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        #207: The Cold War

        作者:Jerilyn Watson 發布日期:9-6-2013

        President John Kennedy, right, meeting with Soviet Ambassador Andrei Gromyko, second from right, and other Soviet officials in Washington in 1962
        President John Kennedy, right, meeting with Soviet Ambassador Andrei Gromyko, second from right, and other Soviet officials in Washington in 1962

        STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember.

        (MUSIC)

        Today, we tell about the period known as the Cold War.

        The Cold War began after World War Two. The main enemies were the United States and the Soviet Union.

        The Cold War got its name because both sides were afraid of fighting each other directly. In a "hot war," nuclear weapons might destroy everything. So, instead, both sides fought each other indirectly. They supported opposing sides in conflicts in different parts of the world. They also used words as weapons. They threatened and denounced each other. Or they tried to make each other look foolish.

        Over the years, leaders on both sides changed. Yet the Cold War continued. It was the major force in world politics for most of the second half of the twentieth century.

        President Harry Truman
        President Harry Truman

        The Cold War world was separated into three groups. The United States led the West. This group included countries with democratic political systems. The Soviet Union led the East. This group included countries with communist political systems. The non-aligned group included countries that did not want to be tied to either the West or the East.

        (MUSIC)

        Harry Truman was the first American president to fight the Cold War. He used several policies. One was the Truman Doctrine. This was a plan to give money and military aid to countries threatened by communism. The Truman Doctrine effectively stopped communists from taking control of Greece and Turkey.

        Another policy was the Marshall Plan. This strengthened the economies and governments of countries in western Europe.

        A major event in the Cold War was the Berlin Airlift. After World War Two, the United States and its allies divided Germany. Berlin was a part of communist East Germany. The city was divided into east and west.

        In June nineteen forty-eight, Soviet-led forces blocked all roads and railways leading to the western part of Berlin. President Truman quickly ordered military airplanes to fly coal, food, and medicine to the city.

        (SOUND)

        The planes kept coming, sometimes landing every few minutes, for more than a year. The United States received help from Britain and France. Together, they provided almost two and one-half million tons of supplies on about two hundred-eighty thousand flights.

        C-47s unloading at Tempelhof Airport in Berlin
        C-47s unloading at Tempelhof Airport in Berlin

        The United States also led the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in nineteen forty-nine. NATO was a joint military group. Its purpose was to defend against Soviet forces in Europe.

        The Soviet Union and its east European allies formed their own joint military group -- the Warsaw Pact -- six years later.

        In nineteen fifty-three, Soviet leader Josef Stalin died. His death gave the new American president, Dwight Eisenhower, a chance to deal with new Soviet leaders.

        (MUSIC)

        In July nineteen-fifty-five, Eisenhower and Nikolai Bulganin met in Geneva, Switzerland. The leaders of Britain and France also attended.

        Eisenhower proposed that the Americans and Soviets agree to let their military bases be inspected by air by the other side. The Soviets later rejected the proposal. Yet the meeting in Geneva was not considered a failure. After all, the leaders of the world's most powerful nations had shaken hands.

        Cold War tensions increased, then eased, then increased again over the years. The changes came as both sides attempted to influence political and economic developments around the world.

        For example, the Soviet Union provided military, economic, and technical aid to communist governments in Asia. The United States then helped eight Asian nations fight communism by establishing the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, known as SEATO.

        In the nineteen fifties, the United States began sending military advisers to help South Vietnam defend itself against communist North Vietnam. That aid would later expand into a long and bloody period of American involvement in Vietnam.

        The Cold War also affected the Middle East. In the nineteen fifties, both East and West offered aid to Egypt to build the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River. The West cancelled its offer, however, after Egypt bought weapons from the communist government in Czechoslovakia.

        Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser then seized control of the company that operated the Suez Canal.

        (SOUND)

        A few months later, Israel invaded Egypt. France and Britain joined the invasion.

        For once, the United States and the Soviet Union agreed on a major issue. Both supported a United Nations resolution demanding an immediate ceasefire.

        The Suez crisis was a political victory for the Soviets. When the Soviet Union supported Egypt, it gained new friends in the Arab world.

        In nineteen fifty-nine, cold war tensions eased a little. The new Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, visited Dwight Eisenhower in the United States. The meeting was very friendly. But the next year, relations got worse again.

        (MUSIC)

        An American U-2 reconnaissance airplane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The plane and its pilot, Francis Gary Powers, were captured. Eisenhower admitted that such planes had been spying on the Soviets for four years. In a speech at the United Nations, Khrushchev got so angry that he took off his shoe and beat it on a table.

        John Kennedy followed Eisenhower as president in nineteen sixty-one. During his early days in office, Cuban exiles invaded Cuba. It came to be known as the Bay of Pigs invasion. The forces wanted to oust the communist government of Fidel Castro.

        America's Central Intelligence Agency had provided training for the exiles. But the United States failed to send military planes to protect them during the invasion. As a result, almost all were killed or taken prisoner by Cuban forces trained and supported by the Soviet Union and its allies.

        At the same time in Europe, tens of thousands of East Germans had fled to the West. East Germany's government decided to stop them. It built a wall separating the eastern and western parts of the city of Berlin. Guards shot at anyone who tried to flee by climbing over.

        During Kennedy's second year in office, American intelligence reports discovered Soviet missiles in Cuba.

        JOHN F. KENNEDY: "This government, as promised, has maintained the closest surveillance of the Soviet military build-up on the island of Cuba. Within the past week, unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missile sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island. The purpose of these bases can be none other than to provide a nuclear strike capability against the western hemisphere."

        The Soviet Union denied the missiles were there. Yet American photographs, taken from high in the air, proved they were.

        America's ambassador to the United Nations, Adlai Stevenson:

        ADLAI STEVENSON: "Let me ask you one simple question: Do you, Ambassador Zorin, deny that the USSR [Soviet Union] has placed and is placing medium- and intermediate-range missile and sites in Cuba. Yes or no? Don't wait for the translation. Yes or no?"

        SOVIET AMBASSADOR VALERIAN ZORIN: "Mr. Stevenson, would you continue your statement, please? You will receive the answer in due course, do not worry."

        ADLAI STEVENSON: "I'm prepared to wait for my answer until hell freezes over, if that's your decision. And I'm also prepared to present the evidence in this room."

        (MUSIC)

        The Cuban missile crisis easily could have resulted in a nuclear war. Americans felt especially threatened, with those missiles just one hundred fifty kilometers from the Florida coast. But the crisis ended after a week. Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles if the United States agreed not to interfere in Cuba.

        Some progress was made in easing Cold War tensions when Kennedy was president. In nineteen sixty-three, the two sides reached a major arms control agreement. They agreed to ban tests of nuclear weapons above ground, under water, and in space. They also established a direct telephone link between the White House and the Kremlin.

        Relations between East and West also improved when Richard Nixon was president. He and Leonid Brezhnev met several times. They reached several arms control agreements. One reduced the number of missiles used to shoot down enemy nuclear weapons. It also banned the testing and deployment of long-distance missiles for five years.

        A major change in the Cold War would take place in nineteen eighty-five, when Mikhail Gorbachev became leader of the Soviet Union. He met four times with President Ronald Reagan. Gorbachev withdrew Soviet forces from Afghanistan. And he signed an agreement with the United States to destroy all middle-distance and short-distance nuclear missiles.

        Barbed wire bars passage through the Brandenburg Gate at the East-West border in Berlin in 1961
        Barbed wire bars passage through the Brandenburg Gate at the East-West border in Berlin in 1961

        By nineteen-eighty-nine, there was widespread unrest in eastern Europe. Gorbachev did not intervene as one eastern European country after another cut its ties with the Soviet Union.

        The Berlin Wall, the major symbol of communist oppression, was torn down in November of that year. In less than a year, East and West Germany became one nation again. A few months after that, Warsaw Pact countries officially ended the alliance. The Cold War was over.

        The Cold War years were also the time of the "space race" - when the United States and the Soviet Union competed in space exploration. That will be our story next week.

        You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and pictures at www.squishedblueberries.com. I'm Steve Ember, inviting you to join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This was program #207.

        二戰結束,冷戰開始。冷戰的主要對手是美國和蘇聯,這場戰爭之所以被稱為"冷戰",主要是因為敵對雙方都害怕直接沖突,因為如果發生直接沖突,打一場"熱戰"的話,核武器將摧毀一切。

        出于這種顧慮,雙方展開了間接角力。不論世界上什么地方發生沖突,他們都會站在對立的位置,支持其中一方。他們還相互謾罵,彼此威脅指責,讓對方出丑。

        隨著時間的推移,雙方領導人在換,而冷戰卻在繼續,成為20世紀下半葉國際政治的主導因素。冷戰將整個世界分為三大板塊,第一是美國領導的西方民主政體,第二是蘇聯領導的東方共產政體,剩下的是不愿意跟東、西方國家結盟的國家。

        杜魯門是冷戰期間美國的第一位總統,他采取了幾大政策,其中之一是杜魯門主義。杜魯門主義要求向受共產主義威脅的國家提供經濟和軍事援助,正是因為杜魯門主義,希臘和土耳其才沒被共產主義所侵蝕。杜魯門任內另一項重要政策是馬歇爾計劃,該計劃加強了西歐國家的政府力量和經濟實力。

        冷戰期間的一起重要事件是柏林空運行動。二戰結束后,美國及其盟國將德國一分為二,柏林位于共產主義控制的東德境內,柏林市被分為東、西兩個部分。

        1948年6月,蘇聯領導的部隊封鎖了進入西柏林的所有公路和鐵路。美國總統杜魯門迅速下令,由軍用飛機向西柏林空運煤炭、食物和醫藥用品。

        柏林空運行動整整持續了一年多,有時每隔幾分鐘就會有一架飛機降落。美國得到了英國和法國的支持。美、英、法三國的戰機總共執行了約28萬次飛行行動,空運物資近250萬噸。

        美國還帶頭于1949年成立了北大西洋公約組織。北約是一個聯合軍事集團,防范蘇聯在歐洲的勢力擴張。北約成立六年后,蘇聯及其東歐盟友也成立了它們自己的軍事集團--華沙條約組織。

        1953年,蘇聯領導人斯大林去世,讓美國新總統艾森豪威爾有機會跟新一代蘇聯領導人打交道。1955年7月,艾森豪威爾和尼古拉.布爾加寧在瑞士日內瓦會面,英國和法國領導人也出席了會議。

        艾森豪威爾提議,美國和蘇聯讓各自的軍事基地接受對方的空中檢查,遭到蘇聯拒絕。然而,這次日內瓦會議并未被看做是一次失敗。不管怎么說,世界上最強大的國家的領導人握手了。

        冷戰期間,緊張局勢加劇,減輕,再加劇,隨著冷戰雙方試圖對全球政治和經濟發展施加影響,緊張關系也不斷發生變化。舉例說,蘇聯向亞洲地區的共產政權提供了軍事、經濟和技術領域內的援助。美國為此成立了東南亞條約組織,幫助八個國家抵抗共產力量的滲透。

        20世紀50年代,美國派軍事顧問到南越去,幫助南越抵抗共產黨北越,這一援助最終發展并引發了越戰。

        冷戰也對中東地區產生了影響。20世紀50年代,東方共產陣營和西方民主陣營都提出,愿意幫助埃及在尼羅河上修建阿斯旺大壩,后來,埃及向共產政權捷克斯洛伐克購買武器,西方才收回了援助提案。埃及總統納賽爾隨后奪取了管理蘇伊士運河的公司的控制權。

        幾個月后,以色列進攻埃及,法國和英國也參加戰斗。美國和蘇聯第一次站在一起,共同要求聯合國通過決議,要求沖突雙方立即?;?。蘇伊士危機是蘇聯人獲得的一場政治勝利。蘇聯通過支持埃及,在阿拉伯世界爭取到了一些新朋友。

        1959年,冷戰出現緩和,蘇聯新領導人赫魯曉夫訪美,會見艾森豪威爾總統。會面氣氛很友好,但兩國關系次年再度惡化。美國一架U-2偵察機在蘇聯上空被擊落。

        飛機和飛機駕駛員鮑爾斯都被蘇聯捕獲。艾森豪威爾承認,美國四年來,一直用U-2偵察機對蘇聯進行偵察。赫魯曉夫在聯合國的一次講話中,氣急敗壞,脫下鞋來,用鞋敲桌子。

        約翰.肯尼迪1961年當選總統,入主白宮不久,就發生了古巴的流亡人士進攻古巴的事件,也就是著名的豬灣入侵事件,目的是推翻卡斯特羅領導的共產政權。

        美國中央情報局向古巴流亡人士提供培訓,但是進攻行動過程中,美國沒有出動戰斗機保護他們,結果古巴流亡者不是被打死,就是被古巴政府軍俘虜,古巴政府軍接受了蘇聯及其盟友的軍事訓練。

        與此同時,成千上萬的東德人逃往西德,東德政府為制止他們,在柏林城里修筑了一堵墻,將柏林分為東、西兩個部分,由衛兵把守,發現有人翻墻就開槍射殺。

        肯尼迪擔任總統第二年,美國情報發現,古巴境內布署了蘇聯導彈??夏岬习l表講話說:"正像我們保證的,政府對蘇聯在古巴軍力的增加嚴密關注,過去一周里,絕對可靠的證據顯示,古巴島上出現了一系列進攻性導彈基地,這些基地的唯一目的是建立對西方進行核打擊的能力。"

        蘇聯矢口否認,但是美國從空中拍攝的照片證明了這些導彈的存在,美國常駐聯合國大使史蒂文森說:" 請允許我問你們一個簡單的問題:佐林大使,你是否否認蘇聯已經,而且繼續在古巴部署中程導彈和導彈基地嗎?是還是否?不要等翻譯,有還是沒有?"

        蘇聯駐聯合國大使佐林回答說:"史蒂文森先生,請繼續你的聲明,到時候,你自然會得到我的答復,不用著急。"史蒂文森又說:"等多久我都愿意,但我也隨時準備在這個房間里拿出我的證據來。"

        古巴導彈危機本來很容易就會引發一場核戰爭,古巴的導彈距離美國佛羅里達海岸線只有150公里,讓美國人受到了極大的威脅。然而,這場危機一個星期就過去了,赫魯曉夫同意撤走導彈,條件是,美國必須同意,不干預古巴事務。

        肯尼迪任總統期間,雙方在緩和冷戰緊張局勢方面取得了一些成果。1963年,雙方達成一項重要的武器控制協議,禁止在地面、水下和太空試驗核武器,同時在白宮和克里姆林宮之間建立了一條電話專線。

        尼克松就任總統期間,東、西方關系也出現了改善。尼克松和勃列日涅夫見了好幾次面,達成多項武器控制協議,其中一項協議同意,減少用于擊落敵方核武器用的導彈數量,同時規定,五年內禁止測試和部署遠程導彈。

        1985年冷戰發生重大變化,戈爾巴喬夫出任蘇聯領導人。他四次會見美國總統里根,從阿富汗撤軍,并跟美國簽署協議,銷毀所有中距離和短距離核導彈。

        1989年,東歐出現大規模動蕩,一個接一個國家切斷了跟蘇聯的關系,戈爾巴喬夫沒有出面干預。1989年11月,象征共產主義壓制的柏林墻倒塌,不到一年,東、西德統一。幾個月后,華沙條約成員國正式解除華沙條約,冷戰宣告結束。

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