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        #179: A Long Conservative Period Ends With Election of 1932

        作者:David Jarmul 發布日期:8-9-2013

        Members of a poor family of nine on a New Mexico highway during the early 1930s.
        Members of a poor family of nine on a New Mexico highway during the early 1930s.

        BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        I'm Bob Doughty with Steve Ember. This week in our series, we continue the story of the administration of Herbert Hoover. And we talk about the election of nineteen thirty-two.

        本周,我們繼續向您講述休伯特.胡佛在這一時期艱難執政的故事,同時,我們也將把目光轉向1932年的美國大選。

        (MUSIC)

        STEVE EMBER: President Herbert Hoover worked hard to rescue the American economy following the crash of the stock market. It happened in October of nineteen twenty-nine. Within a month, Hoover called the nation's business leaders to the White House. "Don't lower wages," the president told them.

        1929年10月美國股市崩盤之后,胡佛總統全力挽救美國經濟 。一個月內,胡佛把國內經濟界領袖們召集到白宮,告訴他們"絕不能降低工資"。

        Hoover called on the bankers at the Federal Reserve to make it easier for businesses to borrow money. He tried to provide funds to help farmers get fair prices for their crops. He pushed Congress to lower personal taxes. And above all, the president urged Americans not to lose hope in their economy or in themselves.

        胡佛在實行一系列政治政策的同時,還呼吁美國聯邦儲備局的銀行家們為工商企業貸款提供方便。同時,他試圖提供資金以保證農產品價格公正。他推動國會降低個人所得稅。 最重要的是,他大力呼吁美國人不要對美國的經濟和他們自己失去信心。

        BOB DOUGHTY: But the economy was in ruins, falling faster with each passing day of the crisis that grew into the Great Depression. The value of stocks had collapsed. Millions of workers lost their jobs. The level of industrial production in the country was less than half of what it had been before the stock market crash.

        但美國經濟形勢不斷下滑,日趨惡化,最終演變成了美國有史以來最嚴重的經濟大蕭條。股票市值徹底崩潰,數百萬人失去工作,工業生產水平還不到股票市場崩潰前的一半。

        Hoover's efforts were not enough to stop the growing crisis. In ever greater numbers, people called on the president to increase federal spending and provide jobs for people out of work.

        胡佛的努力沒能阻止經濟形勢的進一步惡化。越來越多的人呼吁總統增加聯邦政府開支,為人們提供就業,以此解決經濟危機。

        But the president was a conservative Republican. He did not think it was the responsibility of the federal government to provide relief for poor Americans. And he thought it was wrong to increase spending above the amount of money that the government received in taxes.

        然而,胡佛是保守派共和黨人,他認為,為貧窮的美國人提供救濟不是聯邦政府的責任,他同時也認為,讓聯邦政府的開支大于稅收是錯誤的。

        STEVE EMBER: The situation seemed out of control. The nation's government and business leaders appeared to have no idea how to save the dollar and put people back to work.

        形勢似乎已經失去控制。美國政府和工商界領袖們對如何挽救美元以及讓工人重返工作崗位表現得手足無措。

        Hoover was willing to take steps like spending government money to help farmers buy seeds and fertilizer. But he was not willing to give wheat to unemployed workers who were hungry.

        胡佛愿意讓政府出錢,幫助農民購買種子和化肥,但他不愿意向饑餓的失業者提供糧食。

        He created an emergency committee to study the unemployment problem. But he would not launch government programs to create jobs. Hoover called on Americans to help their friends in need. But he resisted calls to spend federal funds for major relief programs to help the millions of Americans facing disaster.

        他成立了一個緊急委員會來研究解決就業問題,但他不愿啟動創造就業的政府計劃。胡佛呼吁美國人盡可能幫助需要幫助的朋友,但他反對拿出聯邦資金為數百萬災難之中的美國人提供救濟項目。

        BOB DOUGHTY: Leaders of the Democratic Party made the most of the situation. They accused the president of not caring about the common man. They said Hoover was willing to spend money to feed starving cattle for businessmen, but not willing to feed poor children.

        民主黨領導人充分利用這一局勢。他們指責胡佛總統不關心普通民眾。他們說,胡佛寧愿花錢喂商人的牛,也不把錢用來幫助窮人的孩子。

        Hoover tried to show the nation that he was dealing with the crisis. He worked with Congress to try to save the banks and to keep the dollar tied to the value of gold. He tried hard to balance the federal budget. And he told Americans that it was not the responsibility of the national government to solve all their problems.

        胡佛設法向民眾證明他正在解決經濟危機。他與國會合作試圖挽救銀行,確保美元對黃金的比值。他千方百計地平衡聯邦政府預算,并告訴民眾說,聯邦政府沒有責任來解決民眾的所有問題。

        (MUSIC)

        STEVE EMBER: Late in nineteen thirty-one, President Hoover appointed a new committee on unemployment. He named Walter Gifford to head this committee. Gifford was chief of a big company, American Telephone and Telegraph.

        But Gifford did Hoover more harm than good.

        1931年年底,胡佛總統指定成立了一個新的就業委員會,并任命美國電話電報公司的總裁沃爾特.吉福德為該委員會主席。結果吉福德給胡佛幫了倒忙。

        When he appeared before Congress, Gifford was unable to defend Hoover's position that relief was the responsibility of local governments and private giving. He admitted that he did not know how many people were out of work. He did not know how many of them needed help. Or how much help they needed. Or how much money local governments could raise.

        他在國會沒能為胡佛有關失業救濟是地方政府和私人部門責任的觀點加以辯護。 他承認,他不知道有多少人失業,有多少人需要幫助,需要多少幫助,甚至地方政府需要籌集多少資金。

        Walter Gifford
        Walter Gifford

        BOB DOUGHTY: The situation grew worse. Some Americans began to completely lose faith in their government. They looked to groups with extreme political ideas to provide answers.

        局勢進一步惡化。一些美國人對政府完全失去信任,他們把目光轉向了一些極端團體尋求答案。

        Some Americans joined the Communist Party. Others helped elect state leaders with extreme political ideas. And in growing numbers, people began to turn to hatred and violence.

        有些人加入共產黨,有些人支持擁有極端政治思想的人當選州內領導人,越來越多的人轉向仇恨和暴力。

        However, most Americans remained loyal to traditional values even as conditions grew steadily worse. They looked ahead to nineteen thirty-two, when they would have a chance to vote for a new president.

        盡管局勢不斷惡化, 大多數美國人還是忠誠于傳統的價值觀。他們把目光轉向1932年,等待新總統的出現。

        STEVE EMBER: Leaders of the Democratic Party felt they had an excellent chance to capture the White House in the election. And their hopes increased when the Republicans re-nominated President Hoover and Vice President Charles Curtis in the summer of nineteen thirty-two.

        1932年的總統選舉給美國人帶來了一線希望。當共和黨再次提名現任總統和副總統為候選人時,民主黨領導人認為這次選舉是他們入主白宮的好時機。

        For this reason, competition was fierce for the Democratic presidential nomination. The top candidate was Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the governor of New York state.

        正因為這個原因,民主黨在總統候選人提名上的競爭異常激烈。最有實力的競爭者是紐約州州長富蘭克林.羅斯福。

        Roosevelt had been re-elected to that office by a large majority just two years earlier. He came from a rich and famous family, but he was seen as a friend of the common man. Roosevelt was conservative in his economic thinking. But he was a progressive in his opinion that government should be active in helping people.

        兩年前他以絕對優勢當選連任。羅斯福出身顯赫,但被認為平易近人,能跟普通人做朋友。羅斯福的經濟思想保守,但他認為政府應當采取行動,幫助那些需要幫助的人。

        Roosevelt had suffered from polio and could not walk. He used a wheelchair, although it was rarely shown in news pictures.

        羅斯福因為得過小兒麻痹,所以不能行走,只能坐輪椅。這在新聞圖片上很少出現。

        Franklin Roosevelt in 1932
        Franklin Roosevelt in 1932

        BOB DOUGHTY: Franklin Delano Roosevelt's two main opponents were Al Smith and John Garner. Smith had been the governor of New York before Roosevelt. Garner, a Texan, was the speaker of the House of Representatives.

        羅斯福的兩個主要競爭對手是阿爾.史密斯和約翰.加納。史密斯是羅斯福之前一任的紐約州州長,而加納來自德克薩斯,是國會眾議院議長。

        Together, they hoped to block Roosevelt's nomination. And they succeeded the first three times that delegates voted at the Democratic nominating convention in Chicago.

        這兩人聯合起來阻止羅斯福的提名。他們在芝加哥舉行的民主黨總統候選人提名大會上連續三次阻止了對羅斯福的提名。

        Roosevelt's chief political adviser, James Farley, worked hard to find Roosevelt the votes he needed at the convention. Finally, Farley found a solution.

        然而羅斯福的首席競選顧問詹姆士.法利千方百計為羅斯福獲得提名尋求支持。最后,法利找到了解決辦法。

        He made a deal with supporters of John Garner. Roosevelt would make Garner the vice presidential nominee if Garner's forces voted to make Roosevelt the presidential nominee. Garner agreed. And on the next vote, the Democratic delegates nominated Franklin Roosevelt to be their presidential candidate. Al Smith was so angry about the deal that he left Chicago without congratulating Roosevelt.

        他與加納的支持者達成交易。如果加納的支持者投票給羅斯福的話,那么羅斯福就讓加納做副總統候選人。加納表示同意。于是在第四輪投票中,民主黨代表們提名富蘭克林.羅斯福為他們的總統候選人。阿爾.史密斯火冒三丈,沒向羅斯福表示祝賀,就匆匆離開了芝加哥。

        Roosevelt wanted to show the nation that he was the kind of man to take action -- that he had more imagination than Hoover. So he broke tradition and flew to Chicago. It was the first time a candidate had ever appeared at a convention to accept a nomination. And Roosevelt told the cheering crowd that together they would defeat Hoover.

        羅斯福想向民眾證明,他是個干實事的人,他的想象力要遠遠超過胡佛。所以他打破常規,飛抵芝加哥??偨y候選人親自到提名大會上接受提名,以前從來沒有過。羅斯福告訴歡呼的人群,團結起來共同擊敗胡佛。

        STEVE EMBER: The main issue in the campaign of nineteen thirty-two was the economy. President Hoover defended his policies. Roosevelt and the Democrats attacked the administration for not taking enough action.

        1932年總統大選的主要議題是經濟。胡佛總統千方百計為他的政策辯護。羅斯福和民主黨則攻擊胡佛政府沒有采取足夠行動來應對經濟危機。

        Roosevelt knew that most Americans were unhappy with the Hoover administration. So his plan during the campaign was to let Hoover defeat himself. He avoided saying anything that might make groups of voters think he was too extreme.

        羅斯福知道大多數美國人對胡佛政府不滿意,所以他的策略是讓胡佛自己擊敗自己。他盡可能少說話,以免選民認為他是極端的人。

        But Roosevelt did make clear that he would move the federal government into action to help people suffering from the economic crisis.

        不過,羅斯福也清楚地向人們表明,他會采取行動,讓聯邦政府幫助人們擺脫經濟危機。

        He said he was for a balanced federal budget. But he also said the government must be willing to spend extra money to prevent people from starving.

        他贊成聯邦預算平衡,但也表示,聯邦政府應該拿出額外的錢來確保大家有飯吃。

        BOB DOUGHTY: Americans liked what they heard from Franklin Roosevelt. He seemed strong. He enjoyed life. And Roosevelt seemed willing to try new ideas, to experiment with government.

        美國人擁護羅斯福的想法。羅斯福似乎是個意志堅強,懂得享受生活的人,而且他愿意嘗試新的思想,在政府中推行新舉措。

        Hoover attacked Roosevelt bitterly during the campaign. He warned that Roosevelt and the Democrats would destroy the American system.

        胡佛在競選期間猛烈攻擊羅斯福,他警告說,羅斯福會摧毀美國的體制。

        But Americans were tired of Hoover. They thought he was too serious, too afraid of change, too friendly with business leaders instead of the working man. Most of all, they blamed Hoover for the hard times of the Depression.

        但是美國人已經厭倦了胡佛,他們認為胡佛太過嚴肅,懼怕改變,與工商界人士太友好,對普通勞動者則沒那么友善。更關鍵的是,人們因經濟大蕭條而指責他。

        On election day, Americans voted in huge numbers for Franklin Roosevelt and the Democrats. Roosevelt won forty-two of the forty-eight states at that time. The Democrats also gained a large majority in both houses of Congress.

        在選舉中,大多數人都把票投給了羅斯福和民主黨。這次選舉,在四十八個州中,羅斯福獲得了四十二個州的選舉人票。同時,民主黨也在參眾兩院大獲全勝,控制了多數席位。

        STEVE EMBER: The election ended twelve years of Republican rule in the White House. It also marked the passing of a long conservative period in American political life.

        這次總統大選終結了共和黨把持白宮十二年的狀況,也標志著美國政治生活長期保守思想的結束。

        Franklin Delano Roosevelt would become one of the strongest and most progressive presidents in the nation's history. He would serve longer than any other president, changing the face of America's political and economic systems.

        富蘭克林.羅斯福將成為美國有史以來最為強勢和最激進的總統之一,他擔任總統的時間最長,改變了美國的政治面貌和經濟體制。

        In our next program, we take a look at the beginning of his administration.

        (MUSIC)

        BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by David Jarmul. I'm Bob Doughty with Steve Ember.

        You can find our series online with pictures, transcripts, MP3s and podcasts at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow our series on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #179

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