<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #167: Warren Harding Wins Election of 1920

        作者:David Jarmul 發布日期:7-28-2013

        Warren Harding had owned a newspaper in Ohio. People advised him to enter politics, because he was such a good public speaker.
        Warren Harding had owned a newspaper in Ohio. People advised him to enter politics, because he was such a good public speaker.

        STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        This week in our series, Doug Johnson and Shirley Griffith discuss the presidential election of nineteen twenty and the man who won, Warren Harding.

        DOUG JOHNSON: The presidential election of nineteen twenty was a turning point in American politics. It ended a period of social reforms at home and an active foreign policy. It began a period of conservative thinking in both the political and social life of the nation.

        1920年的總統大選在美國政治史上是一個轉折點,它結束了美國國內的社會改革和積極的對外政策,開啟了美國政治和社會生活的保守思維時期。

        American reporter H. L. Mencken described the national feeling this way: "The majority of Americans are tired of idealism. They want capitalism -- openly and without apology."

        美國記者門肯曾這樣描述當時的社會思潮:"絕大多數美國人厭倦了理想主義,他們公開地、毫無愧意地要求實行資本主義。"

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: President Woodrow Wilson had suffered a stroke during his second term. He was very sick. No one expected him to be a candidate again. Yet he refused to announce that he would not run for a third term.

        伍德羅.威爾遜總統在他第二個任期內中風,身體很虛弱,沒有人認為他會第三次競選總統,但威爾遜卻拒絕宣布放棄連任。

        Woodrow Wilson had done much during his administration. He helped pass important laws dealing with trade, banking, and the rights of workers. He led the nation through the bloody world war in Europe. He tried, but failed, to have the United States join the new international organization -- the League of Nations.

        威爾遜在任期間政績斐然,他推動通過了一些貿易、銀行和勞工權利方面的重要法律,率領美國參加了歐洲血腥的第一次世界大戰,并努力想讓美國加入新成立的國際組織--國聯,盡管他的努力失敗了。

        The American people honored Wilson for his intelligence and ideas. But they were tired of his policies of social change. And they did not want to be involved in international problems anymore.

        美國人民尊重他的才智和想法,但也厭倦了他的社會改革政策,而且,人們也不希望再次介入國際爭端。

        DOUG JOHNSON: The leaders of President Wilson's Democratic Party understood the feelings of the people. They knew they had little chance of winning the presidential election if they nominated a candidate of change.

        威爾遜是民主黨人,民主黨的大佬們深知民眾的想法。他們明白,如果他們提名一位仍然要求進行社會變革的人為總統候選人的話,勝算將幾乎為零。

        Delegates to the democratic nominating convention voted forty-four times before agreeing on a candidate. They chose the governor of the state of Ohio, James Cox.

        參加民主黨總統候選人提名大會的代表們投了44次票才最終選定總統候選人,那就是俄亥俄州州長詹姆士.考克斯。

        The Republican Party also had a difficult time at its nominating convention. Four men wanted to be president. The delegates voted six times. None of the men gained enough support. So, several party leaders met in private. They agreed that only one man -- a compromise candidate -- could win the support of the convention. He was a senator from the state of Ohio, Warren Harding.

        共和黨提名大會也經歷了艱難的時刻。有四個人想當總統,代表們投了六次票,但沒有一個人獲得足夠的票數。所以,共和黨幾位大佬私下會談。經過協商,他們達成妥協,同意只有一個人能夠獲得大會的支持,那就是來自俄亥俄州的聯邦參議員沃倫.哈丁。

        The delegates voted ten more times before choosing Harding as their candidate for president. For vice president, they chose Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts.

        代表們又投了十次票,最終選定哈丁為總統候選人,麻薩諸塞州的加爾文.柯立芝為副總統候選人。

        Visitors waiting to see President Harding, around 1921
        Visitors waiting to see President Harding, around 1921

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Warren Harding had owned a newspaper in Ohio. People advised him to enter politics, because he was such a good public speaker.

        沃倫.哈丁在俄亥俄州擁有一家報社,人們建議他從政,因為他是個出色的公眾演說家。

        During the campaign, he promised lower taxes, less immigration, and more aid to farmers. He called for "normalcy" -- a new period of peace and quiet, with few changes. That is what the voters wanted to hear in nineteen twenty.

        在競選期間,他向選民們許諾降低稅收,減少外來移民,向農民提供更多的補助。他呼吁社會走向"常態"--一種和平而寧靜、沒什么變化的生活。而這正是1920年時選民們想要聽到的東西。

        Warren Harding won the election with sixty-eight percent of the popular vote. In his first act as president, he invited people to visit the White House. He permitted them to walk in the garden. The act was a sign. The government seemed to be returning to the people.

        沃倫.哈丁獲得了68%的選民票,當選總統。上任后,他做的第一件事就是邀請民眾參觀白宮,允許人們在花園中散步。這種作法是一個標志,意味著美國政府似乎又回到了人民手中。

        DOUG JOHNSON: Warren Harding is remembered mostly for two events. One was a successful international conference. The other was a shameful national incident.

        哈丁最為人們所銘記的有兩件事,一是他成功地組織召開了一次國際會議,二是一件全國性丑聞。

        After World War One, Britain, Japan, and the United States expanded their navies. They built bigger and better ships. Many members of the United States Congress worried about the cost. They also worried about increased political tension in Asia. They asked President Harding to organize a conference to discuss these issues.

        一戰結束后,英國、日本和美國都在擴張海軍。它們建造規模更大、性能更優良的戰艦。許多美國國會議員擔心軍費開支太大,他們還為日益激化的亞洲緊張局勢而擔憂。為此,他們要求哈丁總統組織召開一次國際會議來商討這些問題。

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: The conference was held in Washington in November, nineteen twenty-one. President Harding invited representatives from the major naval powers of the time: Britain, Japan, France, and Italy. He also invited representatives from countries with interests in Asia: China, Portugal, Belgium and the Netherlands. He did not invite the new Soviet leaders in Russia.

        這次會議于1921年11月在華盛頓召開。哈丁總統邀請當時海軍最強大的幾個國家派代表參加,包括英國、日本、法國和意大利。他還邀請在亞洲有重要利益的國家的代表與會,包括中國、葡萄牙、比利時和荷蘭。他沒有邀請上臺不久的蘇聯領導人。

        Mr. Harding's secretary of state, Charles Evans Hughes, spoke. He offered the conference a detailed plan to reduce the size of the world's major navies.

        哈丁總統的國務卿查爾斯.埃文斯.休斯在會上講了話。他提出了一項詳細的海軍大國裁軍計劃。

        He proposed that the world's strongest nations should stop building warships for ten years. He also proposed that Britain, Japan, and the United States should destroy some ships to make their navies smaller immediately.

        他提議,世界各主要海軍大國在未來十年里停止建造戰艦,他還提議英國、日本和美國銷毀一些戰艦,以達到立即減少海軍規模的目的。

        DOUG JOHNSON: Delegates to the conference debated the plan for three months. Japan demanded, and won, the right to have more ships. But the final agreement was very close to the one proposed by Secretary Hughes.

        與會代表們圍繞這份計劃爭論了三個月。日本要求、并最終得到了擁有更多軍艦的權利。不過,會議最終達成的協議與休斯所提出的計劃非常接近。

        The conference was not a complete success.

        雖然會議最終達成的協議與美國的提議接近,但這次會議并沒有完全成功。

        For example, it did not prevent countries from building some kinds of ships. These ships would prove important in the second world war. Also, it did not create ways to protect China and the islands in the South Pacific Ocean from Japanese expansion. Yet the naval treaty of nineteen twenty-one was the first in which the world's strongest countries agreed to reduce the size of their armed forces. Most people thought it was a good treaty.

        比如,它并沒有阻止各國建造某些種類的軍艦,而這些軍艦在后來爆發的第二次世界大戰中發揮了重要的作用。另外,這次會議也沒能保護中國和南太平洋一些島嶼免受日本侵略。然而,1921年的海軍條約是世界大國一致同意減少武裝力量規模的第一個協議,大多數人認為這是一份好條約。

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: The second thing for which President Harding is remembered is the Teapot Dome scandal. It involved the misuse of underground oil owned by the federal government.

        除了這次國際會議外,另一件使哈丁總統為人所記住的事是蒂波特山丑聞。它涉及濫用聯邦政府所掌管的地下石油。

        Warren Harding was an honest man. But he did not have a strong mind of his own. He was easily influenced. And he often accepted bad advice. He explained the problem with these words:

        沃倫.哈丁是個誠實的人,但他缺乏主見,很容易受他人影響,而且他經常采納不好的建議。他曾經這樣解釋這個問題:

        "I listen to one side, and they seem right. Then I listen to the other side, and they seem just as right. I know that somewhere there is a man who knows the truth. But I do not know where to find him."

        "我聽一方的意見,覺得他們說的有理,然后我又聽另一方的意見,覺得他們說得也有理。我知道在某個地方肯定有一個人知道真正的答案是什么,但是我不知道到哪兒去找這個人。"

        DOUG JOHNSON: President Harding appointed several men of great ability to his cabinet. They included Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes, Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon, and Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover.? However, some of his appointments were dishonest men. One was Interior Secretary Albert Fall. He was responsible for the Teapot Dome scandal.

        哈丁總統任命了幾位非常能干的人進入內閣,包括國務卿查爾斯.埃文斯.休斯、財政部長安德魯.梅隆和商務部長休伯特.胡佛。然而,他也任用了一些奸詐小人。其中之一就是內政部長艾伯特.富爾,就是他引出了蒂波特山丑聞。

        Secretary Fall gave a private company the right to take oil from land owned by the federal government. In return, the company gave him money and cattle.

        內政部長富爾允許一家私人公司在蒂波特山由聯邦政府管轄的土地上開采石油,作為回報,這家公司給他錢和牛。

        The oil was not supposed to be taken from the ground. It was supposed to be saved for the United States navy to use in an emergency. Private oil companies and many politicians opposed this policy. They said saving the oil was unnecessary.

        蒂波特山油田不是用來開采的,它是為美國海軍提供緊急之用的戰略石油儲備。當時,一些私人公司和許多政客反對這一政策,說儲備這些石油是沒有必要的。

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Albert Fall opposed the policy when he was a member of the Senate. When he became Interior Secretary, his department took control of the lands containing the underground oil. Then he permitted private companies to use the land for a period of time. During that time, the companies could take out the oil.

        艾伯特.富爾還是參議員時就反對這項政策。他擔任內政部長時,內政部接管了這片蘊藏著油礦的土地,于是,他同意一些私人公司在一定時期內使用這片土地,可以在這里開采石油。

        Some of the oil was in the western state of Wyoming. The rock mass on the surface looked like a container for making tea. So, the area was called Teapot Dome. When the Senate uncovered Secretary Fall's wrong-doing, the press quickly called the incident the Teapot Dome scandal.

        有些油礦位于美國西部的懷俄明州內,地表上面的巨大巖石形狀像茶壺,因此這里被稱為蒂波特山,也就是茶壺山的意思。當參議院發現富爾這種腐敗行為之后,媒體很快把這一事件稱作蒂波特山丑聞。

        The Senate investigation led to several court cases which lasted throughout the nineteen twenties. Secretary Fall was found guilty of misusing his government position. He was sentenced to prison for one year.

        參議院對這起丑聞的調查引發了好幾場訴訟案,貫穿了整個20世紀的20年代。內政部長富爾被判犯有濫用職權罪,入獄一年。

        DOUG JOHNSON: President Harding did not live to see the end of the Teapot Dome incident. In the summer of nineteen twenty-three, he made a political trip to Alaska and western states. On the way home, he became sick while in San Francisco. He died of a heart attack.

        哈丁總統沒有親眼看到蒂波特山丑聞事件的結局。1923年夏天,他到阿拉斯加和西部各州視察,在返回途中,他在舊金山患病,死于心臟病。

        Vice President Calvin Coolidge was in the northeastern state of Vermont when he heard that President Harding had died. Coolidge's father was a local court official there. He gave the oath of office to his son. That is how Calvin Coolidge became the thirtieth president of the United States.

        副總統柯立芝聽到哈丁總統去逝的消息時正在東北部的佛蒙特州??铝⒅サ母赣H是當地地方法院的法官,他主持了兒子宣誓就職總統的儀式。加爾文.柯立芝就這樣成為了美國第三十任總統。

        The story of his administration will be the subject of our program next week.

        (MUSIC)

        STEVE EMBER: Our program was written by David Jarmul. The narrators were Doug Johnson and Shirley Griffith. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and historical images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #167

        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频