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        #178: American History: How the Depression Hit Foreign Relations

        作者:David Jarmul 發布日期:8-8-2013

        Herbert Hoover and his wife, Lou Henry Hoover, in 1929
        Herbert Hoover and his wife, Lou Henry Hoover, in 1929

        MARIO RITTER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        The stock market crash of nineteen twenty-nine began a long and difficult period for the United States. President Herbert Hoover struggled to find solutions as the nation sank into the worst economic crisis in its history.

        從1929年股票市場崩盤開始,美國進入了一個漫長而痛苦的時期。美國經濟陷入有史以來最嚴重的危機,胡佛總統全力尋找解決辦法。

        But the Great Depression was not the only problem demanding answers from Hoover. The president also had to deal with a number of foreign policy issues.

        對付經濟大蕭條并非胡佛需要解決的唯一問題,他還必須處理許多對外關系問題。

        I'm Mario Ritter with Chris Cruise. This week in our series, we look at how the Great Depression affected relations between the United States and other countries.

        本周,我們就向您講述此次大蕭條對美國與其它國家關系的影響。

        (MUSIC: "Hard Times (No One Knows Better Than I)"/Ray Charles)

        CHRIS CRUISE: There were revolutions in South America. Japan launched a campaign of aggression in northeastern China. And the economic situation in America created serious problems in relations with Europe.

        南美發生了革命,日本在中國東北發動侵略戰爭,而美國的經濟危機使美國與歐洲的關系出現了嚴重問題。

        Hoover succeeded in some areas of his foreign policy. But he failed to solve America's economic troubles. And, like most Americans, he failed to recognize the importance of political changes taking place in Japan and Germany.

        胡佛在一些外交領域取得了成功,但他沒能解決國內的經濟問題,而且,他和大多數美國人一樣,沒有認識到日本和德國所發生的政治變革的重要意義。

        MARIO RITTER: Herbert Hoover's foreign policy was marked by his desire to make friends and avoid war.

        胡佛外交政策的基本點就是渴望交朋友,盡量避免戰爭。

        Like most Americans, the new president had been shocked by World War One. Hoover had seen the results of that terrible war with his own eyes. He led the international effort to feed the many European victims of the fighting. The new president was also a Quaker, a member of the Religious Society of Friends. Quakers oppose war.

        和大多數美國人一樣,這位新總統為第一次世界大戰的情景所震撼,他親眼目睹一戰造成的慘狀,他曾領導為歐洲戰爭受害者提供食物的國際行動。這位新總統還是基督教貴格會的成員,而貴格會是反對戰爭的。

        Hoover shared the wish of most Americans that the world would never again fight a major war. To him, the bloody bodies at Verdun, the Marne and the other battlefields of World War One showed the need to seek peace through negotiations.

        胡佛和大多數美國人一樣,希望世界不再發生大規模戰爭,對他而言,凡爾登、馬恩和其它一戰戰場的血腥證明,各國需要通過談判來尋求和平。

        CHRIS CRUISE: Hoover worked toward this goal even before he entered the White House.

        胡佛進入白宮前就開始為這個目標而努力。

        Following his election, he had several months before becoming president. Hoover used this time to travel to Latin America for ten weeks. He wanted to show Latin American nations that they could trust the United States to honor their rights as independent nations.

        胡佛利用當選總統和正式就職期間的空閑,花了十個星期出訪拉丁美洲,向各國展示,它們可以放心,美國會尊重它們作為獨立國家的權利。

        Hoover kept his word. The year after he took office, his administration announced that it would recognize the governments of all Latin American countries, including governments that the United States did not like.

        胡佛兌現了諾言。就在他入主白宮后的當年,美國政府宣布承認了所有拉美國家政府,包括那些美國并不喜歡的政府。

        Hoover told the American people that he would not follow the Latin American policies of President Theodore Roosevelt.

        胡佛告訴美國人民,他不會延續前總統西奧多.羅斯福的拉美政策。

        Teddy Roosevelt decided in nineteen four that the United States had a right to intervene in Latin America if it disagreed with the actions of governments there. Hoover said this was wrong. He told the country that it was more important to use friendship than to use force.

        羅斯福1904年決定,一旦美國對拉美某國政府的行為有異議,就有權對拉美事務進行干涉。胡佛說,這是錯誤的。他告訴美國人民,用友誼遠比用武力更重要。

        (MUSIC)

        MARIO RITTER: Hoover withdrew American forces from Nicaragua. He also arranged to withdraw them from Haiti. And he showed restraint as some fifty revolutions shook the nations of Latin America.

        胡佛撤走了美國在尼加拉瓜的駐軍,并準備讓美軍從海地撤軍。當時,拉美各地出現了大約五十次革命,而胡佛對此表現出了克制態度。

        Some revolutionary governments opposed the United States. They refused to pay debts to American companies, or they claimed ownership of foreign property. But Hoover refused to advance American interests by force. He wanted to prove that the United States could treat Latin American nations as equals.

        一些拉美革命政府是反美的,他們要么拒絕歸還欠美國公司的錢,要么霸占外國人的財產,但胡佛拒絕靠武力來擴張美國的利益,他要表明,美國可以把拉美各國視為同美國平等的國家。

        That policy was quite successful. Relations between the United States and Latin American countries generally improved under Herbert Hoover's leadership.

        胡佛的這一政策相當成功,美國與拉美的關系在胡佛的領導下得到了普遍改善。

        CHRIS CRUISE: The situation in Europe was much more difficult and much more serious for the United States. The problem was simple -- money. The Great Depression did not stop at America's borders. It moved to Britain, Europe and beyond. And it brought extremely hard economic conditions.

        對美國而言,跟歐洲的關系則更加棘手,也更加嚴重。問題很簡單,那就是錢。大蕭條并不局限于美國,它向英國蔓延,向歐洲和更廣泛的地方蔓延,引發了極度艱難的經濟景況。

        In Germany, the value of the national currency collapsed. Inflation forced people to buy goods with hundreds, thousands, even millions of German marks. They lost faith in the system. And they looked for some new leader to provide solutions.

        在德國,幣值極度貶值,嚴重的通貨膨脹使德國人必須用數百、數千甚至數百萬馬克來買東西,德國人對政府體制失去了信任,尋求新領導人來解決國家的問題。

        The economic crisis also put great pressure on the international circle of debt that had been created after the war. Suddenly, American bankers could no longer make loans to Germany. This meant that Germany could not pay back war debts to France and the other Allied nations in "the war to end all wars." And without this money, the Allied nations could not repay money that they owed American banks.

        經濟危機還給一戰后確立的國際債務循環體制帶來了巨大的壓力。突然之間,美國的銀行不能再給德國貸款了,于是德國就沒有錢向法國和其它一戰協約國成員支付戰爭賠款。而由于沒有錢,協約國也就無法償還欠美國各銀行的貸款。

        The circle of debt fell apart.

        就這樣,這個債務圈破裂了。

        (MUSIC: "Brother, Can You Spare A Dime?"/Bing Crosby with Lennie Hayton and His Orchestra)

        MARIO RITTER: The situation grew worse and worse throughout the early months of nineteen thirty. Hoover finally had to announce that all nations could delay their debt payments to the United States for one year.

        20世紀30年代始于美國的經濟大蕭條蔓延到了歐洲,讓一戰后建立的國際債務循環陷入危機。這種局勢在1930年頭幾個月越來越嚴重,最后,美國總統胡佛不得不宣布,所有欠美國債務的國家都可延期一年還款。

        Hoover's action did what he wanted it to. It put a temporary stop to the international debt crisis. But it caused great damage to private banks. People lost faith in the banking system.

        這一做法起到了預期的效果,暫時解除了國際債務危機,但卻給私人銀行帶來了更大的傷害。人們對銀行體系失去了信心。

        Throughout Europe, people withdrew their money from banks. As a result, the European banks could not repay more than a billion dollars that they had borrowed from private American banks.

        在歐洲各地,人們紛紛到銀行提取存款,結果,歐洲的銀行無力償還他們從美國各私人銀行借來的十多億美元的資金。

        CHRIS CRUISE: This was not the only problem. Nations throughout Europe were also forced to take their currencies off the gold standard. This meant their money no longer could be exchanged for gold.

        這還不是唯一的問題。當時,歐洲各國被迫放棄金本位制度,也就是說,他們的貨幣不再能與黃金兌換。

        The economic situation grew worse. And, as it did, serious political tensions began to threaten peace in Asia and Europe.

        經濟形勢更為糟糕,同時,嚴重的政治緊張關系開始威脅歐洲和亞洲的和平。

        MARIO RITTER: The threat in Asia became clear first.

        亞洲和平受到的威脅首先浮出水面。

        Japan had defeated Russia in a war in nineteen five. This victory gave Japan control over the economy of the southern part of what was then called Manchuria, in northeastern China.

        日本1905年打敗俄國,控制了當時被稱為滿洲里的中國東北地區的南端。

        As years passed, Japan began to feel threatened by two forces. First, Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek was trying to organize all of China under the control of his Nationalist forces. Second, Russia was extending the Chinese Eastern Railway to the Russian port city of Vladivostok.

        隨著時間的流逝,日本開始感覺到來自兩股力量的威脅。一是當時中國的領導人蔣介石試圖靠國民黨的軍隊統一全中國,二是俄國正在把中國的東部鐵路延伸到它的港口城市海參崴。

        Japan's army took control of the government in Tokyo in late nineteen thirty-one. The army was fearful of the growing threat to Japan's control of Manchuria. So it moved Japanese troops immediately into several Manchurian cities. And it claimed political control of the whole area.

        1931年底,日本軍方控制了東京的日本政府,出于對滿洲里控制權受到威脅的擔心,日本軍隊迅速占領了中國東北的好幾座城市,繼而宣稱,統治整個東北。

        President Hoover and most Americans strongly opposed Japan's aggression. But they were not willing to take any action that might lead to another world war.

        胡佛總統和大多數美國人強烈反對日本的侵略行為,但他們不愿意采取任何可能導致另一次世界大戰的行動。

        (MUSIC)

        CHRIS CRUISE: Japan's military leaders knew that the people of Europe and America had no desire to fight to protect China. And so the Japanese army marched on. It invaded the huge city of Shanghai, killing thousands of civilians.

        日本軍方領導人知道,歐洲人和美國人不會為保護中國而出兵,于是長驅直入,入侵中國大城市上海,屠殺了成千上萬的平民。

        Western leaders condemned the action. American Secretary of State Henry Stimson said the United States would not recognize Japanese control in these areas of China.

        西方各國領導人譴責日本的侵略行為。美國國務卿亨利.斯廷森說,美國不承認日本對中國一些地區的占領控制權。

        But, again, Hoover refused to consider any economic actions against the Japanese. And he strongly opposed taking any military action.

        但是,胡佛再一次拒絕考慮對日本采取任何經濟制裁措施,并強烈反對向日本采取軍事行動。

        The League of Nations also refused to recognize Japan's takeover. It called Japan the aggressor in Manchuria. Japan reacted simply. It withdrew from the League of Nations.

        國聯也拒絕承認日本對中國的占領,并把日本在中國東北的行動稱為侵略。而日本對此的反應很簡單,那就是退出國聯。

        MARIO RITTER: Most Americans were not happy about Japan's aggression. But they were not willing to fight force with force. This was less true, however, for Secretary of State Stimson.

        大多數美國人對日本的侵略行為看不過去,但他們不愿意以武力對付武力。不過,美國國務卿亨利.斯廷森并不這么想。

        Stimson was a follower of the old ideas of President Theodore Roosevelt. He believed a nation could only have a strong foreign policy by being strong and using its military power in times of crisis.

        斯廷森是前總統西奧多.羅斯福思想的追隨者。他認為,一個國家只有態度強硬,并在危機時刻使用武力,在外交上才能強大。

        But Stimson's voice was in the minority. Most Americans did not believe Japan really threatened the security of the United States. And they were not ready to risk their lives to help people in China.

        然而,斯廷森的想法并不是主流意見。大多數美國人覺得,日本并沒有真正威脅到美國的安全,而且他們也不愿意冒著生命危險來幫助中國人抗日。

        Opinions changed only after Japanese planes attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in December of nineteen forty-one.

        美國民眾的這一觀念直到1941年12月日本空軍偷襲在夏威夷珍珠港的美國海軍基地后才發生轉變。

        CHRIS CRUISE: The same story was true in Europe. But France was worried about the rising power of the Nazis in Germany and the Fascists in Italy and Spain. France proposed the creation of an international army.

        美國的對外政策也體現在歐洲政策上。法國擔心德國日益崛起的納粹政權以及意大利和西班牙的法西斯政權,提議成立一支國際軍隊。

        Hoover opposed that idea. He called for all nations to reduce their weapons. He believed that negotiation, not force, was the way to solve the problem.

        而胡佛反對這一建議,他呼吁所有國家裁軍。胡佛認為,談判,而不是武力,才是解決問題的唯一途徑。

        But the new leaders in Germany and Japan would listen much more closely to the boot steps of marching troops than to the high words of peace.

        但是,德國和日本的新領導人更愿意聽到侵略軍的腳步聲,而不是高喊和平的口號。

        (MUSIC)

        MARIO RITTER: Our program was written by David Jarmul. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and pictures at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow our series on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English.

        I'm Mario Ritter with Chris Cruise. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #178

        網友的學習評論(2條):
        作者:礦石山人
        4-6-2015 15:44:2
        American History :How the Depression Hit Foreign Relations
        作者:shuishuode
        6-6-2015 21:41:43
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