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        #169: 'Roaring Twenties' a Time of Economic and Social Change

        作者:David Jarmul 發布日期:7-30-2013

        Congressman T.S. McMillan of Charleston, South Carolina with two women who are doing the Charleston dance near the Capitol building in Washington D.C.
        Congressman T.S. McMillan of Charleston, South Carolina with two women who are doing the Charleston dance near the Capitol building in Washington D.C.

        BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        The nineteen twenties were a time of economic progress for most Americans. During the administrations of President Warren Harding and President Calvin Coolidge, many companies grew larger, creating new jobs. Wages for most Americans increased. Many people began to have enough money to buy new kinds of products.

        對于絕大多數美國人來說,20世紀20年代是一個經濟條件大為改善的時期。在哈丁和柯立芝執政時期,美國許多企業發展壯大,創造了新的就業機會。大多數美國人的工資提高了,許多人有了足夠的錢去購買新商品。

        The strong economy also created the right environment for many important changes in the day-to-day social life of Americans. The nineteen twenties are remembered now as an exciting time that historians call the "Roaring Twenties."

        經濟實力的強大使得美國人的日常生活發生了許多重大變化?,F在,提起20世紀20年代,人們會說那是個令人激動的時期,歷史學家把它稱為"喧囂的20年代"。

        This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe tell more about that period.

        (MUSIC)

        KAY GALLANT: The nineteen twenties brought a feeling of freedom and independence to millions of Americans, especially young Americans. Young soldiers returned from the world war with new ideas. They had seen a different world in Europe. They had faced death and learned to enjoy the pleasures that each day offered.

        對于數百萬美國人、特別是年輕人來說,20世紀20年代給他們帶來了自由和獨立的感覺。年輕的美國士兵從歐洲戰場歸來時帶回了許多新觀念,因為他們在歐洲看到了一個不同的世界。他們面對過死亡,感覺人生在世要及時行樂。

        Many of these young soldiers were not willing to quietly accept the old traditions of their families and villages when they returned home. Instead, they wanted to try new ways of living.

        許多年輕的美國士兵回國后不愿意默默地接受家庭和鄉村里傳統的生活方式,相反,他們想要嘗試一種新的生活。

        HARRY MONROE: Many young Americans, both men and women, began to challenge some of the traditions of their parents and grandparents. For example, some young women began to experiment with new kinds of clothes. They no longer wore dresses that hid the shape of their bodies. Instead, they wore thinner dresses that uncovered part of their legs.

        許多美國青年男女開始向他們的父輩和祖輩留下的一些傳統提出挑戰。例如,一些年輕婦女開始嘗試穿新式服裝,她們不再穿那種不顯身材的連衣裙,而是穿質地薄一些的、能展示腿部線條的裙子。

        Many young women began to smoke cigarettes, too. Cigarette production in the United States more than doubled in the ten years between nineteen eighteen and nineteen twenty-eight.

        許多年輕女性還開始抽煙。從1918到1928年的10年間,美國煙草產量增長了一倍多。

        Many women also began to drink alcohol with men in public for the first time. And they listened together to a popular new kind of music: jazz.

        許多女性還破天荒地開始在公共場合與男人一起喝酒,一起聽一種新的時髦音樂--爵士樂。

        Young people danced the Fox Trot, the Charleston, and other new dances. They held one another tightly on the dance floor, instead of dancing far apart.

        年輕人跳起了狐步舞、查爾斯頓舞和其它新式舞蹈,他們在舞池中跳舞時不再是相互離得遠遠的,而是緊緊地擁在一起。

        (MUSIC)

        KAY GALLANT: It was a revolution in social values, at least among some Americans. People openly discussed subjects that their parents and grandparents had kept private.

        至少對于一些美國人來說,社會價值觀的變化是革命性的。人們公開討論那些他們的父輩祖輩視為隱私的話題。

        There were popular books and shows about unmarried mothers and about homosexuality. The growing film industry made films about all-night parties between unmarried men and women. And people discussed the new ideas about sex formed by Sigmund Freud and other new thinkers.

        在暢銷書和時髦節目中,出現了未婚母親和同性戀的題材。發展壯大的電影業拍攝有關未婚男女通宵派對的電影。人們還開始討論弗洛伊德和其他新生代思想家們有關性的新理念。

        An important force behind these changes was the growing independence of American women. In nineteen twenty, the nation passed the Nineteenth Amendment to the constitution, which gave women the right to vote.

        在這些變化的背后有一股重要的力量,那就是美國女性的日益獨立。1920年,美國通過了憲法第十九修正案,賦予婦女投票權。

        Of equal importance, many women took jobs during the war and continued working after the troops returned home. Also, new machines freed many of them from spending long hours of work in the home washing clothes, preparing food, and doing other jobs.

        同樣重要的是,許多婦女在一戰期間參加工作。戰士們回國后,她們繼續工作。另外,新的家用設備將女性從洗衣做飯等費時的家務活兒中解放出來了。

        HARRY MONROE: Education was another important force behind the social changes of the nineteen-twenties. More and more Americans were getting a good education. The number of students attending high school doubled between nineteen twenty and nineteen thirty. Many of the schools now offered new kinds of classes to prepare students for useful jobs.

        教育是美國20世紀20年代出現社會變革的另一種重要動力。越來越多的美國人接受良好的教育。1920年至1930年間,高中學生人數增長了一倍。許多學校還開設新的課程,教授學生有用的技能。

        Attendance at colleges and universities also increased greatly. And colleges offered more classes in such useful subjects as teacher training, engineering, and business administration.

        上大學的人也大幅增加,大學里開設了更多實用的課程,如教師培訓、工程和商業管理。

        Two inventions also helped cause the social changes. They were the automobile and the radio. The automobile gave millions of Americans the freedom to travel easily to new places. And the radio brought new ideas and experiences into their own homes.

        另外有兩項發明也是社會變革的重要力量,那就是汽車和廣播。汽車使數百萬美國人能輕松地到達沒去過的地方,而廣播則讓人們坐在家里就能了解新的想法和經驗。

        Probably the most important force behind social change was the continuing economic growth of the nineteen twenties. Many people had extra money to spend on things other than food, housing, and other basic needs. They could experiment with new products and different ways of living.

        但是,推動20世紀20年代社會變革最為重要的力量,也許還是美國這個時期經濟的持續發展。許多人有閑錢來購買食品、住房等基本生活所需以外的東西。他們可以嘗試使用新的商品,體驗不一樣的生活方式。

        (MUSIC)

        KAY GALLANT: Of course, not all Americans were wearing strange new "flapper" clothes or dancing until early in the morning. Millions of Americans in small towns or rural areas continued to live simple, quiet lives. Life was still hard for many people including blacks, foreigners, and other minority groups.

        當然,并非所有的美國人都在穿花哨的吊帶裙,或者跳舞跳到天亮。生活在小城鎮或鄉下的千百萬美國人仍然過著簡單平靜的生活。對于黑人、外國人、其他少數族裔來說,生活依然是艱苦的。

        The many newspaper stories about independent women reporters and doctors also did not represent the real life of the average American woman. Women could vote. But three of every four women still worked at home. Most of the women working outside their homes were from minority groups or foreign countries.

        雖然那時候的報紙上有許多關于獨立的女記者和女醫生的報導,但這些故事并不能代表普通美國婦女真正的生活。婦女是有投票權了,但四分之三的婦女仍然只是家庭主婦。走出家庭參加工作的婦女大多來自少數族裔或其他國家。

        The films and radio stories about exciting parties and social events were just a dream for millions of Americans. But the dreams were strong. And many Americans -- rich and poor -- followed with great interest each new game, dance, and custom.

        對千百萬美國人來說,電影和廣播中描述的那種讓人激動不已的社交活動和社會事件只能是夢想。 但這種夢想很強烈,許多美國人,無論是富裕的還是貧窮的,都在以極大的興趣去追趕時髦的東西,不論是新的游戲、新的舞步還是新的風俗。

        HARRY MONROE: The wide interest in this kind of popular culture was unusually strong during the nineteen twenties. People became extremely interested in exciting court trials, disasters, film actors, and other subjects.

        人們對這種通俗文化的廣泛興趣在20世紀20年代異乎尋常的濃厚。人們對法庭審判、災難事故、電影明星和其他一些事件都非常感興趣。

        For example, millions of Americans followed the sad story of Floyd Collins, a young man who became trapped while exploring underground. Newsmen reported to the nation as rescue teams searched to find him. Even the "New York Times" newspaper printed a large story on its front page when rescuers finally discovered the man's dead body.

        例如,千百萬美國人密切關注佛洛伊德.柯林斯遇難的事。這位年輕人在地下巖洞里探險時遇險。新聞記者把救援情況向全國報導。當救援隊發現柯林斯的尸體時,甚至《紐約時報》也在頭版對這件事進行了大篇幅的報導。

        Another event that caught public attention was a murder trial in the eastern state of New Jersey in nineteen twenty-six.

        另一件引起公眾高度關注的事是對一起謀殺案的審判。事情發生在1926年,地點是東部的新澤西州。

        Newsmen wrote five million words about this case of a minister found dead with a woman member of his church. Again, the case itself was of little importance from a world news point of view. But it was exciting. And Americans were tired of reading about serious political issues after the bloody world war.

        一位牧師被發現與他的教會里一位女教友死在一起,記者寫了500萬字對此事進行報導。這件事從世界新聞角度來看微不足道,但卻吊起了公眾的胃口。一戰之后,美國人已經厭倦了閱讀那些嚴肅的政治議題。

        (MUSIC)

        KAY GALLANT: The nineteen twenties also were a golden period for sports.

        20世紀20年代的美國也是體育發展的黃金時期。

        People across the country bought newspapers to read of the latest golf victory by champion Bobby Jones. "Big Bill" Tilden became the most famous player in tennis. And millions of Americans listened to the boxing match in nineteen twenty-six between Jack Dempsey and Gene Tunney. In fact, five Americans reportedly became so excited while listening to the fight that they died of heart attacks.

        全美國的人都買報看報,了解高爾夫球王鮑比.瓊斯的最新戰況;了解最著名的網球運動員、外號"大比爾"的比爾.蒂爾登的賽事。1926年,數百萬美國人收聽杰克.登普西和吉恩.騰尼之間的拳擊比賽。有報導說,甚至有5個美國人由于收聽比賽時過于激動而發心臟病死亡。

        However, the greatest single sports hero of the period was the baseball player, Babe Ruth.

        不過,這一時期最著名的體育英雄還要數棒球運動員貝比.魯斯。

        Ruth was a large man who could hit a baseball farther than any other human being. He became as famous for his wild enjoyment of life as for his excellent playing on the baseball field. Babe Ruth loved to drink, to be with women, and to play with children.

        魯斯身材高大魁梧,他把棒球擊出的距離之遠無人能及。他聲色犬馬的生活和他在棒球場的出色表現一樣出名。他喜歡喝酒、喜歡女人,也喜歡與小孩子玩耍。

        Babe Ruth
        Babe Ruth

        HARRY MONROE: The most famous popular event of the nineteen twenties was neither a court trial nor a sports game. It was the brave action of pilot Charles Lindbergh when he flew an airplane across the Atlantic Ocean without stopping. He was the first man in history to do this.

        20世紀20年代的美國,最著名的事件,既不是法庭審判,也不是體育比賽,而是飛行員查爾斯.林德伯格駕駛飛機不間斷橫跨大西洋的英勇壯舉,他是人類歷史上有此創舉的第一人。

        Lindbergh flew his plane alone from New York to France in May, nineteen twenty-seven. His flight set off wild celebrations across the United States.

        林德伯格1927年5月從紐約起飛,獨自飛到法國。他的這一行動引發了全美各地瘋狂的慶?;顒?。

        Newspapers carried story after story about Lindbergh's success. President Coolidge and a large crowd greeted the young pilot when he returned to Washington. And New York congratulated Lindbergh with one of the largest parades in its history.

        報紙連篇累牘地報導他的成功??铝⒅タ偨y和大批民眾在他返回華盛頓時熱烈歡迎他。紐約舉行歷史上規模最盛大的游行來慶祝他的成功。

        Americans liked Lindbergh because he was brave, quiet, and handsome. He seemed to represent everything that was best about their country.

        美國人喜歡林德伯格,因為他勇敢、冷靜、英俊,他似乎代表了美國一切最好的東西。

        KAY GALLANT: The nineteen twenties was also a time of much excellent work in the more serious arts. We will take a look in our next program at American art, writing, and building during the exciting "roaring twenties".

        (MUSIC)

        BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by David Jarmul. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe.

        You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #169

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