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        #222: Carter Brings Egypt, Israel Together in Peace Treaty

        作者:Steve Ember 發布日期:9-21-2013

        Egypt's President Anwar Sadat, left, shakes hands with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin as President Jimmy Carter looks on at Camp David, Maryland, in September 1978
        Egypt's President Anwar Sadat, left, shakes hands with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin as President Jimmy Carter looks on at Camp David, Maryland, in September 1978

        STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember.

        Today, we tell about the administration of the thirty-ninth president of the Unitefd States, Jimmy Carter.

        (MUSIC)

        It is January twentieth, nineteen seventy-seven. Inauguration Day. America's newly elected president, Jimmy Carter, is on his way to the White House after his swearing-in ceremony at the Capitol building.

        But the new president is not riding in a car. He is walking. His wife, Rosalynn, and his daughter, Amy, walk with him. Crowds along Pennsylvania Avenue cheer. Bands play.

        On this cold day in Washington, Americans look to the future. Watergate -- the crisis that led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon -- is several years in the past. The Vietnam War is history, too.

        Republican Gerald Ford served the remaining years of Nixon's term. Many people believe he brought respect and order back to the government. Yet he lost the office to Democrat Jimmy Carter in the election of nineteen seventy-six.

        The nation still has problems. Unemployment is high. So is inflation. But the future of the nation looks bright. Jimmy Carter feels sure about his future, too. On the day before his inauguration, he said:

        CARTER: "I do feel that the people of this nation and, I think, the entire world wish me well and want to see me succeed as president. And that gives me a sense of reassurance and confidence. I think I'm ready now to be president."

        During the election campaign, Carter often said he would be different from other presidents. He told voters he was not a member of the Washington political establishment. So he would do things in his own independent way.

        (MUSIC)

        Carter was from Georgia, in the Deep South of the United States. There had not been a president born in the South in more than one hundred years. Carter studied nuclear engineering and attended the United States Naval Academy. He planned to stay in the Navy. Then his father died. And he decided to return to Georgia to operate the family peanut farm.

        Carter began his political life on the committee that supervised schools in his hometown of Plains, Georgia. He also served in other local offices. In nineteen-sixty-six, he failed to win the Democratic nomination for governor of Georgia. For the next four years, he traveled around the state gathering support. He won the next election.

        As governor, Carter earned praise for reorganizing the state government. He also reformed state programs dealing with prisons and mental health care. In nineteen-seventy-two, he offered himself as a candidate for vice president with presidential candidate George McGovern. But the Democratic Party chose someone else.

        Carter did not wait long to begin his next political move. He would try to win the Democratic presidential nomination in nineteen seventy-six.

        Jimmy Carter was hardly known outside the state of Georgia. Political experts gave him little chance. Even his mother was surprised to learn that he wanted to be president. "President of what?" she asked.

        But the farmer and former governor had a plan. He would try to win his party's primary elections in the South. He believed this would give him enough support at the party convention to win the nomination.

        Other Democratic candidates tried to stop him, but his plan worked. By the time of the convention, he had enough support to win the nomination on the first ballot.

        In the general election, Carter defeated President Ford by almost two percent of the popular vote. He lost in the West and Middle West, but won the South and Northeast.

        (MUSIC)

        President Carter believed strongly in human rights. He hoped he could use his new position to support human rights throughout the world. On this and other issues, he was not afraid of being criticized when he believed he was right.

        For example, he believed it was right for the United States to end its control of the Panama Canal. He won Congressional support for treaties to give control to Panama by the year two-thousand. He believed it was right to give diplomatic recognition to Communist China. And he believed it was right to continue negotiations with the Soviet Union about limiting nuclear weapons, even though he denounced human rights violations there.

        In nineteen-seventy-nine, Carter and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev signed the strategic arms limitation treaty known as SALT Two. However, Carter decided not to send the treaty to the Senate for approval after the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan later that year.

        (MUSIC)

        One of the finest moments of Carter's presidency took place at Camp David. That is the holiday home of American presidents. There, in March nineteen seventy-nine, President Anwar Sadat of Egypt met with Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel. They signed a peace treaty ending thirty years of war between their countries.

        JIMMY CARTER: "We're privileged to witness tonight a significant achievement in the cause of peace, an achievement none thought possible a year ago, or even a month ago, an achievement that reflects the courage and wisdom of these two leaders."

        Both men said the treaty would not have been possible without President Carter's help.

        President Carter was not as successful in dealing with the economy. High unemployment and inflation continued. The federal deficit increased, although he had promised to end it. And there was a shortage of gasoline.

        The shortage resulted when oil-producing countries limited production and exports. Carter urged American companies to develop new sources of energy, in addition to oil. He said the United States needed to do this, because it could not always depend on getting enough oil from other countries.

        JIMMY CARTER: "This intolerable dependence on foreign oil threatens our economic independence and the very security of our nation. The energy crisis is real. It is worldwide. It is a clear and present danger to our nation. These are facts and we simply must face them.

        "I am tonight setting a clear goal for the energy policy of the United States. Beginning this moment, this nation will never use more foreign oil than we did in 1977 -- never. From now on, every new addition to our demand for energy will be met from our own production and our own conservation. The generation-long growth in our dependence on foreign oil will be stopped dead in its tracks right now."

        (MUSIC)

        During the gasoline shortage, Americans had to wait in long lines to buy fuel. They did not like it and were angry.

        Many were even more angry about a different situation. Like the gasoline shortage, it was a result of actions in another distant place.

        SAM DONALDSON, ABC NEWS: "Good evening. The U.S. embassy in Tehran has been invaded and occupied by Iranian students. The Americans inside have been taken prisoner."

        (MUSIC)

        On November fourth, nineteen seventy-nine, Muslim extremists in Iran seized the American Embassy in Tehran. They took many hostages, including more than sixty Americans. The extremists said they were punishing the United States for being friendly with ousted Iranian leader, Shah Reza Pahlavi.

        The extremists refused to negotiate. They refused to release the hostages. In early April nineteen-eighty, President Carter broke off diplomatic relations with Iran. He then ordered American military forces to try to rescue the hostages in Tehran. The operation failed. A sandstorm caused two of the aircraft to crash into each other. They went down in the desert hundreds of kilometers away.

        The failed rescue attempt had a major effect on the presidency of Jimmy Carter. Many Americans felt it showed that he could not do the job. Their respect for him continued to decrease as the hostages continued to be held.

        Other things were beginning to go wrong, too. The president's younger brother, Billy, admitted receiving a large amount of money from Libya. He took the money in exchange for supporting Libyan interests with American lawmakers. His mistake was that he did not list his name as a representative of a foreign government.

        (MUSIC)

        Nineteen eighty was a presidential election year in the United States. President Carter was expected to be the candidate of the Democratic Party. His chances were almost ruined? because of the situation in Iran. Carter hoped that concern for the hostages would unite the country behind him. Instead, support turned to blame.

        Senator Edward Kennedy of Massachusetts believed he could defeat Carter for the nomination. Kennedy won several important Democratic primary elections. But that was not enough. The party renominated Carter. Kennedy offered Carter his support, but not very strongly. This left the party divided.

        (MUSIC)

        The Republicans got ready to win back the White House. They hoped to do it with a strong appeal to American voters. The appeal came from a man who would become one of America's most popular presidents -- Ronald Reagan.

        That will be our story next week.

        You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and pictures at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. I'm Steve Ember, inviting you to join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        ___

        Contributing: Jerilyn Watson

        This was program #222. For earlier programs, type "Making of a Nation" in quotation marks in the search box at the top of the page.

        1977年1月20日,美國當選總統吉米.卡特在國會大廈宣誓就職后,前往白宮??ㄌ匾圆酱?,第一夫人羅莎琳和第一女兒艾米陪在他身邊。賓夕法尼亞大街沿街人群向卡特歡呼致意,還有樂隊伴奏。

        這一天,美國人民心向未來。讓尼克松辭職的水門事件已經過去好幾年了,越戰也已成為歷史。共和黨總統福特做完了尼克松剩下的任期,很多人都認為,福特讓政府重新有了尊嚴和秩序。盡管如此,福特在1976年總統大選中,還是輸給了卡特。

        當時,美國面臨很多問題:失業率居高不下,通貨膨脹嚴重,但是前景似乎十分光明。新總統卡特也對自己的未來充滿信心。他在就職前一天說:"我真的感覺美國人民,甚至是全世界人民都希望我能做一個成功的總統,這讓我覺得很安穩,信心倍增。我覺得自己已經做好了當總統的準備。"

        參選期間,卡特經常談到自己的與眾不同。他告訴選民說,他不是華盛頓政治的圈內人,他會按照自己特立獨行的方式去處理問題。

        卡特來自美國大南方的喬治亞州。在他之前,美國已經有一百多年沒有南方人當總統了??ㄌ禺厴I于美國海軍學院,主修核工程專業。他本來打算加入海軍,但是父親去世后,他決定回到喬治亞州,經營家庭的花生農場。

        卡特最早涉足政治,是擔任家鄉平原鎮一個負責監督學校工作的委員會的成員。他后來還在當地其他一些辦公室服務過。1966年,他參加喬治亞州州長的民主黨提名并落選。此后四年里,他在全州各地奔波,爭取支持,四年后成功當選喬治亞州長。

        擔任州長期間,卡特因為重組州政府而受到贊揚,他還對州里有關監獄和精神病保健的項目進行了改革。1972年,他主動提出愿意做喬治.麥戈文的競選伙伴,但最后民主黨還是選擇了別人。

        卡特隨即決定參加1976年總統大選??ㄌ禺敃r在喬治亞州以外的知名度很低,政治分析人士都覺得他根本沒有希望。就連他自己的母親,在得知他準備參選總統時,都感到十分驚訝。

        然而,卡特有自己的計劃。他覺得,只要先爭取贏得南方各州的黨內初選,到黨內提名的時候,他就會有足夠的支持了。其他民主黨候選人企圖阻止他,但是沒有成功。民主黨總統提名大會上,卡特在第一輪投票中就贏得了總統候選人提名。

        在總統大選中,卡特的票數比福特多出將近兩個百分點。他在西部和中西部落后,但是在南部和東北部占據優勢??ㄌ睾苤匾暼藱?。他希望,做為美國總統,能更好地推動世界各地人權的進步。在這類問題上,他只要認準了,就絕不怕別人批評。

        例如,卡特認為美國應該結束對巴拿馬運河的控制權。他贏得了國會的支持,簽署協議,2000年時放棄對巴拿馬運河的控制權。再比如,卡特認為,應該在外交上正式承認共產政權統治下的中國??ㄌ剡€認為,雖然蘇聯嚴重侵犯人權,但是美國應該繼續圍繞限制核武器的問題跟蘇聯進行談判。

        1979年,卡特和蘇聯領導人勃列日涅夫簽署了第二階段限制戰略武器條約。然而,1979年下半年蘇聯入侵阿富汗后,卡特決定不把這份條約提交國會參議院批準。

        卡特總統任期內最輝煌的時刻之一發生在美國總統渡假地戴維營。1979年3月,埃及總統薩達特在那里會見以色列總理貝京,簽署和平協議,結束了雙方長達30年之久的戰爭??ㄌ乜偨y說:"我們今晚有幸見證了歷史上為和平而取得的一個重大成就,一年前,甚至一個月前,還沒人相信這是可能的,這充分體現了兩位領導人的勇氣和智慧。"勃列日涅夫和貝京都說,沒有卡特的幫助,雙方是無法達成和平協議的。

        卡特在外交領域內取得了卓越成績,但在解決國內經濟問題方面,卻沒有那么成功。高失業率和高通貨膨脹都在繼續,聯邦赤字也不斷膨脹,與此同時,還出現了石油短缺,主要是因為石油生產國限制了產量和出口??ㄌ毓膭蠲绹鹃_發石油以外的新能源??ㄌ卣f,美國需要開發新的能源來源,不能老是靠著從其他國家進口石油。

        卡特說:"對進口石油的一味依賴對我們的經濟獨立和國家安全構成了威脅。能源危機確實存在,是全球性的,是我們國家面臨的明確而現實的危險。事實如此,我們只能面對。我今天晚上要為美國的能源政策定下明確目標。從這一刻起,美國使用的進口石油絕不能超出1977年的水平,再也不能了。從這一刻起,任何對能源的新需求都要通過我們自己生產的能源和節省下來的能源來滿足。過去一代人的時間里,我們對進口石油不斷增長的依賴到此為止。"在石油短缺期間,購買燃料要大排長龍,這種情況讓美國民眾感到十分氣憤。

        另外一件事也讓很多美國人感到憤怒,那就是1979年發生的伊朗人質事件。當時美國廣播公司的報道里說:"晚上好,美國駐德黑蘭大使館被伊朗學生闖入并占領,里面的美國人已經被扣為人質。"

        1979年11月4日,伊朗的穆斯林極端份子占領了美國在德黑蘭的大使館,他們扣押了很多人質,其中包括60多個美國人。這些極端份子說,他們這樣做是要懲罰美國,因為美國對被趕下臺的伊朗領導人巴列維過于友善。

        穆斯林極端份子拒絕談判,拒絕釋放人質。1980年4月初,卡特總統決定斷絕跟伊朗的外交關系,下令美國軍方設法營救德黑蘭的美國人質,營救行動失敗,一場沙塵暴讓兩架飛機相撞,在距離德黑蘭幾百公里的沙漠里墜機。

        這次營救行動的失敗給卡特帶來了重大影響。很多美國人都覺得,這說明卡特根本不能勝任總統的職務,隨著人質事件的延續,美國民眾對卡特的尊敬也逐漸減少。禍不單行,卡特的弟弟比利承認拿了利比亞一大筆錢,作為交換,幫助利比亞的利益在美國國會游說,但問題是,比利并沒有在外國政府代表的名冊上登記注冊。

        1980年是美國總統大選年。不出意外的話,民主黨總統候選人還是卡特,但是他當選連任的機會,已經因為伊朗人質事件而變得微乎其微??ㄌ卦鞠M?,選民們對人質事件的關注會讓整個國家團結在他周圍,可沒想到,民眾對他的支持變成了抱怨。

        麻薩諸塞州參議員肯尼迪覺得,自己能擊敗卡特,獲得黨內提名??夏岬洗_實在好幾個重要的州內初選里擊敗了卡特,但這還遠遠不夠。民主黨最后還是決定提名卡特??夏岬媳硎局С挚ㄌ?,但是并不堅決,結果造成了民主黨內部的分裂。

        與此同時,共和黨人則做好了奪回白宮的準備。他們把希望寄托在里根身上,希望里根能贏得選民的支持。事實證明,里根終將成為美國歷史上最受歡迎的總統之一。

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