<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #196: A Friendship Helps Guide World War 2 Diplomacy

        作者:David Jarmul 發布日期:8-26-2013

        British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, left, US President Franklin Roosevelt and Soviet Premier Josef Stalin in Yalta, Crimea, on February 4, 1945
        British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, left, US President Franklin Roosevelt and Soviet Premier Josef Stalin in Yalta, Crimea, on February 4, 1945

        STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember

        (MUSIC)

        History is full of examples of leaders joining together to meet common goals. But rarely have two leaders worked together with as much friendship and cooperation as Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill did. Roosevelt was president of the United States; Churchill was prime minister of Britain. The two men had much in common. They were both born to wealthy families, and they were both active in politics for many years. Both leaders also shared a love of history and nature, and the sea.

        Roosevelt and Churchill first met when they were lower-level officials during World War One. But neither man remembered much about that meeting. However, as they worked together during the Second World War, they came to like and trust each other.

        Roosevelt and Churchill exchanged more than one thousand seven hundred letters and messages over a period of five and a half years. They met many times, at large international gatherings and in private talks. But the closeness of their friendship might be seen best in a story told by one of Roosevelt's close advisers, Harry Hopkins.

        Hopkins remembered how Churchill was visiting Roosevelt at the White House one day. Roosevelt went into Churchill's room in the morning to say hello. But the president was shocked to see Churchill coming from the bathroom with no clothes on.

        Roosevelt immediately apologized to the British leader. But Churchill reportedly answered, "The prime minister of Great Britain has nothing to hide from the president of the United States."

        The United States and Great Britain were the most powerful of the nations that joined together as allies to resist Germany's Adolf Hitler and his Axis partners. In January of nineteen forty-two, twenty-six of the Allied nations signed an agreement promising to fight for the goals of peace, religious freedom, human rights and justice.

        The three major Allies were the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union. The governments in Washington and London did not always agree. For example, they disagreed about when to attack Hitler's forces in western Europe. And Churchill resisted Roosevelt's suggestions that Britain give up some of its colonies. But in general, the friendship between Roosevelt and Churchill, and between the United States and Britain, led the two nations to cooperate closely.

        This was not true with the Soviets. The Soviet Union was a communist country. It did not share the same history or political system as the United States or Britain. And the Soviet Union had its own interests to protect along its borders and in other areas.

        (MUSIC)

        Relations between the Soviet Union and the western Allies were mixed. On the one hand, Hitler's invasion deep into the Soviet Union had forced Josef Stalin and other Soviet leaders to make victory over the Germans their most important goal.

        On the other hand, shadows of future problems could already be seen. The Soviet Union was making clear its desire to keep political control over Poland. And it was supporting communist fighters in Yugoslavia and Greece.

        These differences were not discussed much as the foreign ministers of Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States gathered in Moscow in nineteen forty-three. Instead, they reached several agreements, including on a plan to establish a new organization called the United Nations.

        (MUSIC)

        Finally, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met together for the first time. They met in Tehran in late nineteen forty-three mainly to discuss the military situation. However, the three leaders also considered political questions such as the future of Germany, eastern Europe and East Asia.

        Later, the Allies made further plans for the new United Nations. They arranged for new international economic organizations -- the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. And the Allies agreed to divide Germany into different parts after the war for a temporary period. The Soviet Union would occupy the eastern part while Britain, France and the United States would occupy the west.

        Washington, London and Moscow were united during the early years of the war because of military need. They knew they must fight together to defeat their common enemy.

        But this unity faded as Allied troops marched toward the German border. Roosevelt continued to call on the world to wait until the last bullet was fired before deciding what would come next. But Churchill, Stalin and other leaders already were trying to shape the world that would follow the war. Now, differences between the Allies became more serious.

        (MUSIC)

        The most important question was Poland. Hitler's invasion of Poland in nineteen thirty-nine had started the war. Roosevelt and Churchill believed strongly that the Polish people should have the right to choose their own leaders after the war. Churchill supported a group of Polish resistance leaders who had an office in London. In nineteen forty, Polish fliers had taken part in the Battle of Britain, piloting British warplanes against the German Luftwaffe.

        But Stalin had other ideas. He demanded that Poland's border be changed to give more land to the Soviet Union. And he refused to help the Polish resistance leaders in London. Instead, he supported a group of Polish communists and helped them establish a new government in Poland.

        A lighter moment in Yalta as Churchill smokes a cigar
        A lighter moment in Yalta as Churchill smokes a cigar

        Churchill visited Stalin late in nineteen forty-four. The two leaders met with Roosevelt a few months later in Yalta, on the Crimean coast. All agreed that free elections should be held quickly in Poland. And they traded ideas about the future of eastern Europe, China and other areas of the world.

        Roosevelt was in good spirits when he reported to Congress after his return from the Yalta conference.

        FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT: "I come from the Crimea conference with a firm belief that we have made a good start on the road to a world of peace. There were two main purposes in this Crimea conference. The first was to bring defeat to Germany with the greatest possible speed, and the smallest possible loss of Allied men.

        "That purpose is now being carried out in great force. The German Army, and the German people, are feeling the ever-increasing might of our fighting men and of the Allied armies. Every hour gives us added pride in the heroic advance of our troops in Germany -- on German soil -- toward a meeting with the gallant Red Army.

        "The second purpose was to continue to build the foundation for an international accord that would bring order and security after the chaos of the war, that would give some assurance of lasting peace among the nations of the world. Toward that goal, a tremendous stride was made.

        Roosevelt went on to say that "the peace cannot be a completely perfect system, at first. But it can be a peace based on the idea of freedom."

        Churchill had the same high hopes. He told the British parliament after the conference that Stalin and other Soviet leaders wished to live in honorable friendship. "I also know that their word is honest," Churchill said.

        But, as history proved, Roosevelt and Churchill were wrong about the Soviets. In the months after the Yalta conference, relations between Moscow and the western democracies grew steadily worse.

        The Soviet Union moved to seize control of eastern Europe. Stalin began making strong speeches charging that Washington and London were holding secret peace negotiations with Germany. And the Soviet Union refused to discuss ways to bring democracy to Poland.

        Churchill wrote later that he had always held the Russian people in high honor, but their shadow darkened the picture after the war. Britain and America had gone to war not just to defend the smaller countries, but also to fight for individual rights and freedoms.

        Churchill went on to say that the Soviet Union had other goals. Its hold tightened on eastern Europe after the Soviet Army gained control. And Churchill said that after the long suffering and efforts of World War Two, it seemed that half of Europe had just exchanged one dictator for another.

        Churchill and Roosevelt agreed in secret letters that they must try to oppose the Soviet effort. But before they could act, Roosevelt died. And the world began to live through a new war -- the Cold War -- in the years to follow.

        (MUSIC)

        Roosevelt's death, from bleeding in the brain, also ended a deep personal friendship between two world leaders.

        Winston Churchill later wrote about hearing the news of the death of his close friend.

        "I felt as if I had been struck with a physical blow," Churchill wrote. He said he was overpowered by a sense of deep and permanent loss.

        The free world joined Churchill in mourning the loss of so strong a leader as Franklin Roosevelt. But it could not weep for long. War was giving way to peace. A new world was forming. And, as we will hear in future programs, it was a world that few people expected.

        Our program was written by David Jarmul. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and pictures at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. I'm Steve Ember, inviting you to join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This was program #196. For earlier programs, type "Making of a Nation" in quotation marks in the search box at the top of the page.

        歷史上領袖人物為共同目標而走到一起的例子數不勝數,但很少有像美國總統富蘭克林.羅斯福和英國首相溫斯頓.丘吉爾之間的那種深厚友誼和堅實合作。羅斯福是美國總統,丘吉爾是英國首相,兩人有很多共同點。他們都出身豪門,在政界活躍多年,而且都愛好歷史、自然和大海。

        羅斯福和丘吉爾初次見面,還是在一戰期間,兩人還都是級別不高的政府官員,他們對這次會面印象都很模糊。然而,通過二戰期間的合作,他們開始彼此欣賞和信賴。

        在五年半的時間里,羅斯福和丘吉爾通了一千七百多封書信和電報,并曾在大型國際會議或是私下里多次會面。羅斯福的親密助手之一哈里.霍普金斯講的一個小故事最能體現出羅斯福和丘吉爾的友情。

        霍普金斯回憶說,丘吉爾在白宮訪問羅斯福。一天早上,羅斯福走進丘吉爾的臥室,問他早安,但是不巧,丘吉爾正從洗手間里走出來,身上什么也沒穿。羅斯福連忙道歉,據說丘吉爾當時的回答是,"英國首相在美國總統面前,沒有什么需要隱藏的。"。

        美國和英國這兩個強大的國家,聯手抗擊德國的希特勒和他的軸心國伙伴。1942年1月,26個國家聯合簽署協定,保證為和平、宗教自由、人權和正義而戰,其中最主要的三個國家是美國、英國和蘇聯。

        英美兩國政府也出現過意見分歧,比如,什么時候對西歐的希特勒部隊發動攻擊?兩國政府就持不同看法;羅斯福建議英國放棄一些殖民地,也遭到了丘吉爾的反對,但是總體上,羅斯福和丘吉爾之間的友誼,讓這兩個國家得以緊密合作。

        英美兩國跟蘇聯的關系就完全兩樣了。蘇聯是共產國家,跟英美兩國沒有共同歷史,也沒有類似的政治體系,而且蘇聯在邊境等地區還有其他自身利益需要保護。

        蘇聯和西方盟國之間的關系很復雜。一方面,希特勒入侵蘇聯讓斯大林等蘇聯領導人不得不把打敗德國做為當務之急;另一方面,日后的矛盾已能看出端倪,蘇聯明確表明,想要在政治上控制波蘭,同時支持南斯拉夫和希臘的共產黨武裝。

        1943年,英國外交大臣、蘇聯外長和美國國務卿在莫斯科會面時,沒有討論這些分歧,他們求同存異,達成了包括成立聯合國在內的若干項協議。

        羅斯福、丘吉爾和斯大林1943年底在德黑蘭首次會面,討論當時的軍事局面,但是會談也涉及了德國、東歐和東亞等地區未來走向等政治問題。

        后來,同盟國又進一步為聯合國、世界銀行和國際貨幣基金組織的建立制定了更詳盡的計劃,并同意戰后短期內將德國分割成東西兩個部分,東部歸蘇聯占領,西部歸英國、法國和美國控制。

        美國、英國和蘇聯在戰爭之初因為軍事需要而聯合起來,聯手對付共同的敵人,但隨著盟軍向德國邊境的進逼,這種聯盟關系也開始松動。羅斯福不斷呼吁國際社會,等最后一發子彈打完,再考慮下一步的行動,但是丘吉爾、斯大林等其他國家的領袖早就開始盤算戰后世界格局的劃分了,盟國之間的分歧日漸突出。

        最重要的一個問題是波蘭。二戰就是由希特勒1939年入侵波蘭挑起的。羅斯福和丘吉爾都堅信,波蘭人民戰后有權選擇自己的領導人。1940年,波蘭飛行員參加了不列顛之戰,駕駛英國戰機對付德國。

        但是斯大林另有打算。他要求重劃波蘭邊境,把一部分土地劃給蘇聯,他拒絕幫助倫敦的波蘭抵抗力量領袖,而是支持波蘭共產武裝在波蘭建立了一個新政府。

        丘吉爾1944年年底造訪斯大林,兩人幾個月后又一起在蘇聯克里米亞半島的雅爾塔會見了羅斯福。三人一致認為,波蘭應該盡快舉行自由選舉,并就東歐、中國和世界其他地區的未來交換了意見。

        羅斯福從雅爾塔會議回來后高興地向國會匯報說,"克里米亞的會議讓我堅信,我們在建立世界和平的道路上,已經走出了很好的一步。這次會議有兩個主要目的,第一是要在盡可能減少盟軍傷亡的前提下,盡快打敗德國,這個目標正在實現。德國軍隊和德國人越來越感受到美軍和盟軍的強大攻勢,值得驕傲的是,我們的部隊每個鐘頭都在德國領土上推進,離著跟英勇的蘇聯紅軍會師越來越近。"

        羅斯福繼續說,"會議第二個主要目的是為一份國際協議打下基礎,努力建立戰后的國際秩序與安全,在某種程度上保證世界各國間的持久和平。會議為實現這一目標取得了巨大進展。"他還說,"一上來,和平不可能是一個完美的體系,但將是建立在自由理念基礎之上的。"

        雅爾塔會議后,丘吉爾也對未來抱有很高的希望。他告訴英國議會說,斯大林等蘇聯領導人希望保持友好關系。丘吉爾還說,"而且我知道,他們說的是實話。"

        然而,歷史證明,羅斯福和丘吉爾對蘇聯的判斷是錯誤的。雅爾塔會議后的幾個月里,蘇聯和西方民主國家之間的關系不斷惡化。蘇聯采取行動,奪取了東歐的控制權,斯大林嚴辭指責美國和英國私下跟德國展開秘密的和平談判,同時拒絕在波蘭建立民主體制。

        丘吉爾后來寫過,他對蘇聯人民一直十分尊重,但蘇聯的陰影讓戰后格局變得陰暗。英國和美國參加二戰,不僅是為了保衛弱小的國家,也是為人權和自由而戰。丘吉爾說,但是蘇聯卻另有目的。蘇聯軍隊占領東歐,加強了蘇聯對東歐的控制,經過二戰的苦難,半個歐洲似乎只是送走了一個獨裁者,迎來了另一個獨裁者。

        丘吉爾和羅斯福在秘密通信中都認為,他們必須要設法阻止蘇聯的企圖,但是還沒有采取具體行動,羅斯福就離開了人世,國際社會即將經歷另一場戰爭---冷戰。

        羅斯福死于腦溢血。他的死也給他跟丘吉爾之間的深厚友誼劃上了句號。丘吉爾后來回憶起他聽到羅斯福死訊時的感受時寫道:"我感覺仿佛遭到一記重擊。"他說自己只感到一種深切的、永久的損失。

        自由世界的人們跟丘吉爾一起,哀悼富蘭克林.羅斯福的去世。但是不能長久地悲傷,因為整個世界正在從戰爭向和平轉型,一個新的世界正在形成。

        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频