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        #161: In November 1918, a Truce in World War

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:7-22-2013

        Americans at the peace conference, from left: Colonel Edward House, Secretary of State Robert Lansing, President Woodrow Wilson, Henry White and General Tasker Bliss
        Americans at the peace conference, from left: Colonel Edward House, Secretary of State Robert Lansing, President Woodrow Wilson, Henry White and General Tasker Bliss

        BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        On November eleventh, nineteen eighteen, a truce was signed ending the hostilities of World War One. The Central Powers -- led by Germany -- had lost. The Allies -- led by Britain, France and the United States -- had won.

        1918年11月11日,第一次世界大戰的交戰國簽署停戰協議。由德國領導的軸心國戰敗,由英國、法國和美國領導的協約國勝利。

        The war lasted four years. It took the lives of ten million people. It left much of Europe in ruins. It was described as "the war to end all wars."

        這場戰爭打了四年,導致一千萬人死亡,歐洲的大片地方成了廢墟。人們把第一次世界大戰形容為"一場終結了所有戰爭的戰爭"。

        This week in our series, Barbara Klein and Doug Johnson tell about President Woodrow Wilson and his part in events after the war.

        BARBARA KLEIN: The immediate task was to seek agreement on terms of a peace treaty. The Allies were filled with bitter anger. They demanded a treaty that would punish Germany severely. They wanted to make Germany weak by destroying its military and industry. And they wanted to ruin Germany's economy by making it pay all war damages. Germany, they said, must never go to war again.

        當時的首要任務是就和平條約的內容達成一致。協約國集團的各成員國內心充滿仇恨,他們要求在和平條約里對德國嚴加懲罰。他們要摧毀德國的軍事和工業,以削弱德國國力,要讓德國支付巨額戰爭賠款,以摧毀其經濟。這些國家說,德國絕不能再有作戰能力。

        President Woodrow Wilson of the United States did not agree completely with the other Allies. He wanted a peace treaty based on justice, not bitterness. He believed that would produce a lasting peace.

        美國總統威爾遜的想法同這些國家不完全一樣。他希望和平條約建立在正義--而不是仇恨--的基礎上。威爾遜相信,只有這樣的協議才能帶來持久的和平。

        President Wilson had led negotiations for a truce to end the hostilities of World War One. Now, he hoped to play a major part in negotiations for a peace treaty. To be effective, he needed the full support of the American people.

        在為一戰?;饏f議所進行的談判中,威爾遜已經發揮了領導作用,現在,他希望自己能夠在和平協議的談判中再次發揮重要作用。為此,他需要得到美國人民的全力支持。

        DOUG JOHNSON: Americans had supported Wilson's policies through most of the war. They had accepted what was necessary to win. This meant higher taxes and shortages of goods. At the time, Americans seemed to forget party politics. Democrats and Republicans worked together.

        在第一次世界大戰絕大部分時間里,美國人都支持威爾遜總統的政策,他們接受了為贏得戰爭而必須付出的代價,包括加稅和物資短缺。那時,美國人似乎忘記了黨派政治,民主共和兩黨通力合作。

        All that changed when it became clear the war was ending. Congressional elections were to be held in November, nineteen eighteen. President Wilson was a Democrat. He feared that Republicans might gain a majority of seats in Congress. If they did, his negotiating powers at a peace conference in Europe would be weakened. Wilson told the nation:

        然而,在戰爭明顯即將結束時,這一切都發生了變化。1918年11月美國舉行國會中期選舉。威爾遜總統是民主黨人,他擔心,共和黨在選舉中可能會取得多數席位,如果真是這樣,他在歐洲和平會議上的談判力量就將被削弱。為此,威爾遜對美國人說:

        "The return of a Republican majority to either house of Congress would be seen by foreign leaders as a rejection of my leadership."

        "共和黨無論在眾議院還是參議院占多數,都會被外國首腦看作是美國人對我領導能力的否定。"

        BARBARA KLEIN: Republicans protested. They charged that Wilson's appeal to voters was an insult to every Republican. One party leader said: "This is not the president's private war." The Republican campaign succeeded. The party won control of both the Senate and House of Representatives.

        共和黨人對此進行抗議。他們指責說,威爾遜對選民說的這些話是對所有共和黨人的侮辱。一位共和黨領導人指出:"國會選舉不是總統的私人戰爭。"結果,共和黨在這次中期選舉中取得了勝利,控制了國會參眾兩院。

        The congressional elections were a defeat for President Wilson. But he did not let the situation interfere with his plans for a peace conference. He and the other Allied leaders agreed to meet in Paris in January, nineteen nineteen.

        這對威爾遜而言是政治上的失敗,不過,他并沒有讓選舉結果影響自己的歐洲和平計劃。他和其他協約國領導人同意1919年1月在巴黎舉行和平會議。

        (MUSIC)

        President Woodrow Wilson, left, and French President Raymond Poincare in Paris
        President Woodrow Wilson, left, and French President Raymond Poincare in Paris

        BARBARA KLEIN: In the weeks before the conference, Wilson chose members of his negotiating team. Everyone expected him to include one or more senators. After all, the Senate would vote to approve or reject the final peace treaty. Wilson refused. Instead, he chose several close advisers to go with him to Paris.

        在和會召開前的幾個星期里,威爾遜開始挑選他的談判代表。大家都以為他會挑至少一位參議員,畢竟,參議院將決定是否批準他簽署的和平條約。然而,威爾遜拒絕這樣做。相反,他挑選了最親近的幾名助手和他一同前往巴黎和會。

        Today, American history experts say Wilson's decision was a mistake. Failure to put senators on the negotiating team, they say, cost him valuable support later on.

        今天的美國歷史學家們說,威爾遜的這個決定是錯誤的。不讓參議員加入和談隊伍使威爾遜在日后喪失了重要的支持。

        In early December, President Wilson sailed to France. The voyage across the Atlantic Ocean lasted nine days. He arrived at the Port of Brest on December thirteenth. Wilson felt very happy. Thirteen, he said, was his lucky number.

        不管怎樣,1918年12月初,威爾遜前往法國。他花9天時間,乘坐輪船跨越大西洋,12月13日到達法國的布雷斯特港。威爾遜很興奮,他說,13是他的幸運數字。

        DOUG JOHNSON: French citizens stood along the railroad that carried him from Brest to Paris. They cheered as his train passed. In Paris, cannons were fired to announce his arrival. And a huge crowd welcomed him there. The people shouted his name over and over again -- Wilson! Wilson! Wilson! The noise sounded like thunder. French Premier Georges Clemenceau commented on the event. He said: "I do not think there has been anything like it in the history of the world."

        威爾遜總統乘坐火車從布雷斯特前往巴黎,法國人在鐵路線兩側歡迎他,在火車經過時向他歡呼。在巴黎,禮炮的巨響向人們宣告威爾遜的到來,很多人前來歡迎他。人們一次又一次高呼他的名字:威爾遜、威爾遜、威爾遜! 高呼聲如同隆隆的雷聲。法國總理喬治.克里孟梭對此評論說:"我想,在歷史上還從來沒有過這樣的情景。"

        People cheered President Wilson partly to thank America for sending its troops to help fight against Germany. But many French citizens and other Europeans also shared Wilson's desire to establish a new world of peace. They listened with hope as he made an emotional speech about a world in which everyone would reject hatred -- a world in which everyone would join together to end war, forever.

        法國人民這么做在很大程度上是為了感謝美國派兵幫助協約國對付德國。同時,許多法國人和其他歐洲人也都和威爾遜一樣,期望建立一個新的和平的世界。他們滿懷希望地聆聽威爾遜激情洋溢的演講。威爾遜說,我們要建立一個人人拋棄仇恨、大家齊心協力避免戰爭的世界。

        BARBARA KLEIN: More than twenty-five nations that helped win the war sent representatives to the peace conference in Paris. All took part in the negotiations.

        超過25個幫助協約國贏得一戰的國家派代表出席巴黎和會。 所有代表都參加了談判。

        However, the important decisions were made by the so-called "Big Four": Prime Minister David Lloyd-George of Britain, Premier Georges Clemenceau of France, Premier Vittorio Orlando of Italy, and President Woodrow Wilson of the United States.

        然而,真正重要的決定都是由所謂的"四巨頭"做出的,這四個人是:英國首相戴維.勞埃德.喬治、法國總理喬治.克里孟梭、意大利總理維托里奧.奧蘭多和美國總統伍德羅.威爾遜。

        Wilson hoped the other Allied leaders would accept his plan for a new international organization. The organization would be called the League of Nations.

        威爾遜希望其他協約國領導人能夠接受他提出的建立一個新的國際組織的計劃,這個國際組織就是國際聯盟,即國聯。

        Wilson believed the league could prevent future wars by deciding fair settlements of disputes between nations. He believed it would be the world's only hope for a lasting peace.

        威爾遜認為,國聯將在成員國發生爭端時進行公平的裁決,以此防止戰爭的爆發。他認為,這是獲得永久和平的唯一途徑。

        DOUG JOHNSON: Most of the other representatives did not have Wilson's faith in the power of peace. Yet they supported his plan for the League of Nations. However, they considered it less important than completing a peace treaty with Germany. And they did not want to spend much time talking about it. They feared that negotiations on the league might delay the treaty and the rebuilding of Europe.

        但是,絕大多數與會代表并不像威爾遜那樣對所謂和平的力量深信不疑。不過,他們還是支持建立國聯的計劃。但他們認為,國聯的問題沒有同德國簽署和平條約那么重要,他們也不想把時間耗費在討論國聯問題上。他們擔心,就國聯問題進行的談判會耽誤簽署和約以及歐洲重建的進程。

        Wilson was firm. He demanded that the peace treaty also establish the league. So, he led a group at the conference that wrote a plan for the operation of the league. He gave the plan to the European leaders to consider. Then he returned to the United States for a brief visit.

        然而,威爾遜很堅決。他要求在和平條約中加入建立國聯的內容。為此,他在會議期間率領一個團隊起草了國聯的章程計劃,并把這個計劃交給歐洲各國的領導人去討論。他自己則短暫地返回美國一段時間。

        (MUSIC)

        BARBARA KLEIN: President Wilson soon learned that opposition to the League of Nations existed on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Many Americans opposed it strongly. Some Republican senators began criticizing it even before Wilson's ship reached the port of Boston.

        威爾遜很快就發現,大西洋兩岸都存在反對國際聯盟的聲音。許多美國人強烈反對他的這個計劃。一些共和黨參議員甚至在威爾遜的船還沒抵達波士頓港口時就開始批評這個計劃。

        The senators said the plan failed to recognize America's long-term interests. They said it would take away too many powers from national governments. Thirty-seven senators signed a resolution saying the United States should reject the plan for the League of Nations. That was more than the number of votes needed to defeat a peace treaty to which, Wilson hoped, the league plan would be linked.

        他們說,這個計劃沒有考慮到美國的長期利益,國聯將會從各國政府手中拿走過多的權力。國會37名參議員簽署了一份決議案,指出美國應當反對威爾遜這個成立國際聯盟的計劃。而實際上,參議院用不著37張反對票就能否決威爾遜在巴黎和會上簽署的、含有國聯計劃的和平協議。

        DOUG JOHNSON: The Senate resolution hurt Wilson politically. It was a sign to the rest of the world that he did not have the full support of his people. But he returned to Paris anyway. He got more bad news when he arrived.

        參議院的這一決議在政治上傷害了威爾遜,因為這讓世界其它地方的人覺得,威爾遜在美國國內說了不算。然而,無論如何,威爾遜還是返回了巴黎。當他回到巴黎時卻聽到了更多壞消息。

        Wilson's top adviser at the Paris peace conference was Colonel Edward House. Colonel House had continued negotiations while Wilson was back in the United States.

        在巴黎和會上,威爾遜最重要的助手是愛德華.豪斯上校,威爾遜回國期間,豪斯上校一直出席和談。

        House agreed with Wilson on most issues. Unlike Wilson, however, he believed the Allies' most urgent need was to reach agreement on a peace treaty with Germany. To do this, House was willing to make many more compromises than Wilson on details for the League of Nations.

        他在許多問題上同威爾遜觀點一致,但是他認為協約國各成員國最關心的是盡快與德國達成和平條約。為此,他愿意在國聯問題的一些細節上做出比威爾遜更多的讓步。

        BARBARA KLEIN: Wilson was furious when he learned what House had done. He said: "Colonel House has given away everything I had won before I left Paris. He has compromised until nothing remains. Now I have to start all over again. This time, it will be more difficult." For Woodrow Wilson, the most difficult negotiations still lay ahead.

        當威爾遜得知豪斯所做的一切時,他憤怒了。他說:"豪斯上校把我離開巴黎前所取得的成果喪失殆盡。他不斷做出妥協,直到什么都沒有了?,F在我不得不重新開始,而這次,我的工作將會變得更加困難。"對于威爾遜來說,最為困難的談判還在前面等待著他呢。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Barbara Klein and Doug Johnson.

        You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #161

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