<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #168: After Harding Dies, President Coolidge Tries to Rebuild Trust in the Government

        作者:Nancy Steinbach 發布日期:7-29-2013

        Calvin Coolidge making speech at his inauguration in 1925
        Calvin Coolidge making speech at his inauguration in 1925

        BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        This week in our series, Steve Ember and Shirley Griffith talk about Calvin Coolidge and how he became president of the United States.

        STEVE EMBER: The early nineteen twenties were a troubled time for the United States. Congress and the public began to discover crimes by several officials in the administration of President Warren Harding. Harding himself became seriously sick during a trip to Alaska and western states. He died in a hotel room in California in August, nineteen twenty-three.

        20世紀20年代初對美國來說是個具有挑戰性的時期。國會和公眾開始發現沃倫.哈丁政府內一些官員的腐敗行為。哈丁總統到阿拉斯加和美國西部視察時身患重病,并于1923年8月病逝在加州一家酒店的房間里。

        Harding's vice president, Calvin Coolidge, became the new president. Both men were Republicans. Their policies on issues were much the same. Coolidge, however, was a very different man. He was completely honest. He was the kind of president the country needed to rebuild public trust in the government.

        哈丁的副總統加爾文.柯立芝成為新一任美國總統。哈丁和柯立芝都是共和黨人。兩人實行的政策基本相同。然而,柯立芝是一個與哈丁不同的人,他非常誠實,正是重建公眾對政府的信任所需要的那種總統。

        Calvin Coolidge, around 1919
        Calvin Coolidge, around 1919

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Calvin Coolidge was quiet and plain-looking. He was the son of a farmer and political leader from the small northeastern state of Vermont.

        柯立芝不愛說話,長相平凡。他來自東北部小州佛蒙特,父母是農民和地方政治領導人。

        Young Calvin worked at different jobs to pay for his college education. He became a lawyer. He moved to another northeastern state -- Massachusetts -- where he became active in Republican Party politics. First he was elected mayor of a town. Then he was elected to the state legislature. Finally, he was elected governor of Massachusetts.

        It was as governor that Coolidge first became known throughout the United States.

        年輕的柯立芝靠四處打工支付自己的大學學費,畢業后成了一名律師。他來到了美國東北部另一個州--麻薩諸塞州,在這里,他成為共和黨的一名積極分子。他先是當選為一個鎮的鎮長,后來又當選州立法會議員,最后成為麻薩諸塞州州長。他當州長時的業績讓他聞名全國。

        STEVE EMBER: In nineteen-nineteen, a group of policemen in the city of Boston tried to start a labor union. This violated the rules of the police department. So the commissioner of police suspended nineteen of the union's leaders. The next day, almost seventy-five percent of Boston's policemen went on strike.

        1919年,麻薩諸塞州波士頓市一些警察想成立工會,這違犯了警察局的相關規定,所以警署把19個工會領導人停職。第二天,波士頓近百分之75的警察舉行罷工。

        Criminals walked freely through the city for two nights. They robbed stores and threatened public safety. Frightened Americans all across the country waited to see what Governor Coolidge would do.

        于是,犯罪分子連續兩個晚上在波士頓胡作非為,他們搶劫商店,威脅公眾安全。全國各地驚恐萬分的美國人都等著看柯立芝州長將怎么辦。

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: He took strong action. He called on state troops to end the strike. He said: "There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, any time."

        他采取了強硬行動,下令州武裝部隊介入,結束罷工??铝⒅フf:"任何人在任何地方任何時候以罷工來威脅公眾安全都是不行的。"

        Most Americans approved of what Coolidge did. The people of Massachusetts supported him, too. They re-elected him governor by a large number of votes. Then, in nineteen twenty, Republicans nominated Warren Harding for president. They nominated Calvin Coolidge for vice president. When President Harding died in California, Coolidge, his wife, and two sons moved to the White House.

        絕大多數美國人贊成柯立芝的做法,麻薩諸塞州人民也支持他,他們再次高票選舉他為州長。隨后,在1920年,共和黨提名哈丁為總統候選人,提名柯立芝為副總統候選人。哈丁總統在加州病逝后,柯立芝攜妻子和兩個孩子搬進了白宮。

        STEVE EMBER: America's thirtieth president was, in some ways, an unusual kind of person to lead the country. He said little. He showed few feelings. Coolidge's policies as president were not active. He tried to start as few new programs as possible. He was a conservative Republican who believed deeply that government should be small.

        從某些方面講,這位美國第三十任總統治理國家的方法可謂與眾不同。他很少講話,喜怒不形于色。作為總統,他的政策并不主動,盡可能少推出新政策新做法。他是一位保守的共和黨人,深信小政府的理念。

        Coolidge expressed his belief this way: "If the federal government should go out of existence, most people would not note the difference." And once he said: "Four-fifths of our troubles in this life would disappear if we would only sit down and keep still."

        柯立芝曾經這樣表述他的信念:"如果聯邦政府不存在了,大多數老百姓應該不會感到什么不同。" 他還曾經說過:"如果我們只是靜靜地坐下來,那么我們生活中五分之四的麻煩都會消失。"

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Coolidge believed that private business -- not the federal government -- should lead the country to greater wealth and happiness. He continued President Harding's policy of supporting American business both inside the United States and in other countries. The government under President Coolidge continued high taxes on imports in an effort to help American companies.

        柯立芝認為,帶領美國走向更加繁榮和幸福生活的是私營企業而不是聯邦政府。他延續了哈丁總統的政策,支持美國私營企業在國內和國外的發展,并繼續實行高額進口關稅,以扶持美國企業。

        STEVE EMBER: Many Americans shared Coolidge's ideas about small government and big business. In the early nineteen twenties, many of them were living better than ever before.

        許多美國人贊同柯立芝小政府大企業的想法。在20世紀20年代,許多人都過上了比以往任何時候都好的日子。

        At that time, companies were growing larger. The prices of their stocks rose higher and higher. There were lots of jobs. And the wages of many workers increased. Americans agreed with their president that there was little need for government spending and government programs, when private industry seemed so strong.

        美國企業的規模越來越大,它們的股價一直上漲。到處都是工作機會,很多工人的工資提高了。美國人同意他們總統的看法,那就是,當私營企業很強大的時候,不需要政府去花錢或者實施什么政策。

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: The American economy grew in the nineteen twenties for several reasons. The world war had destroyed many factories and businesses in Europe. The United States did not suffer the same destruction. It was still a young country. It had great natural resources, trained workers, and a huge market within its own borders. When peace came, Americans found their economy stronger than any other in the world.

        美國經濟在20世紀20年代經歷了快速發展。幾個因素造成了這種發展。第一次世界大戰摧毀了歐洲的很多工廠和企業,但美國沒有遭受到這種破壞。美國還是一個年輕的國家,擁有豐富的自然資源、熟練的工人和巨大的國內市場。所以,當和平到來時,美國人發現他們的經濟實力已經超過了世界上其它所有國家。

        STEVE EMBER: Changes in the American market also helped economic growth. "Installment buying" became popular. In this system, people could buy a product and pay for it over a period of several weeks or months.

        另外,美國市場的一些變化也促進了美國經濟的快速發展。"分期付款"越來越普遍。根據這種付款方式,人們購買某件商品,可以在今后幾個星期內或幾個月內分期支付貨款。

        The total cost was higher, because they had to pay interest. But the system made it possible for more people to buy more goods. It also made the idea of borrowing money more acceptable to many Americans.

        這樣,雖然購買者得支付利息,從而使得商品的總價格增加,但這種付款方式讓更多人能夠購買更多的商品。這種付款方式也讓美國人越來越能接受借錢的觀念。

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: The growing importance of the New York stock markets also helped economic growth in the nineteen twenties. Millions of Americans bought shares of stock in companies that seemed to grow bigger every month.

        紐約股票市場的作用日益重要,這也促進了20世紀20年代美國經濟的發展。數百萬美國人購買那些似乎每個月都在擴張的公司的股票。

        Such investment almost became a national game. People would buy shares of stock, then sell them when the stock rose in value. There were many stories of poor people who became rich overnight by buying the right stocks.

        這種投資方式幾乎成了全國都在玩兒的一種游戲。人們買進股票,然后在股價上漲后再賣出獲利。在美國出現了許多窮人因為買到了一支好股票而一夜暴富的故事。

        The American Congress also helped the economy by lowering income taxes. People had more money to spend on new goods. Another important reason for economic growth was a change in the way American companies were operated.

        美國國會降低了所得稅率,這也為經濟發展幫了忙,因為人們有更多錢去買東西。美國經濟快速發展還有一個重要原因,那就是美國公司的運營方式發生了變革。

        STEVE EMBER: During the nineteen twenties, the idea of manufacturing goods in the most scientific way became very popular. The father of this idea of "scientific management" was an engineer, Frederick Taylor.

        在20世紀20年代,利用最科學的方法生產產品的觀念深入人心。而發明"科學管理"概念的是一位工程師,他叫弗雷德里克.泰勒。

        Mister Taylor developed a system to study manufacturing. He studied each machine involved in the process. He studied how much work each person did. He studied how goods moved from one part of a factory to another. Then he offered ideas to business owners about ways to produce goods faster and for less cost.

        泰勒發明了一種研究制造流程的系統。他研究生產過程中每臺機器、每個工人干多少工作,產品如何從工廠的一個環節進入另一個環節,然后,他給企業主出點子,告訴他們如何以更快的方式和更低的成本來生產產品。

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Taylor's ideas of scientific management appealed to business owners. Automobile manufacturer Henry Ford proved that the ideas could work in his new car factory in the state of Michigan. Ford used the assembly line system of production. In this system, each worker did one thing to a product as it moved through the factory. This helped cut prices and increase wages.

        泰勒的科學管理法吸引了企業主。汽車制造商亨利.福特證明,這種方法可以在他位于密西根州的新汽車制造廠中發揮作用。福特利用流水線生產汽車。根據這種方法,在汽車被組裝的過程中,每個工人只在整個流程中干一道工序,這種辦法幫助降低了汽車制造成本,提高了工人工資。

        STEVE EMBER: Ford and other businessmen learned a great deal about how to control costs, set prices, and decide how much to produce. All these changes in production and marketing helped Ford and other American companies grow larger and stronger.

        福特和其他企業主掌握了很多控制成本、設立價格、設定產量的方法。所有這些生產和市場銷售環節的變化幫助福特和其他美國公司發展得規模越來越大,實力越來越強。

        Henry Ford's Model-T car became popular throughout the country. So did other new products. Radios. Refrigerators for cooling food. Vacuums to clean carpets. Ready-made cigarettes. Beauty products.

        亨利.福特的T型汽車行銷全美國。其它許多新產品也是如此,如收音機、電冰箱、吸塵器、卷煙和化妝品等。

        Americans in the nineteen twenties began to buy all kinds of new products they had never used before.

        20世紀20年代,美國人開始購買各種各樣他們以前從來沒有用過的新商品。

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Calvin Coolidge was in the White House. However, business led the nation. Times were good. Americans trusted business and its leaders. It became an honor to call someone a businessman. Colleges organized business classes. Middle-class citizens in almost every city and town gathered to discuss business ideas.

        住在白宮的是加爾文.柯立芝,而領導美國的卻是企業。美國進入了黃金時期,美國人信賴企業和企業的領導人,把某人稱為商人成為一種榮譽。大學開辦商業課程。各個城鎮中產階層的人常常聚集在一起討論生意經。

        President Coolidge spoke for millions of Americans when he said: "The chief business of the American people is business."

        柯立芝說出了數百萬美國人的心聲,那就是:"美國人首要的事就是做生意。"

        STEVE EMBER: Coolidge represented traditional values and a simple way of life. He knew exactly how every dollar he earned was saved or spent. And he spent no more money than was necessary.

        柯立芝代表的是傳統的價值觀和簡單的生活方式,他非常清楚如何留下還是花掉自己所掙的每一塊錢。除了必要的花銷外,他從來不多花錢。

        The strange thing was that Coolidge was extremely popular with a public that was spending large amounts of money. Some economic experts warned that the country's quick economic growth would end in economic depression. Most Americans, however, believed that the good times had come to stay. They enjoyed the good things in life that work and success in business could bring.

        奇怪的是,大把花錢的美國人卻非常愛戴這位節儉的總統。不過,有些經濟學家警告說,美國經濟的快速發展將導致經濟衰退。然而,絕大多數美國人認為美好時光會永遠停留,他們盡情地享受工作和生意成功所帶來的美好生活。

        On our next program, we will see how the economic growth of the nineteen twenties brought exciting changes to the day-to-day life of millions of Americans.

        (MUSIC)

        BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Nancy Steinbach. The narrators were Steve Ember and Shirley Griffith. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and historical images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #168

        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频