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        #163: Wilson Urges Support for Idea of League of Nations

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:7-24-2013

        BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        After the end of World War One, President Woodrow Wilson sought national support for his idea of a League of Nations. He took his appeal directly to the American people in the summer of nineteen nineteen.

        第一次世界大戰結束后,美國總統威爾遜希望美國人支持他建立"國聯"的計劃。1919年夏天,他直接到美國人民當中去宣傳自己的想法,爭取支持。

        This week in our series, Tony Riggs and Frank Oliver continue the story of Wilson's campaign.

        TONY RIGGS: The plan for the League of Nations was part of the peace treaty that ended World War One. By law, the United States Senate would have to vote on the treaty. President Wilson believed the Senate would have to approve it if the American people demanded it. So he went to the people for support.

        建立國聯是結束一戰的和平條約中所包含的內容。根據法律,美國國會參議院必須對這一合約進行投票。威爾遜總統相信,如果美國人民要求國會批準合約,參議院就會這么做。因此,他直接去尋求人民的支持。

        For almost a month, Wilson traveled across America. He stopped in many places to speak about the need for the League of Nations. He said the league was the only hope for world peace. It was the only way to prevent another world war.

        他花了近一個月的時間到美國各地進行宣傳,向人民講述建立國聯的必要。他說,國聯是實現世界和平、防止再次爆發世界大戰的唯一希望。

        Wilson's health grew worse during the long journey across the country. He became increasingly weak and suffered from severe headaches. In Witchita, Kansas, he had a small stroke. A blood vessel burst inside his brain. He was forced to return to Washington.

        然而,在巡回全國的長途旅行中,威爾遜的身體狀況越來越糟糕。他逐漸虛弱,頭疼難忍。在堪薩斯州的威奇塔,他發生了輕微的中風,腦袋里有一根血管爆裂。威爾遜只好返回華盛頓。

        FRANK OLIVER: For a few days, President Wilson's condition improved. Then, his wife found him lying unconscious on the floor of his bedroom in the White House. Wilson had lost all feeling in the left side of his body. He was near death.

        威爾遜的健康狀況好轉了幾天。有一天,他的妻子發現他躺在白宮臥室的地板上,已經失去了知覺。威爾遜左半邊身子完全麻木,差點喪命。

        The president's advisers kept his condition secret from almost everyone. They told reporters only that Wilson was suffering from a nervous breakdown.

        他的顧問們封鎖消息,只告訴記者說,總統現在的精神狀態非常不好。

        For the next few days, the medical reports from the White House were always the same. They said Mister Wilson's condition had not changed.

        來自白宮的關于總統身體狀況的消息幾天來都差不多,都說總統的情況沒有變化。

        People began to wonder. Were they being told the truth. Some people began to believe that the president was, in fact, dead. Vice President Thomas Marshall was worried. If the president died or could not govern, then he - Marshall -- would become president. But even Vice President Marshall could get no information from Wilson's doctors.

        可人們開始懷疑這是不是真的。一些人覺得,總統可能已經死了。當時的副總統托馬斯.馬歇爾也非常擔心,因為一旦總統逝世或是喪失執政能力,副總統就會接過總統的位置??墒?,就連馬歇爾也無法從威爾遜的醫生那里獲得什么信息。

        TONY RIGGS: ?After several weeks, the president seemed to get a little stronger. He was still very weak. He could not work, except to sign several bills. This simple act took most of his strength.

        幾個禮拜后,威爾遜似乎恢復了一些元氣,盡管他身體還是很虛弱。除了簽署一些法案之外,他什么也不能做,因為僅僅簽幾個字就讓他疲憊不已。

        Wilson's wife Edith guarded her husband closely. She alone decided who could see him. She alone decided what information he could receive. All letters and messages to Woodrow Wilson were given first to Edith Wilson. She decided if they were important enough for him to see. Most, she decided, were not. She also prevented members of the cabinet and other government officials from communicating with him directly.

        第一夫人愛狄斯密切注意著威爾遜的健康狀況,誰可以面見總統,可以讓總統得知什么消息,都由她一手決定。所有寫給總統的信件和消息都必須先經過愛狄斯的查看,并決定這些信息是否重要到非得總統親自過問的地步。而愛狄斯認為,大部分事情都沒有這么重要。她也不讓內閣成員和其他政府官員直接同威爾遜交流。

        Mrs. Wilson's actions made many people suspect that she -- not her husband -- was governing the country. Some spoke of her as the nation's first woman president.

        這讓很多人感覺,管理國家的是第一夫人,不是總統。有些人甚至稱愛狄斯為美國歷史上的首位女總統。

        Woodrow Wilson and his wife, Edith
        Woodrow Wilson and his wife, Edith

        FRANK OLIVER: There was one issue Mrs. Wilson did discuss with her husband: the League of Nations.

        不過,在一個問題上,愛狄斯還是要和威爾遜討論的,那就是建立國聯。

        The Senate was completing debate on the Treaty of Versailles. That was the World War One peace agreement that contained Wilson's plan for the league. It seemed clear the Senate would reject the treaty. Too many Senators feared the United States would lose some of its independence and freedom if it joined the league.

        當時,國會參議院針對凡爾賽條約的辯論已經接近尾聲。凡爾賽條約就是一戰后締結的和平條約,里面有建立國聯的內容。當時的情況似乎已經很明確,那就是參議院會拒絕批準這個條約。太多的參議員擔心,如果美國加入國聯,就會喪失一些獨立和自由。

        The leader of Wilson's political party in the Senate, Gilbert Hitchcock, headed the administration campaign to win support for the treaty. He received Mrs. Wilson's permission to visit her husband.

        參議院民主黨領袖吉爾伯特.希區考克領導威爾遜政府為使凡爾賽條約獲得支持而展開的宣傳活動。威爾遜夫人允許他去看望總統。

        Hitchcock told the president the situation was hopeless. He said the Senate would not approve the treaty unless several changes were made to protect American independence. If the president accepted the changes, then the treaty might pass.

        希區考克告訴威爾遜,情況已經沒有轉機了,參議院不會批準凡爾賽條約,除非對條約內容做幾處修改,以保護美國的獨立。如果總統接受這些修改,那么和約還有獲得通過的機會。

        TONY RIGGS: ?Wilson refused. He would accept no compromise. He said the treaty must be approved as written.

        但是,威爾遜拒絕了,他不愿意妥協。他說,凡爾賽條約必須一字不改地獲得批準。

        Senator Hitchcock made one more attempt to get Wilson to reconsider. On the day the Senate planned to vote on the treaty, he went back to the White House. He told Mrs. Wilson that compromise offered the only hope for success.

        希區考克為了讓威爾遜改變主意而再次努力。在參議院準備對凡爾賽條約進行最后投票的那天,他來到白宮,告訴威爾遜夫人,妥協是獲得成功的唯一希望。

        Mrs. Wilson went into the president's room while Hitchcock waited. She asked her husband: "Will you not accept the changes and get this thing settled?" He answered: "I cannot. Better a thousand times to go down fighting than to surrender to dishonorable compromise."

        威爾遜夫人讓希區考克等在門外,自己走進總統的臥室。她問道:"你是不是不愿意修改條約的內容,讓這件事就這么結束?"威爾遜說:"我不能讓步,繼續戰斗下去比向那些無恥的妥協投降要好一千倍。"

        FRANK OLIVER: The Senate voted. Hitchcock's fears proved correct. The treaty was defeated. The defeat ended Wilson's dream of American membership in the League of Nations.

        于是,參議院投票了,就如希區考克所擔心的那樣,條約被否決。威爾遜讓美國加入國聯的夢破碎了。

        Mrs. Wilson gave the news to her husband. He was silent for a long time. Then he said: "I must get well."

        威爾遜夫人把這個消息告訴了他,他沉默良久,然后說:"我必須把身體養好。"

        Woodrow Wilson was extremely sick. Yet he was not the kind of man who accepted opposition or defeat easily. From his sick bed, he wrote a letter to the other members of the Democratic Party. He urged them to continue debate on the League of Nations. He said a majority of Americans wanted the treaty approved.

        當時,威爾遜已經非常虛弱了,但他不是個輕易向反對和失敗低頭的人。他在病床上寫信給民主黨的其他成員,督促他們繼續就國聯問題進行辯論。他說,大部分美國人民希望凡爾賽條約獲得批準。

        Wilson probably was correct about this. Most Americans did approve of membership in the League of Nations. But they also wanted to be sure membership would not restrict American independence.

        這么說或許并沒有錯。當時許多美國人的確支持美國加入國聯,但是他們也要求確保這樣做不會妨礙美國的獨立。

        TONY RIGGS: The Senate Foreign Relations Committee agreed to re-open discussion on the treaty. It searched yet again for a compromise. It made new efforts to get Wilson to accept some changes.

        參議院外交關系委員會同意就國聯事宜重開討論,并再次希望達成妥協,希望威爾遜能接受修改條約內容的要求。

        But, as before, Wilson refused. He was a proud man. And he thought many of the Senators were evil men trying to destroy his plan for international peace.

        但是,和以前一樣,威爾遜拒絕了。他是個有傲骨的人,他覺得很多參議員是邪惡的小人,妄圖破壞他實現國際和平的計劃。

        Wilson's unwillingness to compromise helped kill the treaty once and for all. The Senate finally voted again, and the treaty was defeated by seven votes. The treaty was dead. The United States would never enter the League of Nations. And one of the most emotional and personal stories in the making of the American nation had ended.

        威爾遜決不妥協的立場讓凡爾賽條約再次在參議院觸礁,也永遠地被封殺了。參議院最后進行了投票,以7票的優勢否決了這個條約。這個條約完蛋了,美國永遠不會成為國聯的一分子。美國歷史上最充滿感情和個人風采的一個故事也被劃上了句號。

        FRANK OLIVER: The long battle over the Treaty of Versailles ended with political defeat for Woodrow Wilson. Yet history would prove him correct.

        針對凡爾賽條約的漫長斗爭以威爾遜總統的政治失利而告終。但是后來的歷史證明威爾遜是正確的。

        Wilson had warned time and again during the debate that a terrible war would result if the world did not come together to protect the peace. Twenty years later, war came. The First World War had been called 'the war to end all wars'. But it was not. And the Second World War would be far more destructive than the first.

        威爾遜曾經多次在辯論中警告說,如果世界各國不攜手保護和平,那么殘酷的戰爭還會爆發。果然,20年后,第二次世界大戰發生了。一戰曾經被稱為"結束了所有戰爭的戰爭",但它其實不是,因為二戰的破壞力遠遠超過了一戰。

        TONY RIGGS: The debate over the Treaty of Versailles was the central issue in American politics during the end of Woodrow Wilson's administration. It also played a major part in the presidential election of nineteen twenty.

        圍繞凡爾賽條約進行的辯論成為威爾遜政府晚期最重要的政治議題,并在1920年的總統選舉中產生了很大的影響。

        Wilson himself could not be a candidate again. He was much too sick. So the Democratic Party nominated a former governor of Ohio, James Cox. Cox shared Wilson's opinion that the United States should join the League of Nations. He campaigned actively for American membership.

        威爾遜重病纏身,已經無法參選。于是,民主黨提名前俄亥俄州州長詹姆斯.考克斯為總統候選人??伎怂官澩栠d的想法,覺得美國應該加入國聯。他在競選活動中積極推動這個問題。

        The Republican Party chose Senator Warren Harding as its candidate for president. Harding campaigned by promising a return to what he called 'normal times'. He said it was time for America to stop arguing about international events and start thinking about itself again.

        共和黨則提名參議員沃侖.哈丁為總統候選人。哈丁的競選主題是承諾美國人回到"正常的年代"。他說,美國人應該停止就國際問題爭吵不休,應該重新為美國自己打算。

        Woodrow Wilson and Warren Harding during Harding's inauguration
        Woodrow Wilson and Warren Harding during Harding's inauguration

        FRANK OLIVER: The two presidential candidates gave the American people a clear choice in the election of nineteen twenty.

        兩位候選人在1920年的總統大選中給美國人民出了一道選擇題。

        On one side was Democrat James Cox. He represented the dream of Woodrow Wilson. In this dream, the world would be at peace. And America would be a world leader that would fight for the freedom and human rights of people everywhere.

        民主黨這邊的考克斯代表威爾遜總統未完成的世界和平之夢,認為美國要成為世界領袖,要為世界各地人民的自由和人權而戰。

        On the other side was Republican Warren Harding. He represented an inward-looking America. It was an America that felt it had sacrificed enough for other people. Now it would deal with its own problems.

        共和黨這邊的哈丁則代表著一個面向國內的美國。這個美國感覺自己已經為其他人做出了夠多的犧牲,現在應該解決自己的問題了。

        Warren Harding won the election.

        結果,哈丁贏得了選舉。

        TONY RIGGS: The results of the election shocked and hurt Woodrow Wilson. He could not understand why the people had turned from him and his dream of international unity and peace. But the fact was that America was entering a new period in its history. For a long time, it would turn its energy away from the world beyond its borders.

        這樣的結果讓威爾遜吃驚,也讓他痛心。他不明白人們為什么拋棄了他,也拋棄了他關于國際團結和世界和平的夢想。但是實際上,美國即將進入一個新的歷史時期。在后來的好多年中,美國對國際事務不再熱心,而是把精力放在了國內事務上。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Tony Riggs and Frank Oliver.

        You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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