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        #170: The 1920's were an active and important period for the American arts

        作者:David Jarmul 發布日期:7-31-2013

        BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        There were many changes in the social customs and day-to-day life of millions of Americans during the administration of President Calvin Coolidge.

        在柯立芝總統執政期間,美國社會的風俗習慣和數百萬美國人的日常生活發生了許多變化:

        Many young people began to challenge the traditions of their parents and grandparents. They experimented with new ideas and ways of living. People of all kinds became interested in the new popular culture. Radio and films brought them exciting news of court trials, sports heroes and wild parties.

        許多年輕人開始向他們的父輩和祖輩的傳統生活方式提出挑戰,嘗試新的觀念和生活方式。各種人都對新的流行文化感興趣。廣播和電影把法庭審判、體育英雄和瘋狂派對等激動人心的新聞帶給每一個人。

        The nineteen twenties also was one of the most active and important periods for the more serious arts. Writers, painters, and other artists produced some of the greatest work in the nation's history.

        20世紀20年代對嚴肅藝術而言也是非?;钴S和重要的時期。作家、畫家和其他藝術家們創作出了美國歷史上一些最重要的藝術作品。

        This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe take a look at American arts during this exciting period.

        本周,我們就向你講述這一時期的美國文學藝術成就。

        KAY GALLANT: Most Americans approved strongly of the economic growth and improved living conditions during the nineteen twenties. They supported the conservative Republican policies of President Calvin Coolidge. And they had great faith in the country's business leaders and economic system.

        大多數美國人熱情肯定20世紀20年代美國快速的經濟發展和生活改善。他們支持共和黨總統柯立芝所采取的保守政策,并且對企業界領導人和美國經濟體制充滿信任。

        However, many of the nation's serious artists had a different and darker view of society. They were troubled deeply by the changes they saw. They believed that Americans had become too interested in money and wealth.

        然而,美國許多嚴肅的藝術家對社會有著不同的、悲觀的看法,他們對所看到的變化深感擔憂。他們認為,美國人變得過于追求金錢和財富了。

        These artists rejected the new business society. And they also questioned the value of politics. Many of them believed that the first World War in Europe had been a terrible mistake. These artists had little faith in the political leaders who came to power after the war. They felt a need to protest the way the world was changing around them.

        這些藝術家們反感正在興起的商業社會,還對一些政治價值觀提出質疑。他們中的許多人認為發生在歐洲的第一次世界大戰是一個嚴重的錯誤。這些藝術家不信任一戰后掌權的政治領導人,他們覺得有必要對周遭事物變化的方式表示抗議。

        HARRY MONROE: The spirit of protest was especially strong in serious American writing during the nineteen twenties. Many of the greatest writers of this period hated the new business culture.

        20世紀20年代的這種反對精神在美國嚴肅文學界尤為強烈,這一時期的許多著名作家痛恨新興的商業文化。

        One such writer was Sinclair Lewis. He was the first American to win the Nobel Prize for Literature.

        其中就包括辛克萊.劉易斯。劉易斯是第一位獲得諾貝爾文學獎的美國作家。

        Lewis wrote about Americans living in the towns and villages in the central part of the United States. Many of the people in his books were foolish men and women with empty values. They chased after money and popularity. In his famous book "Main Street," Lewis joked about and criticized small-town business owners.

        他的作品反映的是美國中部鄉村人的生活,許多人物都是毫無思想的愚蠢男女,就知道追逐金錢和名譽。在他著名的小說《大街》中,他嘲笑和批判小鎮上那些企業主。

        Social criticism also was central to the writing of the newspaper writer H. L. Mencken, from the eastern city of Baltimore. Mencken considered most Americans to be stupid and violent fools. He attacked their values without mercy.

        另一位以社會批判為主要寫作內容的作家是東部巴爾的摩市的記者作家門肯。門肯認為,大多數美國人都是愚蠢和暴力的傻瓜,他毫不留情地批判他們的價值觀。

        Of course, many traditional Americans reacted strongly to such criticism. For example, some religious and business leaders attacked Mencken as a dangerous person whose words were treason against the United States. But many young people thought Mencken was a hero whose only crime was writing the truth.

        不難想象,這樣的批判在許多傳統的美國人中間引起了強烈的反響。例如,有些宗教人士和企業界領導人攻擊門肯,說他是一個危險的人,他的文字是對美國的背叛。但許多年輕人認為門肯是英雄,要說他有罪,那唯一的罪過就是他說出了真相。

        F. Scott Fitzgerald
        F. Scott Fitzgerald

        KAY GALLANT: The work of Lewis, Mencken, and a number of other writers of the nineteen twenties has been forgotten by many Americans as the years have passed. But the period did produce some truly great writing.

        隨著時間的流逝,人們已經漸漸地淡忘了劉易斯、門肯和20世紀20年代其他一些作家的作品,但這個時期的確產生了一些真正偉大的作品。

        One of the greatest writers of these years was Ernest Hemingway. Hemingway wrote about love, war, sports, and other subjects. He used short sentences and rough words. His style was sharper and different from traditional American writing. And his strong views about life set him apart from most other Americans.

        最偉大的作家之一是歐內斯特.海明威,他的作品反映的是愛情、戰爭、運動等內容。他使用簡短的句子和簡樸的詞匯,風格更加犀利,與傳統美國作家的風格不同,而且他對生活有自己鮮明的看法,這與大多數美國人不同。

        Another major writer was F. Scott Fitzgerald. Fitzgerald wrote especially about rich Americans searching for happiness and new values. His books were filled with people who rejected traditional beliefs. His book "The Great Gatsby" is considered today to be one of the greatest works in the history of American writing.

        另一位偉大的作家是斯科特.菲茨杰拉德。他著重描寫的是美國富人追求幸福和新價值觀的故事。他的書中充滿了丟棄傳統信仰的人。他寫的《了不起的蓋茨比》至今被認為是美國文學史上最偉大的作品之一。

        A third great writer of the nineteen twenties was William Faulkner.

        Faulkner wrote about the special problems and ways of life in the American south. His books explored the emotional tension in a society still suffering from the loss of the Civil War sixty years before. Some of Faulkner's best books were "The Sound and The Fury," "As I Lay Dying" and "Absalom, Absalom." Like Hemingway, he won the Nobel Prize for Literature.

        那個時期的第三個偉大作家是威廉.??思{,他的作品反映的是美國南方所特有的社會問題和生活方式。他的作品反映了美國南方在60年前的內戰中失敗后依然未愈的傷痛,并挖掘這種傷痛造成的緊張的社會情緒。他的作品包括《喧嘩與騷動》、《我彌留之際》和《押沙龍,押沙龍》。和海明威一樣,他也獲得了諾貝爾文學獎。

        (MUSIC)

        HARRY MONROE: The nineteen twenties also produced the greatest writer of theater plays in American history, Eugene O'Neill.

        20世紀20年代的美國還產生了歷史上最偉大的劇作家尤金.奧尼爾。

        O'Neill was an Irish-American with a dark and violent view of human nature. His plays used new theatrical methods and ways of presenting ideas. But they carried an emotional power never before seen in the American theater. Some of his best known plays were "Mourning Becomes Electra," "The Iceman Cometh" and "A Long Day's Journey into Night."

        他是愛爾蘭裔美國人,對人性有著黑暗和激進的看法。他的戲劇利用新的舞臺手段和表現方式,帶給觀眾前所未有的情感沖擊。他最著名的作品包括《悲悼》、《送冰的人來了》和《長日入夜行》。

        A number of American writers also produced great poetry during the nineteen twenties. Probably the most famous work was "The Waste Land," a poem of sadness by the writer T. S. Eliot.

        20世紀20年代的美國除了經歷經濟高速發展、人民生活改善和種種社會變革之外,嚴肅藝術也碩果累累,不過,藝術家們對社會的看法是批判的、悲觀的。許多美國作家還寫出了優秀的詩歌,其中最著名的也許是由埃略特創作的悲愴詩《荒原》。

        KAY GALLANT: There also were important changes in American painting during the nineteen twenties. Economic growth gave many Americans the money to buy art for their homes for the first time. Sixty new museums opened. Slowly, Americans learned about serious art.

        繪畫領域在20世紀20年代的美國也出現了許多重要的變化。經濟的發展使許多美國人第一次有錢購買藝術品來裝飾自己的家了。那時,有60家新的博物館對外開放。慢慢地,美國人開始了解嚴肅藝術。

        Actually, American art had been changing in important ways since the beginning of the century.

        實際上,自20世紀初開始,美國藝術就發生了重大的變化。

        In nineteen-oh-eight, a group of New York artists arranged a historic show. These artists tried to show real life in their paintings. They painted new kinds of subjects. For example, George Bellows painted many emotional and realistic pictures of the sport of boxing. His work, and the painting of other realistic artists, became known as the "Ash Can" school of art.

        1908年,一些紐約藝術家舉辦了一場歷史性的展覽,他們試圖在自己的繪畫中展示真實的生活,于是他們畫新出現的東西。例如,喬治.貝洛斯畫了許多反映拳擊運動的充滿激情和寫實的作品,他的作品和其他一些現實主義藝術家的作品被人們稱為"垃圾箱"畫派。

        Another important group of modern artists was led by the great photographer Alfred Stieglitz. This group held a major art show in nineteen thirteen in New York, Chicago, and Boston. The show presented modern art from Europe. Americans got their first chance to see the work of such painters as Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque.

        另一個重要的現代藝術家團體由著名攝影家阿爾佛雷德.斯蒂格利茨領導。這個藝術團體于1913年在紐約、芝加哥和波士頓舉辦了大型藝術展,向美國人展示了歐洲的現代藝術。美國人第一次有機會欣賞畢加索和喬治.布拉克等畫家的作品。

        The show caused a huge public debate in the United States. Traditional art critics accused the organizers of the show of trying to overthrow Christianity and American values. Former president Theodore Roosevelt and others denounced the new art as a threat to the country.

        這些藝術展在美國公眾中引起了非常廣泛的爭論。傳統的藝術批評家們指責展覽的組織者試圖推翻基督教精神和美國的價值觀。前總統西奧多.羅斯福和其他一些人公開指責說,這種新的藝術形式是對美國的一種威脅。

        However, many young American painters and art lovers did not agree. They became very interested in the new art styles from Europe. They studied them closely.

        然而許多年輕的美國畫家和藝術愛好者不這么認為,他們對這些來自歐洲的新藝術風格的作品非常感興趣,并認真研究起來。

        Soon, Charles Demuth, Joseph Stella, and other American painters began to produce excellent art in the new Cubist style. John Marin painted beautiful views of sea coasts in New York and Maine. And such artists as Max Weber and Georgia O'Keeffe painted in styles that seemed to come more from their own imagination than from reality.

        很快,查爾斯.德繆斯、約瑟夫.斯特拉和其他一些美國畫家開始在新立體派風格的影響下創作出精美的作品。約翰.馬林創作了紐約和緬因州海濱的美麗風景畫。馬克斯.韋伯和喬治.奧基夫等藝術家以想象的、超現實的手法進行繪畫。

        As with writing, the work of many of these serious modern painters only became popular many years later.

        和文學作品一樣,這一時期許多這種嚴肅現代派畫家的作品直到多年后才受到人們的追捧。

        HARRY MONROE: The greatest American designer of buildings during the nineteen twenties was Frank Lloyd Wright. Wright believed that architects should design a building to fit its location, not to copy some ancient style. He used local materials in new ways. Wright invented many imaginative methods to combine useful building design with natural beauty.

        20世紀20年代美國最偉大的建筑設計師是弗蘭克.勞埃德.賴特。他認為建筑的設計應該與建筑所在地的環境相適應,而不能簡單地復制古代的建筑風格。他發明了許多富有想象力的方法,利用當地的材料,把建筑物的實用性和周圍的自然美景融合起來。

        But again, most Americans did not know of Wright's work. Instead, they turned to local architects with traditional beliefs. These architects generally designed old and safe styles for buildings -- for homes, offices, colleges, and other needs.

        然而,絕大多數美國人沒有聽說過賴特的作品,他們還是用那些有著傳統觀念的當地建筑設計師,這些設計師通常將建筑物--如住房、辦公樓、大學校園和其他建筑,設計得中規中矩。

        KAY GALLANT: Writers and artists now look back at the roaring nineteen twenties as an extremely important period that gave birth to many new styles and ideas.

        作家和藝術家們現在把20世紀20年代這個"喧囂時期"視為一段極為重要的歷史階段,它孕育出了許多新的風格和想法。

        Hemingway's style of writing continues to influence American writers. Many painters say the period marked the real birth of modern American art. And architecture students in the United States and other countries now study the buildings of Frank Lloyd Wright.

        海明威的寫作風格一直影響著美國作家。許多畫家說,那個時期標志著美國現代繪畫藝術的誕生。而美國和其他國家建筑設計系的學生們到今天還在研究弗蘭克.勞埃德.賴特的建筑作品。

        The changes in American society caused many of these artists much sadness and pain in their personal lives. But their expression of protest and rich imagination produced a body of work that has grown in influence with the passing years.

        美國社會的變化給這些藝術家們的個人生活帶來了許多痛苦和悲傷,但他們憑反抗精神和豐富想象力創造出了一系列作品,隨著時光的流逝,這些作品的影響力越來越大。

        (MUSIC)

        BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by David Jarmul. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe.

        You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #170

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