<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #188: As War in Europe Expands, US Continues the Policy of Neutrality

        作者:David Jarmul 發布日期:8-18-2013

        President Franklin Roosevelt during a "Fireside Chat" broadcast in Washington, DC
        President Franklin Roosevelt during a "Fireside Chat" broadcast in Washington, DC

        STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember.

        (MUSIC)

        Germany's attack on Poland and the start of World War Two in Europe presented a problem for Americans in September of nineteen-thirty-nine. The United States -- by law -- was neutral. And few Americans had any desire to fight in another world war. But most Americans did not like Germany's Nazi leader, Adolf Hitler. They hoped for victory for Britain, France and the other Allied powers.

        President Franklin Delano Roosevelt made this clear in a radio broadcast to Americans soon after the war began.

        PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT: "The overwhelming masses of our people seek peace. Peace at home, and the kind of peace in other lands, which will not jeopardize our peace at home. We have certain ideas, and certain ideals, of national safety, and we must act to preserve that safety today and to preserve the safety of our children in future years. That safety is, and will be, bound up with the safety of the Western Hemisphere and of the seas adjacent thereto. We seek to keep war from our own firesides by keeping war from coming to the Americas."

        German armored vehicles advancing to Poland in September of 1939
        German armored vehicles advancing to Poland in September of 1939

        STEVE EMBER: He praised the British and other allies. Finally, the president called on Congress to change the neutrality laws that prevented him from sending arms to the allies to help them fight Germany. Congress agreed to change the laws so foreign nations could buy American arms.

        (MUSIC)

        In the months that followed, Hitler and his allies claimed one victory after another. German and Soviet troops captured Poland quickly in September of nineteen thirty-nine. Then Soviet forces invaded the small Baltic nations of Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania.

        In late November, they attacked Finland. Fighting between Finland and the Soviet Union continued through the winter, until Finland accepted Russia's demands.

        Fighting grew even more fierce the following spring, in nineteen forty. Germany attacked Denmark and Norway, defeating them easily. In May, German forces struck like lightning through Belgium and Holland. Within one day, they were in France.

        British and French forces were unable to stop the Germans from moving deep into northern France. The British finally had to flee from the European continent. They sailed back to Britain from the French town of Dunkirk.

        (SOUND)

        German soldiers marched through France. And Italian forces joined them by invading France from the south. Soon, Paris fell.

        (SOUND)

        These are German newsreel narrators describing German troops entering Paris and the fall of the French government.

        A German supporter, Marshal Petain, took control of the French government. And France -- beaten and crushed -- was forced to sign a peace treaty with Hitler.

        Now it was just Britain alone against Hitler and his Axis allies. Only the English Channel separated the British people from a German army that seemed unbeatable.

        British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was forced to resign. The British people turned to a new leader, Winston Churchill.

        WINSTON CHURCHILL: "I speak to you for the first time as Prime Minister in a solemn hour for the life of our country, of our empire, of our allies, and, above all, of the cause of freedom. A tremendous battle is raging in France and Flanders. The Germans, by a remarkable combination of air bombing and heavily armored tanks, have broken through the French defenses north of the Maginot Line, and strong columns of their armored vehicles are ravaging the open country, which for the first day or two was without defenders. They have penetrated deeply and spread alarm and confusion in their track."

        Winston Churchill in 1940
        Winston Churchill in 1940

        STEVE EMBER: Churchill would prove to be strong and brave in the long months ahead.

        (SOUND)

        The British would need strong leadership.

        Hitler wasted no time in launching a fierce air attack on Britain. Throughout the summer, German and British planes fought above the English Channel.

        All this military action had an important effect on American popular opinion. War and neutrality were no longer just ideas to be discussed and debated. Now they were real concerns, real events. Fascist troops led by a dictator in Berlin were defeating one friendly democracy after another. And Soviet forces were on the march, too.

        Most Americans still wanted neutrality. But how long could America remain at peace? And was peace worth the cost of just sitting by and watching friends like France and Britain being bombed and invaded?

        Other issues melted away as Americans began to consider what to do about the darkening world situation.

        Some Americans, led by newspaper publisher William Allen White, called for the United States to help Britain immediately. But other groups, like the America First Committee, demanded that the United States stay out of another bloody European conflict.

        The struggle between those who wanted to help Britain and those who wanted to remain neutral did not follow traditional party lines. Some of the strongest supporters of Roosevelt's foreign policies were Republicans. Some members of his own Democratic Party opposed his policies.

        Even so, foreign policy was one of the main issues in the presidential election campaign of nineteen forty. The Democrats once again nominated Franklin Roosevelt for president.

        The Republicans had several popular candidates who were interested in campaigning against Roosevelt. At first, it seemed that these candidates would fight it out in a bitter nominating convention in Philadelphia. But to everyone's surprise, a little-known candidate named Wendell Willkie suddenly gained a great deal of support and won the nomination.

        WENDELL WILKIE: "...building of an adequate defense, so that no dictator, however strong, may seek the strife or the unity of our people. We're calling America again to its great tradition of progress.? I pledge myself to you, and I ask each of you to join with me in this great crusade."

        STEVE EMBER: Willkie was a tough candidate.

        He was friendly, a good businessman, and a strong speaker. He seemed honest. And he seemed to understand foreign policy. Most importantly, Willkie had a progressive record on many social issues. He was not the kind of traditional conservative Republican that Roosevelt had defeated so easily in his first two campaigns.

        Instead, Willkie could claim to represent the average American just as well as Roosevelt. And he offered the excitement of a change in leadership.

        (SOUND)

        STEVE EMBER: While Roosevelt and Willkie began their campaign battles with words, German and British planes were fighting real battles with bullets over the English Channel. Winston Churchill sent a desperate message to Roosevelt. The British prime minister said Britain could not fight alone much longer. It needed help immediately.

        Roosevelt did not want to take steps toward war just before an election. But neither could he refuse such an urgent appeal from the British leader.

        Roosevelt and Willkie discussed the situation. Willkie agreed not to criticize Roosevelt when the president sent fifty ships to the British navy. He also supported Roosevelt's order for American young men to give their names to army officials so they could be called up if fighting began.

        In this way, Roosevelt and Willkie tried to keep America's growing involvement in the war from becoming a major political issue in the election.

        President Roosevelt won the election of nineteen forty. He won twenty-seven million votes to twenty-two million for Willkie. This made Roosevelt the first and only president in American history to win a third term in the White House. The Constitution was later changed to limit presidents to two terms.

        (MUSIC)

        Soon after the election, President Roosevelt received a letter from Winston Churchill. The British prime minister wrote that Britain urgently needed more arms and planes to fight Germany.

        Roosevelt agreed. He went to the Congress to plead for more aid to Britain. He said the United States should change its neutral policy, because Britain was fighting a common enemy of democracy. Roosevelt also said the United States could avoid war if Britain was strong enough to defeat Germany by itrself.

        Congress agreed, after a fierce debate, to increase aid to Britain. And in the weeks and months that followed, the United States moved closer and closer to open war with Germany.

        In March of nineteen forty-one, Roosevelt allowed British ships to come to American ports to be repaired. In June, the United States seized ships under German control. It also took over German and Italian funds in American banks.

        (MUSIC)

        Open fighting could not be prevented with this increase in tension between Germany and the United States. In September nineteen forty-one, a German submarine fired at an American ship. The ship was not damaged. But a number of American troops were killed in other naval incidents that followed.

        By the end of nineteen forty-one, the United States and Germany were almost at war. Even so, most Americans continued to hope for peace. In fact, few Americans could guess that war was just days away. The first blow would come -- not from Germany, however, but from Japan.

        RADIO ANNOUNCER: "We interrupt this program to bring you a special news bulletin: The Japanese have attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii by air, President Roosevelt has just announced."

        STEVE EMBER: That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        Our program was written by David Jarmul. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and pictures at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. I'm Steve Ember inviting you to join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        ____________________________

        This was program number 188

        1939年9月德國進攻波蘭,第二次世界大戰在歐洲爆發,給美國帶來了一個現實的問題。從法律上說,美國是一個中立國,而且沒有幾個美國人愿意參加另一場世界大戰。

        但是,絕大多數美國人不喜歡德國納粹領袖希特勒,他們希望英國、法國和其他同盟國能夠勝利。二戰爆發后不久富蘭克林.羅斯??偨y所發表的一次廣播講話充分說明了這一點。

        羅斯??偨y:"美國絕大多數人尋求和平,尋求國內和平,也尋求別國和平,從而不會使美國國內和平受到威脅。我們有著堅定的信念,確保國家安全的堅定信念,我們不僅要采取行動,保衛今天的安全,而且還要保證我們子孫后代的安全。這一安全是與西半球及其海域的安全密切聯系在一起的。我們不能讓戰火燒到美國,從而讓我們的家園免受戰火的涂炭。"

        他贊揚英國和其他同盟國,并要求國會修改美國的中立法,因為中立法阻止他向盟國出售武器對抗德國。國會同意修改中立法,因此,允許外國向美國購買武器。

        在此后的幾個月里,希特勒及其盟友取得了一個又一個的勝利。1939年9月,德國和蘇聯迅速占領波蘭。蘇聯隨后入侵波羅的海幾個小國----拉脫維亞、愛沙尼亞和立陶宛。11月下旬,蘇聯又進攻芬蘭,芬蘭與蘇聯整整打了一個冬天,芬蘭最終接受了俄國人的要求。

        1940年春天,戰爭越發猛烈。德國入侵丹麥和挪威,輕而易舉地擊敗了丹麥和挪威的抵抗。5月,德國閃電般直搗比利時和荷蘭,一天之內,德國軍隊就進入了法國,英法軍隊無力抵抗德軍在法國北部的縱深推進,英國最后不得不逃離歐洲大陸,從法國北部的敦克爾克鎮逃回英國。

        德國士兵深入法國,意大利軍隊也從南部,加入到對法國的侵略。很快,巴黎淪陷了。德國的支持者----馬歇爾.貝當接管法國政府,被德國擊敗和蹂躪的法國被迫與希特勒簽署了和平條約。

        如今,整個歐洲只剩下英國單獨對抗德國和他的軸心國,也只有英吉利海峽阻擋了英國人免受德軍的進攻。英國首相張伯倫被迫辭職,英國人選擇了一位新領導人,他就是溫斯頓.丘吉爾。

        溫斯頓.丘吉爾說:"在我們的國家、我們的帝國、我們的盟友,和自由面臨危機的緊要關頭,我作為英國首相,第一次向你們發表講話。一場激烈戰斗正在法國和佛蘭德斯地區進行。德國利用其強大的空中轟炸和地面重型坦克,已經擊潰了法國的馬其諾防線,德國的裝甲車輪打開了法國的大門,頭一兩天內法國就失去了防衛能力。德軍縱深推進,所到之處,一片混亂恐慌。"

        在未來的歲月里,丘吉爾將向人們證明他的堅強和勇敢。英國人需要一位強勢的領導人。希特勒毫不猶豫,立即向英國發動空襲。整個夏天,英德兩國飛機在英吉利海峽上空激戰。

        英德空戰對美國輿論產生了重大影響,戰爭與中立不再只是討論或爭辯,大家真切感受到了戰爭與他們的關系,真切感受到了戰爭之存在。柏林獨裁者領導的法西斯軍隊正擊敗一個又一個友好的民主國家,蘇聯軍隊也在不斷地進攻。

        納粹德國對歐洲發動猛烈攻擊的同時,大多數美國人仍然希望繼續保持中立,但美國還能維持多久的和平呢?而且,眼睜睜看著法國和英國這些友好的國家遭受猛烈的轟炸和侵略,這樣的和平值得嗎?

        美國人開始考慮如果面對如此黑暗的世界局勢,其他問題似乎不那么重要了。以報紙發行人艾倫.懷特為首的一些美國人呼吁美國立即向英國提供援助。但其他一些人,如美國第一委員會,則要求美國繼續置身于血腥的歐洲沖突之外。

        在幫助英國還是保持中立的問題上,兩派陣營并沒有沿襲傳統的黨派分界。羅斯福外交政策的一些堅定支持者是共和黨人,而羅斯福自己的民主黨內卻有不少人反對他的外交政策。

        外交政策也是1940年美國總統大選的一個主要話題。民主黨再次提名富蘭克林.羅斯福為總統候選人。共和黨有好幾位候選人有意參選。起初看來,共和黨這幾個候選人似乎要在費城的提名大會上激烈較量。但出人意料的是,一位名不見經傳的候選人突然獲得了很多人的支持,得到了總統候選人的提名,他就是溫德爾.威爾基。

        威爾基是一個很強勢的候選人,他很友好,是一名出色的商人,優秀的演說家。他為人似乎誠實,而且又了解對外政策。最為重要的是,威爾基在許多社會問題上都主張變革。

        他和前兩次被羅斯福輕松擊敗的共和黨總統候選人不一樣。威爾基聲稱,他跟羅斯福一樣,代表普通美國人。選他,會給領導層帶來變化。

        就在羅斯福與威爾基唇槍舌戰,展開總統競選活動時,德國與英國則在英吉利海峽上空真槍實彈地交戰。丘吉爾向羅斯福發出緊急救助。丘吉爾說,英國單槍匹馬已經撐不了多久了,需要立即得到幫助。羅斯福在大選前不想采取任何行動,但他也無法拒絕英國領導人的緊急求助。

        羅斯福和威爾基討論此事。威爾基同意,羅斯福向英國海軍提供50艘船只,他不會對此提出批評。威爾基還支持羅斯福下達命令,要求美國年輕人向軍方報名。一旦戰爭打響,就應召入伍。

        羅斯福和威爾基用這種方式,努力讓美國逐步介入戰爭,而又不會成為選舉中的重要政治話題。羅斯福贏得了1940年總統大選,他以2700萬對2200萬的選票擊敗威爾基,使羅斯福成為美國歷史上第一位也是唯一一位三次連任總統的人。美國憲法后來規定,一個人只能連任兩任總統。

        美國總統大選后不久,羅斯??偨y就接到了丘吉爾的來信,信中說,英國急需美國提供更多的武器和飛機,以便對抗德國。羅斯福同意了。他前往國會,要求向英國提供更多的援助。

        他說,美國應該改變中立政策,因為英國正在與民主的共同敵人作戰。羅斯福還說,如果英國足以對付德國的話,美國就可以避免戰爭。國會經過激烈辯論后,同意增加對英國的援助。在隨后幾個月里,美國越來越接近向德國開戰。

        1941年3月,羅斯福允許英國軍艦到美國港口停泊維修,6月,美國扣押了一些由德國控制的船只,并接管了德國和意大利在美國銀行里的資產。

        隨著德國與美國緊張局勢不斷升溫,兩國開戰已是不可避免。1941年9月,一艘德國潛艇向一艘美國船只開火,美國船只沒有受傷,但在此后的幾起海上事件中,美國軍人出現傷亡。到1941年底,美國和德國已幾乎處于開戰狀態。

        盡管如此,大多數美國人仍然希望保持和平。事實上,沒有幾個美國人能預料到,不久后戰爭就要打響了。然而,對美國的第一次打擊,并非來自德國,而是來自日本。

        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频