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        #171: Nation Grows More Conservative in '20s

        作者:David Jarmul 發布日期:8-1-2013

        A chemist with the Internal Revenue Board inspects bottles used to illegally sell alcohol
        A chemist with the Internal Revenue Board inspects bottles used to illegally sell alcohol

        BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        Americans experimented with many new customs and social traditions during the nineteen twenties. There were new dances, new kinds of clothes and some of the most imaginative art and writing ever produced in the United States.

        20世紀二十年代,美國開始嘗試許多新的風俗和社會傳統,人們跳起新的舞步,穿新樣式的衣服,還創作出了美國歷史上最富有想像力的藝術和文學作品。

        But in most ways, the nineteen twenties were a conservative time in American life. Voters elected three conservative Republican presidents: Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover. And they supported many conservative social and political policies.

        但是,從大部分角度看,1920年代都是美國生活的保守時代。選民連續三屆選共和黨人當總統,他們分別是:哈丁、柯立芝和胡佛。選民還支持許多保守的社會和政治政策。本周,我們為您講述20世紀20年代美國社會的保守主義。

        This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe continue the story of American conservatism during the nineteen twenties.

        KAY GALLANT: One such policy concerned immigration. Most Americans in the nineteen twenties had at least some ties through blood or marriage to the first Americans who came from Britain. Many people with these kinds of historic ties considered themselves to be real Americans, true Americans.

        其中一項這樣的政策涉及移民問題。20世紀20年代,大部分美國人是首批移民到美洲的英國人的后代或親戚,許多這樣的人認為自己是才真正的美國人。

        Americans traditionally had welcomed newcomers from such western European countries as Britain, France, or Germany. But most of the people arriving in New York City and other harbors in the nineteen twenties were from the central, eastern and southern areas of Europe.

        美國一直以來歡迎來自英國、法國和德國等歐洲國家的新移民,但是在20世紀20年代,大部分抵達紐約市和其它港口的移民來自中歐、東歐和南歐國家。

        Some Americans became afraid of these millions of people arriving at their shores. They worried that the immigrant newcomers might steal their jobs. Or they feared the political beliefs of the immigrants.

        看到數百萬移民登陸美國,一些美國人感到害怕。他們擔心新移民會偷走自己的工作,有些人還害怕移民所持的政治立場。

        Calvin Coolidge
        Calvin Coolidge

        HARRY MONROE: Pressure to control immigration increased following the world war. Congress passed a bill that set a limit on how many people would be allowed to enter from each foreign country. And, the Congress and President Calvin Coolidge agreed to an even stronger immigration law in nineteen twenty-four.

        在第一次世界大戰結束后,控制移民的呼聲越來越高。美國國會通過了一項議案,為每個國家可以移民美國的人數設定了上限。1924年,國會和柯立芝總統還同意建立一項更加嚴格的移民法律。

        Under the new law, limits on the number of immigrants from each foreign country depended on the number of Americans who had families in that country. For example, the law allowed many immigrants to enter from Britain or France, because many American citizens had families in those countries. But fewer people could come from Italy or Russia, because fewer Americans had family members in those countries.

        根據這個新法律,每個國家來美移民的上限數取決于在這個國家有親屬的美國人的數量。比如,這個法律允許大量英國人和法國人移民到美國,因為許多美國人在這兩個國家有親屬。但是,意大利人和俄羅斯人就不能這么大量地移民到美國,因為在這兩個國家有親屬的美國人比較少。

        The laws were very difficult to enforce. But they did succeed in limiting the number of immigrants from certain countries.

        這個法律很難執行,但在限制某些國家移民數量方面確實發揮了作用。

        KAY GALLANT: A second sign of the conservative feelings in the nineteen twenties was the nation's effort to ban the sale of alcoholic drinks, or liquor. This policy was known as Prohibition, because it prohibited -- or banned -- alcoholic drinks.

        20世紀20年代美國保守主義的另外一個表現是力圖禁止銷售酒精飲料,這個政策被稱為"禁酒令"。

        Many of the strongest supporters of Prohibition were conservative Americans living in rural areas. Many of them believed that liquor was evil, the product of the devil.

        這個政策的鐵桿支持者多是生活在鄉下的保守派美國人。許多人認為,酒是罪惡,是邪惡的產物。

        A number of towns and states passed laws banning alcohol sales during the first years of the twentieth century. And in nineteen nineteen, the nation passed the eighteenth amendment to the federal constitution. This amendment, and the Volstead Act, made it unlawful to make, sell or transport liquor.

        20世紀初,美國許多城鎮和州都通過了禁止賣酒的法律。1919年,美國通過憲法第18修正案,這個修正案和禁酒法案一起使制造、銷售和運輸酒成為違法行為。

        HARRY MONROE: Prohibition laws failed terribly from the start. There was only a small force of police to enforce the new laws. And millions of Americans still wanted to drink liquor. It was not possible for the police to watch every American who wanted to buy a drink secretly or make liquor in his own home.

        然而,禁酒法從一開始實施就毛病百出。首先,只有很少的警力負責執行這個新法律;另外,數百萬美國人依然想喝酒。警察不可能看著每一個想偷偷喝酒或者自己在家釀酒的人。

        Not surprisingly, thousands of Americans soon saw a chance to make profits from the new laws. They began to import liquor illegally to sell for high prices.

        不出意料,成千上萬的美國人很快就發現了一個利用禁酒法發財的良機。他們開始非法進口酒,然后以高價出售。

        Criminals began to bring liquor across the long, unprotected border with Canada or on fast boats from the Caribbean islands. At the same time, private manufacturers in both cities and rural areas began to produce liquor. And shop owners in cities across the country sold liquor with little interference from local police.

        犯罪份子開始跨越美國和加拿大之間廣闊松懈的邊境運酒,或者從加勒比海各島國上弄到酒后乘快艇運進美國。同時,美國城市和鄉村里的私人釀酒作坊開始造酒,城市里的商店也開始賣酒,而地方上的警察對此也不怎么追究。

        By the middle of the nineteen twenties, it was clear to most Americans that Prohibition laws were a failure. But the laws were not changed until the election of President Franklin Roosevelt in nineteen thirty-two.

        到20世紀20年代中期,大部分美國人已經很明白,禁酒令失敗了。但是,這個法律直到1932年羅斯福當上總統后才被改變。

        KAY GALLANT: A third sign of conservatism in the nineteen twenties was the effort by some Americans to ban schoolbooks on modern science. Most of the Americans who supported these efforts were conservative rural Americans who believed in the traditional ideas of the Protestant Christian church. Many of them were fearful of the many changes that had taken place in American society.

        20世紀20年代美國保守主義的第三個例子是一些美國人試圖禁止學校教科書講授現代科學。支持這種做法的大部分是鄉村地區的保守派人士,他們相信基督教新教教堂的傳統理念。他們中的許多人對美國社會發生的種種變化感到害怕。

        Science became an enemy to many of these traditional, religious Americans. Science seemed to challenge the most basic ideas taught in the Bible. The conflict burst into a major public debate in nineteen twenty-five in a trial over Charles Darwin's idea of evolution.

        對許多思想傳統、篤信宗教的美國人來說,科學成了他們的敵人。宗教和科學的沖突在1925年爆發成了一場針對達爾文進化論的公眾大辯論。

        HARRY MONROE: British scientist Charles Darwin published his books "The Origin of the Species" and "The Descent of Man" in the nineteenth century. The books explained Darwin's idea that humans developed over millions of years from apes and other animals.

        英國科學家查爾斯.達爾文在19世紀發表了"物種起源"和"人類的起源"兩本書,詳細闡述了人類是猿和其它動物經過數百萬年進化演變而來的觀點。

        Most Europeans and educated people accepted Darwin's theory by the end of the nineteenth century. But the book had little effect in rural parts of the United States until the nineteen twenties.

        到19世紀末時,大部分歐洲人和受過教育的人都接受了達爾文的理論,但是這本書直到20世紀20年代才在美國農村引起了一些反響。

        William Jennings Bryan led the attack on Darwin's ideas. Bryan was a rural Democrat who ran twice for president. He lost both times. But Bryan remained popular among many traditional Americans.

        對達爾文觀點進行攻擊的領頭人是來自鄉村地區的民主黨人威廉.布賴恩,他曾經兩次參加過總統競選,都以失敗告終。不過,在許多思想傳統的美國人中,他還是很有威信的。

        Bryan told his followers that the theory of evolution was evil, because it challenged the traditional idea that God created the world in six days. He accused scientists of violating God's words in the Bible.

        他對支持者們說,進化論是邪惡的,因為它挑戰了傳統的關于上帝在六天內創造世間萬物的觀點,他指責科學家們違反上帝在圣經中的旨意。

        Bryan and his supporters called on local school officials to ban the teaching of evolution. Some state legislatures in the more conservative southeastern part of the country passed laws making it a crime to teach evolution theory.

        布賴恩和他的支持者們呼吁地方上的學校官員禁止在課堂上教進化論,美國東南部一些比較保守的州的議會通過法律,把教授進化論列為犯罪。

        KAY GALLANT: In nineteen twenty-five, a young science teacher in the southern state of Tennessee challenged the state's new teaching law. The teacher -- John Scopes -- taught Darwin's evolution ideas. Officials arrested scopes and put him on trial.

        1925年,美國南部田納西州的一個年輕科學教師對州里的這個新法提出挑戰。這位名叫約翰. 斯考普斯的教師給學生們講了進化論,而因此被當局抓起來受審。

        Some of the nation's greatest lawyers rushed to Tennessee to defend the young teacher. They believed the state had violated his right to free speech. And they thought Tennessee's law againt teaching evolution was foolish in a modern, scientific society. America's most famous lawyer, Clarence Darrow, became the leader of Scopes' defense team.

        美國一些最棒的律師紛紛趕到田納西州為這位年輕教師辯護。他們認為,州政府侵犯了斯考普斯的言論自由權,還認為在現代、科學的美國社會,田納西的這個法律是愚蠢的。美國最有名的律師克萊倫斯.丹諾擔任斯考普斯辯護團隊的領頭人。

        Bryan and other religious conservatives also rushed to the trial. They supported the right of the state of Tennessee to ban the teaching of evolution.

        布賴恩和其他宗教保守派人士也趕到法庭,他們支持田納西政府禁止教授進化論的權利。

        The trial was held in the small town of Dayton, Tennessee. Hundreds of people came to watch: religious conservatives, free speech supporters, newsmen and others.

        審判在田納西的小鎮戴頓舉行,數百人趕去聽審,包括宗教保守派人士、言論自由權的支持者、記者等等。

        The high point of the trial came when Bryan himself sat before the court. Lawyer Clarence Darrow asked Bryan question after question about the bible and about science. How did Bryan know the Bible is true. Did God really create the earth in a single day. Is a day in the Bible twenty-four hours. Or can it mean a million years.

        庭審最精彩的時刻是布賴恩親自出庭時,丹諾律師就圣經和科學不停地向他發問。比如,布賴恩怎么知道圣經說的就是真的?上帝真的在一天內創造出了地球嗎?圣經中說的一天是24小時還是指100萬年呢?

        HARRY MONROE: Bryan answered the questions. But he showed a great lack of knowledge about modern science.

        布賴恩回答了這些問題,但暴露出自己對現代科學知之甚少。。

        The judge found Scopes guilty of breaking the law. But in the battle of ideas, science defeated conservatism. And a higher court later ruled that Scopes was not guilty.

        結果,法官判斯考普斯有罪。然而,在思想的較量上,科學戰勝了保守觀點。后來,更高一級的法院又裁定斯考普斯無罪。

        The Scopes evolution trial captured the imagination of Americans. The issue was not really whether one young teacher was innocent or guilty of breaking a law. The real question was the struggle for America's spirit between the forces of modern ideas and those of traditional rural conservatism. The trial represented this larger conflict.

        斯考普斯進化論案引起了美國人的極大興趣。這個案子的關鍵不在于一個年輕教師是否違法,而在于現代觀念和傳統鄉村保守主義哪一方能得到美國人的認同。這次審判是這種較量的一個縮影。

        KAY GALLANT: American society was changing in many important ways during the early part of the twentieth century. It was not yet the world superpower that it would become after World War Two. But neither was it a traditional rural society of conservative farmers and clergy. The nineteen twenties were a period of growth, of change and of struggle between the old and new values.

        20世紀20年代初,美國社會在很多重要領域發生變化,美國還沒有成為二戰后的那個超級大國,但它也不再是以前的那個由保守的農民和牧師組成的傳統鄉村國家。20世紀20年代是發展、變化和新舊思想交戰的年代。

        (MUSIC)

        BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by David Jarmul. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe.

        You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        This is program #171

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        Nation Grows More Conservative in '20s
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