan played a double amputee who had lost both legs.

        DRAKE (RONALD REAGAN): "Randy! Randy! Randy! Where's the rest of me? Randy ... "

        RANDY (ANN SHERIDAN): "Yes, Drake!"

        DRAKE: "It was an accident."

        RANDY: "Yes, dear. But don't talk about it yet."

        He remembered "Kings Row" as the film that made him a star.

        (MUSIC)

        During World War Two Reagan joined what was then the Army Air Corps and made training films.

        Reagan became deeply interested in politics during his years in Hollywood. He started out a liberal, but his political views became increasingly conservative. He served six times as president of the Screen Actors Guild, a union of movie actors. He was noted for his opposition to anyone in the movie industry who supported communism.

        Later, during his presidency, the public learned that he had also been a secret informant for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. This was during a campaign against suspected communist sympathizers in Hollywood.

        After the war, Reagan guided the Screen Actors Guild through a frightening time for actors and others in the entertainment industry. It was the time of the powerful House Un-American Activities Committee. Its hearings resulted in the feared "blacklist." The blacklist was responsible for hurting -- even ending --the careers of many in the film and television industries if they were thought to be communists or to have communist sympathies.

        (MUSIC)

        It was through the blacklist scare that Reagan met his second wife, Nancy Davis. Her name had mistakenly been confused with that of another actress, causing it to appear on a blacklist, and she sought Reagan's help in correcting the mistake.

        They fell in love, and would marry in nineteen fifty-two.

        HELEN BLAIR (NANCY DAVIS): "Must be a big push this time, Case."

        CASEY ABBOTT (RONALD REAGAN): "The admiral told me not to tell."

        Reagan and Nancy Davis appeared together in the World War Two drama "Hellcats of the Navy," in which he played a naval officer and she a navy nurse who loved him.

        HELEN BLAIR: "The admiral should have told me not to worry."

        CASEY ABBOTT: "I thought we'd settled all that. About you and me."

        HELEN BLAIR: "It won't stay settled, Case. Not until you tell me you've stopped caring."

        By the early nineteen fifties, Reagan stopped appearing in movies and turned instead to a new medium -- television.

        RONALD REAGAN: "And every Sunday night, General Electric brings you the finest motion picture stars on TV. The great names in comedy, in mystery, in romance. Every week, a star, all summer long, on the General Electric Theater."

        (MUSIC)

        For many years, Ronald Reagan was the commercial spokesman for General Electric and host of a series of dramatic shows.

        For much of his life Ronald Reagan was a Democrat. By nineteen sixty, however, he was making speeches for conservative Republican candidates. In nineteen sixty-six, he became a candidate himself. He ran as a Republican for governor of California. Democrats did not take him seriously. They made fun of some of his movie roles, as in "Bedtime for Bonzo," a comedy where his co-star was a chimp.

        But Reagan had the last laugh. He won the election by almost a million votes.

        As governor, Reagan was praised for reducing the state's debt but criticized for raising taxes. Some people also thought he reacted too strongly against student unrest on college campuses. But he won reelection in nineteen seventy.

        In nineteen seventy-six Reagan ran for the Republican presidential nomination. He came close to winning that nomination away from President Gerald Ford. Ford recognized that there was strong support for Reagan among the convention delegates. After accepting the nomination, Ford asked Reagan to share the stage with him. The strong welcome that Reagan received was a clear sign of his future in the party.

        (MUSIC)

        That future would come just four years later, when Reagan won the presidency. On Reagan's Inauguration Day, Iran finally released the hostages it had been holding for four hundred forty-four days. Walter Cronkite paused in his CBS television coverage of the inauguration for this breaking news report from Dan Rather.

        DAN RATHER: "Walter, according to our CBS News sources at Tehran airport, one of the two Algerian jetliners is taxiing, or was just a few moments ago. And the drama on the runway of the Tehran airport continues, as the long agony for the brave fifty-two has continued throughout this morning.

        "Now, as best as we can make it out, here is where the situation with the American hostages stands at this moment. They remain in Tehran, at least they were just a few moments ago at the airport, apparently moments away from their flight to freedom, a few moments after spending four hundred forty-four days in captivity.

        "And can you imagine what it must have been like inside that airliner for the hostages this morning?"

        As president, Ronald Reagan quickly began work to get Congress to reduce taxes. He also began a weekly series of radio broadcasts.

        Each Saturday he would comment on developments in American life and politics. The broadcasts were similar to the "fireside chats" of President Franklin Roosevelt during the nineteen thirties.

        Reagan's ability to relate to people earned him the nickname "the Great Communicator."

        (MUSIC)

        Two months after he took office, Ronald Reagan was shot while leaving an event at a hotel in Washington.

        (SOUND)

        In the first moments, no one realized that he had been hit. But there was a bullet in his left lung, close to his heart. At the hospital, Reagan jokingly told the doctors: "I hope you're all Republicans." They were able to remove the bullet and he made a full recovery.

        But the shooting left his press secretary, James Brady, permanently disabled from a head wound. A Secret Service agent was also seriously wounded. The gunman, twenty-five year old John Hinckley Junior, was sent to a mental hospital. His explanation for the attack was that he was trying to impress the actress Jodie Foster.

        (MUSIC)

        We'll continue the story of the Reagan presidency next week.

        You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and pictures at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. I'm Steve Ember, inviting you to join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This was program #223.

        1980年11月總統大選之前的幾個月,卡特總統的日子很不好過。很多美國人覺得,國家的高通貨膨脹率和高失業率等經濟問題都要怪卡特,沒能讓伊朗人質事件中的52個美國人獲釋也是他的過錯。

        大約一年前,穆斯林極端分子占領了駐德黑蘭的美國大使館,把美國公民扣為人質,卡特呼吁美國民眾在伊朗人質事件中,堅定地跟美國政府站在一起。然后,幾個月過去了,卡特在爭取人質獲釋的問題上,沒有絲毫進展??垩喝速|的極端分子拒絕就此跟美方談判,美國的營救行動也以失敗告終??ㄌ乜偨y在伊朗人質事件的問題上顯得軟弱無力。

        卡特總統民眾支持率的疲軟,促使另一位民主黨人站出來挑戰他的總統提名,這個人就是麻薩諸塞州參議員愛德華.肯尼迪??夏岬蠀⒆h員是前總統約翰.肯尼迪的弟弟,在政治上很有影響力。

        然而,民主黨人在全國代表大會上,還是提名卡特總統競選連任,他的競選搭檔是現任副總統蒙代爾。愛德華.肯尼迪沒有極力支持卡特和蒙代爾,從而造成了選前民主黨內部的分裂。

        與此同時,共和黨則緊密團結,一致支持他們的總統候選人里根。里根曾是好萊塢演員,擔任過加利福尼亞州州長,里根的副總統搭檔是喬治.布什。布什曾任國會議員、中央情報局局長,還曾出任美國駐華大使,以及美國常駐聯合國代表。

        卡特政府在伊朗人質事件,以及在解決國內經濟問題上所表現出來的無能為力,讓民眾覺得美國十分軟弱。里根保證讓大家恢復對國家實力的信心。

        大選幾周前,卡特和里根舉行了辯論。很多人覺得,卡特在辯論中顯得脾氣暴躁,始終都在自我辯護,而里根卻心定神怡,思路清晰。

        里根在辯論中說:"下星期二是選舉日。下星期二,你們都要到投票站去,做出自己的決定。我想,大家在做決定之前,最好可以問一下自己:‘你的日子比四年前更好過了嗎?去商店買東西更容易了嗎?失業率比四年前高了還是低了?美國在世界上受到的尊重是更多了還是更少了?'如果你的回答都是肯定的,我想大家很清楚,選票應該投給誰;但如果你的答案都是否定的,如果你不愿意看到我們今后四年繼續按照過去四年的道路走下去的話,我建議大家考慮另外一個選項。"

        大選結果,里根高票當選。1981年1月20日,里根宣誓就職,成為美國第40任總統。他當時已年屆69歲,是美國歷史上當選時年紀最大的一位總統。里根在就職演說中談到了本屆政府的工作目標,其中很重要的一個就是縮小聯邦政府的規模。里根等保守派認為,國家的經濟困難是高稅收和完全沒有必要的法律所造成的。里根說,政府不是解決問題的出路,而是問題的根源所在。他呼吁民眾跟他一起,"重新開始"。

        里根說:"我們遭受的經濟困境是過去幾十年積累的結果,不會在幾天、幾星期、幾個月里消失,但是它們勢必會得到解決,因為我們美國人現在跟過去一樣,有能力完成必須要完成的工作,以保存這塊最后的,這個最偉大的自由堡壘。"

        羅納德.里根1911年出生在伊利諾伊州一個叫坦皮科的小鎮,上學時是個好學生,也是一個很優秀的運動員。里根暑假期間在河邊當救生員,救過好幾個人。他大學就讀于伊利諾伊州的尤里卡學院,專業是經濟學和社會學,也是學校游泳隊隊員。

        大學期間,里根開始對表演產生興趣,但是沒錢到紐約或是好萊塢去學表演,最后決定申請到電臺去當體育播報員,為此,他專門做了一盤樣品帶,給一場橄欖球賽做解說,但是這場比賽不是真的,全是他自己編出來的,愛奧華州達文波特的一家電臺看中了他的想象力,決定雇傭他。

        里根后來又在愛奧華州德梅因的一家電臺工作過,從那里去了大城市芝加哥,當芝加哥棒球隊小熊隊的解說員。1937年3月,小熊隊到加州去春季集訓,里根也去了,順便到華納兄弟公司去試鏡,華納公司看重了這個親和力強、長得又帥的年輕人,給了他一份工作。里根在出演的第一部電影中,扮演的就是一位在電臺工作的解說員。

        沒過多久,里根就成了好萊塢的一顆明星。他演過很多電影,有些不錯,有些一般,但大都很受觀眾們的喜愛。比如,里根在1940年的電影"克努特.羅克尼,所有美國人";(Knute Rockne--All American)里,飾演圣母大學的橄欖球隊員喬治.吉普;他在電影King's Row里飾演一個雙腿截肢的人。

        二戰期間,里根加入了當時的陸軍航空隊,參與拍攝訓練片。在好萊塢那段時間里,里根開始對政治產生了濃厚的興趣。他最初是政治自由派,后來逐漸向保守派轉變。里根擔任過六屆美國演員工會主席,以反對影視界里的親共分子而著稱。

        里根后來當總統時,大家才知道,好萊塢清洗親共分子時,里根曾秘密向聯邦調查局提供情報。戰爭結束后,美國國會眾議院的非美活動調查委員會舉行聽證,當時的美國演員工會主席就是里根。

        調查委員會聽證的結果是一份好萊塢政治"黑名單",黑名單上的人被認為是共產黨或是有親共情結,這份黑名單讓好萊塢影視界很多人的事業都受到了影響,甚至給他們的演藝生涯劃上了句號。

        也正是在這段時間里,里根遇到了自己的第二任妻子南希.戴維斯。她的名字因為跟另一個女演員的名字混淆,所以莫名其妙地上了黑名單,南希找里根出面,幫她糾正了錯誤。兩人后來相愛,并于1952年結合。

        里根和南希合作過一部二戰影片,里根扮演一個海軍軍官,南希扮演一個愛上他的海軍護士。50年代初,里根開始從電影轉向電視。里根為通用電器做了多年廣告代言,還是不少節目的主持人。

        里根大半輩子都是民主黨人,但是從1960年起,他卻開始為共和黨候選人發表演說,1966年他本人也成了候選人,代表共和黨參選加州州長。民主黨人沒把他當回事,還拿他演過的一些角色開玩笑,但是里根居然贏了,得票高出對手近100萬票。

        做為加州州長,里根因為降低州政府赤字而受到稱贊,但同時也因為提高稅率而受到批評。還有一些人覺得,里根對校園里的學生抗議活動反應過于激烈,但是里根1970年還是當選連任加州州長。

        1976年,里根參選共和黨總統候選人提名,差點擊敗當時的總統福特。福特看到了共和黨人對里根的支持,在接受提名的講話時,邀請里根上臺發言。里根受到的熱烈歡迎預示了他在共和黨內光明的前途。

        短短四年后,里根當選總統。宣誓就職當天,伊朗的穆斯林極端分子終于釋放了關押444天的美國人質。美國哥倫布廣播公司記者沃爾特.克朗凱特中斷總統宣誓就職的特別報道,插播丹.拉瑟報道的突發新聞。拉瑟說:"沃爾特,根據美國哥倫比亞廣播公司在德黑蘭機場的消息來源,兩架阿爾及利亞飛機中的一架正在跑道上滑行,至少是剛剛還在滑行,德黑蘭機場上驚心動魄,52位勇士的磨難還在繼續。據我們所知,這就是美國人質的最新狀況,他們目前還在德黑蘭,至少是剛剛還在德黑蘭機場,被關押了漫長的444天后,馬上就要投奔自由。大家可以想象,飛機上那些人質現在的心情。"

        里根上任后,立即著手推動國會減稅。他還開始每周對民眾發表例行廣播講話。每個星期六,他都會就美國的生活和政治發表評論,類似30年代富蘭克林.羅斯??偨y的爐邊談話。里根擅長跟民眾交流,因此被稱為"偉大的溝通者"。就職兩個月后,里根參加完活動離開華盛頓一家飯店時,遭到槍擊。

        起初,沒人意識到里根中彈了。一顆子彈打中里根的左肺,離心臟很近。里根在醫院時還跟醫生開玩笑說:"我希望你們都是共和黨人。"手術很成功,里根術后徹底康復。

        然爾,里根的白宮新聞發言人詹姆斯.布雷迪在槍擊事件中頭部受傷,落下終身殘疾;另外還有一名總統的特勤保安也身受重傷。25歲的槍手約翰.辛克利被送進精神病院。辛克利說,他刺殺里根,目的是為了引起電影明星朱迪.福斯特的注意。

        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频