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        #172: American History: Blacks Set Out in Search of a Better Life in 1920s Society

        作者:David Jarmul 發布日期:8-2-2013

        Louis Armstrong
        Louis Armstrong

        BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        The early years of the twentieth century were a time of movement for many black Americans. Traditionally, most blacks lived in the Southeastern states. But in the nineteen twenties, many blacks moved to cities in the North.

        20世紀初期是美國黑人運動的活躍期。原來,美國的大部分黑人都生活在東南部各州,但在20世紀二十年代,許多黑人搬到了北方的城市。

        Black Americans moved because living conditions were so poor in the rural areas of the Southeast. But many of them discovered that life was also hard in the colder Northern cities. Jobs often were hard to find. Housing was poor. And whites sometimes acted violently against them.

        黑人之所以向北方遷居,是因為在東南部農村的生活條件實在太差了。不過,許多北遷的黑人發現,在寒冷的北方城市生活同樣艱難。那里很難找到工作,住房條件差,而且白人有時會對他們施暴。

        This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe tell about the life of black Americans in the nineteen twenties and how they helped form traditions.

        本周,我們就向您講述這一時期美國黑人的生活以及他們建立新傳統的故事。

        (MUSIC)

        KAY GALLANT: The years just before and after nineteen twenty were difficult for blacks. It was a time of racial hatred. Many whites joined the Ku Klux Klan organization. The Klan often terrorized blacks. Klan members sometimes burned fiery crosses in front of the houses of black families. And they sometimes beat and murdered blacks.

        1920年前后幾年是美國黑人極為困難的時期,當時種族仇恨嚴重。許多白人加入了"三K"黨,這個組織經??謬樅谌?,其成員有時會在黑人的住房前焚燒"血十字架",有時還毆打、謀殺黑人。

        The Ku Klux Klan also acted against Roman Catholics, Jews, and foreigners. But it hated blacks most of all.

        三K黨也對天主教徒、猶太教徒和外國人采取不友好的行動,但他們最最敵視的是黑人。

        Klu Klux Klan members, around 1922
        Klu Klux Klan members, around 1922

        HARRY MONROE: The United States also suffered a series of race riots in a number of cities during this period. White and black Americans fought each other in Omaha, Philadelphia, and other cities.

        這一時期,美國許多城市發生了種族暴亂,白人和黑人在奧哈馬、費城和其他城市發生沖突。

        The worst riot was in Chicago. A swimming incident started the violence. A black boy sailing a small boat entered a part of the beach used by white swimmers. Some white persons threw stones at the boy. He fell into the water and drowned.

        最嚴重的沖突發生在芝加哥,起因是一次游泳事件。一個黑人男孩劃了一艘小船進入了白人使用的海灘。一些白人就向這個孩子投石塊,結果,黑人小孩掉到水里淹死了。

        Black citizens heard about the incident and became extremely angry. Soon, black and white mobs were fighting each other in the streets.

        黑人得知這一消息后非常氣憤,很快,黑人和白人在大街上發生了沖突。

        The violence lasted for two weeks. Thirty-eight persons died. More than five-hundred were wounded. The homes of hundreds of families were burned.

        這次暴力沖突持續了兩周,38人死亡,500多人受傷,數百戶房子被燒毀。

        The violence in Chicago and other cities did not stop black Americans from moving north or west. They felt that life had to be better than in the South.

        不過,芝加哥和其它城市的暴力沖突并沒能阻擋黑人從南方向北方或西部遷居的腳步,他們覺得無論怎樣,別處的生活都要比南方好。

        KAY GALLANT: Black Americans left the South because life was hard, economic chances few, and white hatred common. But many blacks arrived in other parts of the country only to learn that life was no easier. Some blacks wrote later that they had only traded the open racism of the rural Southeast for the more secret racism of Northern cities.

        美國黑人離開南方是因為那里生活艱苦、經濟發展機會少和白人普遍仇恨黑人。但許多黑人離開南方到別處去后,等待他們的是同樣艱苦的日子。一些黑人后來寫道:他們在東南部農村地區受到公開的種族歧視,離開東南部到北方城市后,唯一改變的就是種族歧視沒有那么明顯而已。

        Blacks responded to these conditions in different ways. Some blacks followed the ideas of Booker T. Washington, the popular black leader of the early nineteen hundreds.

        黑人以不同方式對這種社會現狀作出反應。有些黑人追隨20世紀初著名黑人領袖博克.華盛頓。

        Washington believed that blacks had to educate and prepare themselves to survive in American society. He helped form a number of training schools where blacks could learn skills for better jobs. And he urged blacks to establish businesses and improve themselves without causing trouble with whites.

        博克.華盛頓認為,黑人應該受教育,提高自己的修養,這樣才能在美國社會生存。他幫助創建了多所職業技術學校,讓黑人在那里學習技能,尋找更好的工作。他還敦促黑人創業,在不和白人發生沖突的情況下改善自己的生活條件。

        Other blacks liked the stronger ideas of William Du Bois.

        其他一些黑人則喜歡威廉.杜鮑斯的更加強硬的主張。

        Du Bois felt that blacks had to take firm actions to protest murders and other illegal actions. He published a magazine and spoke actively for new laws and policies to protect black rights. Du Bois also helped form a group that later became the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The NAACP became one of the nation's leading black rights organizations in the twentieth century.

        杜鮑斯認為,黑人必須對謀殺和其它非法行為采取有力的還擊。他出版了一份雜志,并為呼吁出臺保護黑人權利的新法律和新政策而到處演說。杜鮑斯還幫助成立了一個組織,這個組織后來成為美國全國有色人種協進會的前身,有色人種協進會是20世紀最主要的黑人權益運動組織之一。

        Booker T. Washington
        Booker T. Washington

        HARRY MONROE: Probably the most important leader for black Americans in the nineteen twenties did not come from the United States. He was Marcus Garvey from the Caribbean island of Jamaica. Garvey moved to New York City in nineteen sixteen. He quickly began organizing groups in black areas.

        在20世紀二十年代,對于美國黑人來說,最重要的領導人并非來自美國,而是來自加勒比海島嶼牙買加的馬庫斯.加維。他1916年來到紐約,很快就開始在黑人居住區組織各種團體。

        His message was simple. He said blacks should not trust whites. Instead, they should be proud of being black and should help each other. Garvey urged blacks to leave the United States, move to Africa, and start their own nation.

        他的理念很簡單,他說,黑人不要相信白人,而應該為自己的膚色而驕傲,要相互幫助。加維勸黑人離開美國,到非洲去建立自己的國家。

        Marcus Garvey organized several plans to help blacks become economically independent of whites. His biggest effort was a shipping company to trade goods among black people all over the world.

        他想出了幾個計劃,幫助黑人擺脫白人,在經濟上獨立。其中最大手筆的是成立一家船務公司,負責在世界各地的黑人之間進行貨物貿易。

        Many American blacks gave small amounts of money each week to help Garvey start the shipping company. However, the idea failed. Government officials arrested Garvey for collecting the money unlawfully. They sent him to prison in nineteen twenty-five. And two years later, President Coolidge ordered Garvey out of the country.

        許多美國黑人每周都拿出少量的錢來給加維,幫助他開起這個船務公司。然而,這個計劃最終失敗了。美國政府以非法集資的罪名逮捕了加維,并于1925年判他入獄兩年。兩年后,柯立芝總統下令將加維驅逐出境。

        Marcus Garvey's group was the first major black organization in the United States to gain active support from a large number of people. The organization failed. But it did show the anger and lack of hope that many blacks felt about their place in American society.

        加維領導的組織是美國第一個贏得廣泛支持的主要黑人組織,盡管這個組織失敗了,但它體現出許多美國黑人對其社會地位的憤怒和失望。

        (MUSIC)

        KAY GALLANT: Blacks also showed their feelings through writing, art and music. The nineteen twenties were one of the most imaginative periods in the history of American black art.

        20世紀二十年代美國黑人運動興起,黑人對種族歧視和艱苦的生活環境感到憤怒和沮喪。他們也通過文學、藝術和音樂表現自己的感受。20世紀二十年代是美國黑人藝術歷史上最具想象力的時期之一。

        Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, and Countee Cullen were three of the leading black poets during this time. McKay was best known for his poems of social protest. Hughes produced poems about black life that experts now say are among the greatest American poems ever written.

        克勞德.麥凱、蘭斯頓.休斯和康特.卡倫是這一時期最杰出的三位黑人詩人。麥凱以其抗議社會的詩而聞名,休斯的詩則反映了黑人的生活,今天的專家們認為,他的詩可以躋身美國最偉大詩歌的行列。

        Black writers also produced longer works. Among the leading black novelists were Jessie Faucet, Jean Toomer, and Rudolph Fisher.

        黑人作家們還創作了比詩歌更長的文學作品。杰西.弗塞特、吉恩.圖默和魯道夫.費舍爾是這一時期著名黑人小說家中的領軍人物。

        (MUSIC)

        HARRY MONROE: The nineteen twenties also were an exciting time for black music. Black musicians playing the piano developed the ragtime style of music. Singers and musicians produced a sad, emotional style of playing that became known as the blues. And most important, music lovers began to play and enjoy a new style that was becoming known as jazz.

        20世紀二十年代,美國黑人音樂的發展也激動人心。演奏鋼琴的黑人音樂家發展了原先的拉格泰姆音樂風格。歌唱家和音樂人創作了一種悲傷、充滿感情的音樂,后來這種音樂被稱為"布魯斯"或是"藍調"。最重要的是,音樂愛好者們開始演奏和享受一種新的音樂形式,這就是著名的爵士樂。

        Jazz advanced greatly as a true American kind of music in the nineteen twenties. Musicians Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington and Eubie Blake played in gathering places and small theaters. White musicians and music experts from universities came to listen. Soon the music became popular among Americans of all kinds and around the world.

        爵士樂作為真正的美國本土音樂在20世紀二十年代得到了巨大的發展。音樂人路易斯.阿姆斯特朗、杜克.埃靈頓和優比.布萊克在公共場所和小劇場演出,白人音樂人和來自大學的音樂專家前去聆聽。不久,這種音樂形式就在美國各地和全世界流行開來了。

        KAY GALLANT: Blacks began to recognize in the nineteen twenties their own deep roots in the United States. They began to see just how much black men and women already had done to help form American history and traditions.

        20世紀二十年代,美國黑人開始認識到他們的根已經深深地扎入美國,他們開始看到,在美國歷史和傳統的形成過程中,黑人發揮了重要作用。

        The person who did the most to help blacks understand this was black historian Carter G. Woodson. Woodson received his training at two leading universities: Harvard in Massachusetts and the Sorbonne in France. He launched a new publication, the Journal of Negro History, in which he and other experts wrote about black life and history. Historians today call Woodson the father of the scientific study of black history.

        他們能明白這一點,最主要要歸功于黑人歷史學家卡特.伍德森。伍德森在兩所著名的大學深造--位于麻薩諸塞州的哈佛大學,和位于法國巴黎的索幫神學院。他創辦了一份新雜志,叫《黑人歷史期刊》。在這本雜志中,他和其他一些歷史學家介紹了黑人的生活和歷史。今天的歷史學家們稱伍德森為黑人歷史科學研究之父。

        HARRY MONROE: The nineteen twenties also were a period in which a number of blacks experimented with new political ideas and parties. The difficult social conditions of the period led many blacks to search for new political solutions.

        20世紀二十年代,許多美國黑人開始接觸新的政治思想和政黨。這一時期艱苦的社會環境讓許多黑人開始尋求新的政治解決辦法。

        Two leftist parties -- the Socialists and the Communists -- urged blacks to leave the traditional political system and work for more extreme change. Two leading black Socialists, Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, urged blacks to support Socialist candidates. However, they gained little popular support from blacks.

        當時的兩個左翼政黨--社會黨和共產黨--勸黑人放棄傳統的政治體制,為更加激進的政治變革而努力。兩位著名社會黨黑人領袖是錢德勒.歐文和菲利普.倫道夫,他們勸黑人支持社會黨候選人,但是并沒有得到黑人的支持。

        Communists also tried to organize black workers. But generally, black voters showed little interest in communist ideas.

        共產黨也試圖把黑人工人組織起來。不過總體來說,黑人選民對共產主義理念沒什么興趣。

        The most important change in black political thinking during the nineteen twenties came within the traditional two-party system itself. Blacks usually had voted for Republicans since the days of Abraham Lincoln. But the conservative Republican policies of the nineteen twenties caused many blacks to become Democrats.

        20世紀二十年代黑人政治理念最大的改變還是來自于美國傳統的兩黨體系本身。從林肯執政時期以來,黑人一直都投票支持共和黨,但到20世紀二十年代,共和黨的保守政策使得許多黑人轉而支持民主黨。

        By nineteen thirty-two, blacks would vote by a large majority for the Democratic presidential candidate, Franklin Roosevelt. And blacks continue to be a major force in the Democratic Party.

        1932年,絕大多數黑人將票投給了民主黨總統候選人富蘭克林.羅斯福,而且此后黑人一直是民主黨的重要力量。

        (MUSIC)

        BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by David Jarmul. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe.

        You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #172

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        作者:鄭烈波
        3-4-2015 9:49:15
        and blacks continue to be a major force in the democratic
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