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        #158: German Sub Attacks Push Wilson Into War

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:7-19-2013

        The German submarine U-36 near the ship Batavia V in April 1915
        The German submarine U-36 near the ship Batavia V in April 1915

        BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        There was one main issue in America's presidential election of nineteen sixteen. That issue was war. Europe was in the middle of what is now remembered as World War One. It was the bloodiest conflict the world had ever known.

        美國1916年總統大選的一個主要議題是戰爭。當時,歐洲正在打第一次世界大戰,其血腥程度超過了以前的所有戰爭。

        Most Americans wanted no part of the struggle in Europe. They supported their country's official position -- neutrality. This desire was the main reason President Woodrow Wilson won re-election. People gave Wilson their votes because they hoped he would continue to keep America out of the war.

        絕大多數美國人不想介入這場戰爭,他們支持當時美國政府奉行的政策,即保持中立。而這種厭戰情緒也正是伍德羅.威爾遜贏得連任的重要原因。人們投票選威爾遜,希望他能夠繼續讓戰火不燒到美國。

        This week in our series, Larry West and Maurice Joyce tell more about the presidency of Woodrow Wilson.

        LARRY WEST: Like most Americans, Woodrow Wilson did not want war. He feared that entering the conflict would cost the United States many lives. Wilson read the reports from European battlefields. The news was unbelievably terrible. By the end of nineteen sixteen, several million men had been killed, wounded, or captured.

        和大多數美國人一樣,威爾遜也不想參與戰爭。他擔心卷入世界大戰會使許多美國人喪命。他讀到來自歐洲戰場的報告,都是些非??膳碌南?。到1916年底,已經有數百萬人在戰爭中陣亡、受傷或被俘。

        At the Battle of Verdun, French forces stopped a German attack.

        The cost was high on both sides. More than seven hundred thousand soldiers were killed, wounded, or captured. The Battle of the Somme followed. Britain lost sixty thousand men on the first day. By the time the battle was over, losses for both sides totaled more than a million.

        在凡爾登戰役中,法國軍隊阻止了德軍發起的一場進攻,然而雙方都付出了慘重代價,超過70萬士兵或死、或傷或被俘虜。隨后又爆發了索姆戰役。英軍在第一天的交戰中就損失了6萬人,到戰役結束時,雙方的死亡人數加在一起超過了100萬。

        Trench warfare during World War I
        Trench warfare during World War I

        Germany also was at war on its eastern border, with Russia. Losses on that battlefront, too, totaled more than a million men.

        德國還在其東部邊界同俄羅斯對陣,這條戰線上的死亡人數也超過100萬。

        MAURICE JOYCE: At the time of America's presidential election in nineteen sixteen, Germany seemed to be winning the war. Its losses were terrible. But the losses of its enemies -- The Allies -- were even worse. German forces occupied much of northern France and almost all of Belgium. German and Austrian soldiers also held parts of Russia, Italy, Romania, and Serbia.

        美國1916年舉行總統選舉時,德國似乎在贏得這場戰爭。雖然德國損失慘重,但它的敵人--協約國的損失更慘重。德軍當時占領了法國北部和幾乎整個比利時。德國和奧匈帝國的士兵還占領了俄羅斯、意大利、羅馬尼亞和塞爾維亞一些地方。

        Germany was winning on the battlefield. The Allies were winning at sea. A British blockade cut off almost all German trade with the rest of the world. Even food shipments were blocked. As a result, Germany faced mass starvation. It urgently needed to break the blockade and get food.

        德國在陸地戰場占上風,而協約國則在海戰中處于優勢。英國實行的封鎖切斷了德國幾乎所有的貿易通道,連食品補給船也被封鎖了。

        LARRY WEST: This situation finally forced Germany to make the decision that would bring the United States into the war.

        結果,德國面臨嚴重的饑荒,迫切需要打破海上封鎖獲得食品。這種形勢最終迫使德國做了一個決定,也正是這個決定導致美國參加了戰爭。

        It decided to use its submarines to break the British blockade. The submarines would attack any ships that came near Britain or other parts of Europe. This included ships from neutral countries, like the United States.

        德國決定利用潛水艇來打破英國的封鎖。潛艇將攻擊所有靠近英國和歐洲其它地方的船只,包括來自美國等中立國家的船只。

        Earlier, Germany had made a promise to the United States. Its submarines would not attack civilian ships unless warning was given and the lives of those on the ships were saved. Now Germany was withdrawing that promise. It said unrestricted submarine warfare would begin immediately.

        在此之前,德國曾經向美國保證,在未事先警告和確保船上人員性命安全的情況下,德國不會向民用船只發動襲擊。而現在,德國收回了這一承諾,并宣布,無限制的潛艇戰將立即開始。

        German ruler Kaiser Wilhelm said: "If Wilson wants war, let him make it, and let him then have it."

        德國皇帝威廉說:"如果威爾遜想打仗,那就讓他打,然后讓他自己承擔后果。"

        MAURICE JOYCE: President Wilson immediately broke diplomatic relations with Germany. He still hoped the two nations would not go to war. He left that decision to Germany. If German submarines sank American ships, Wilson would have no choice but to declare war.

        威爾遜總統立即中斷了與德國的外交關系,但他仍然希望美國和德國不要開戰。他把這個決定權交給了德國。如果德國潛艇擊沉美國船只,威爾遜就別無選擇,只能向德國宣戰了。

        Most American shipping companies feared attack by German submarines. Throughout the early part of nineteen seventeen, they kept their ships in home ports. They wanted protection. So they asked for permission to arm their ships. At first, President Wilson refused to seek such permission from Congress. He did not want to do anything that might cause Germany to declare war. Then he received secret news from Britain.

        大部分美國航運公司都擔心遭到德國潛艇的攻擊。在1917年初的頭幾個月,這些公司都把船停在港口不出航。它們需要保護,所以要求武裝自己的船只。起初,威爾遜總統拒絕就這件事提請國會批準,因為他不想采取任何可能使德國對美宣戰的行動??珊髞?,他收到了一封來自英國的密信。

        British agents had gotten a copy of a telegram from Germany's foreign minister to Germany's ambassador in Mexico. The telegram said Germany was planning hostile acts against the United States. Wilson acted quickly. He began putting guns and sailors on American trade ships.

        英國的情報人員得到了德國外交部長發給德國駐墨西哥大使的電報復本。電報說,德國正計劃對美國采取敵對行動。于是,威爾遜立即動手,開始把槍炮和水兵部署在美國商船上。

        LARRY WEST: It did not take long for the worst to happen. Within days, a German submarine sank an unarmed American ship, the Algonquin. Then three more American ships were sunk. Many lives were lost.

        最壞的情況很快就出現了。沒過幾天,一艘德國潛艇擊沉了一艘沒有武裝的美國民用船--阿爾岡琴號,隨后,又有三艘美國船被擊沉,許多人喪生。

        President Wilson no longer had a choice between war and peace. There would be war. Wilson called a special session of Congress. Members of both the Senate and House of Representatives gathered in one room. They stood as the president walked quickly to the front. He stood silent for a moment before speaking. This is what he said:

        威爾遜總統在打與不打的問題上再也沒有選擇的余地了,戰爭在所難免。威爾遜要求國會召開特別會議,參眾兩院議員聚集在一起準備開會。當威爾遜總統快步走進國會會場時,所有議員都站了起來。威爾遜站在那里沉默了一會,隨后發表講話,他說:

        MAURICE JOYCE: 'I fully understanding the serious step I am taking, I advise that the Congress declare the recent acts of the German government to be, in fact, nothing less than war against the United States.

        "我完全清楚我所要采取的行動的嚴重性,我建議國會宣布,德國政府最近所采取的行動,實質上是同美國作戰。"

        President Woodrow Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany in April 1917
        President Woodrow Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany in April 1917

        "It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war. But right is more precious than peace. And we will fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts -- for democracy, for the rights and liberties of small nations, and for the belief that a worldwide union of free people can bring peace and safety to all nations."

        威爾遜說:"領導熱愛和平的美國人民參加戰爭是一件可怕的事。但正義比和平更加可貴,而我們為之戰斗的正是我們一直所珍愛的事物--民主、權利、弱小國家的自由,以及全世界自由人民團結起來可以把和平與安全帶給世界各國的信念。"

        LARRY WEST: President Wilson's emotional speech brought tears to the eyes of many of the lawmakers. They felt the great seriousness of his request.

        威爾遜這番激情澎湃的演說讓很多議員熱淚盈眶,他們感到總統的請求是極其嚴肅的。

        Outside, crowds lined the street to cheer Wilson as he returned to the White House from the Capitol Building. He sat in his car and shook his head sadly. "Think of what it is they are cheering," he said. "My message today was a message of death for our young men. How strange it seems they would cheer that."

        在會場外面,大群的人站在街道兩旁,向從國會返回白宮的威爾遜歡呼。然而,威爾遜總統坐在車中,悲傷地搖頭,他說:"想一想吧,他們所歡呼的是什么呢?我今天所發表的演說,將把年輕的美國小伙子們推向死亡,而他們卻在為此歡呼,這真是奇怪。"

        On April sixth, nineteen seventeen, Congress approved a declaration of war against Germany.

        1917年4月6日,美國國會批準對德宣戰。

        MAURICE JOYCE: The Allies -- Britain, France and Russia -- welcomed American involvement.

        由英國、法國和俄羅斯組成的協約國歡迎美國參戰。

        The war was going badly for them. It had been very costly in lives, money, and supplies. Allied shipping was suffering heavy losses from German submarine attacks. A British naval blockade had greatly reduced food shipments to Germany. Now, Britain itself faced dangerously low supplies of food.

        對它們來說,這場戰爭打得很艱難,它們已經損失了大量的軍人、金錢和物資。由于德國潛艇的攻擊,協約國的軍艦也損失慘重。英國的海上封鎖雖然極大地減少了德國的食品供應,但現在,英國自己也面臨嚴重的食品短缺。

        Allied representatives went to Washington to explain what The Allies needed. They needed supplies -- especially food -- immediately. They needed money to pay for the supplies. They needed ships to get the supplies from America to Europe. And they needed American soldiers.

        協約國派代表前往華盛頓,向美國解釋他們需要什么。他們需要補給,特別是食品,而且馬上就得要,需要錢,以購買補給物資,需要船只,好將物資從美國運往歐洲,此外,他們還需要美國士兵。

        LARRY WEST: President Wilson and Congress worked together to organize the United States for war. Congress gave Wilson new wartime powers. He soon formed a council to build ships, improve industrial production, and control national transportation. He formed an agricultural agency to increase food production and food exports. And he formed an information committee to build public support for the war.

        威爾遜總統和國會合作,準備參戰。國會賦予威爾遜新的戰時權力。很快,威爾遜成立了一個專門委員會,負責建造船只,提高工業生產和控制全國的運輸;成立了一個農業機構,負責增加糧食生產和出口;他還成立了一個信息委員會,負責動員民眾對戰爭的支持。

        Wilson's efforts succeeded. The Allies quickly got the ships, supplies, and money they requested. Most important, they soon got American soldiers.

        威爾遜的努力取得了成功。協約國很快就從美國獲得了船只、補給物資和資金。更為重要的是,他們很快就得到了美軍的支援。

        MAURICE JOYCE: Allied military leaders said only about a half-million troops were needed from the United States. But American officials decided to build a much larger army. Before long, large numbers of American soldiers were crossing the Atlantic Ocean. They would fight the Germans at the western battlefronts of Europe.

        協約國軍方領導人說,他們只需要大約50萬美軍,但美國官員決定組建更為龐大的軍隊。不久,大量的美軍越過大西洋來到歐洲。他們將在歐洲西部戰場與德國作戰。

        The extra strength they gave the Allies would play a major part in helping defeat Germany. That will be our story next week.

        美軍給協約國帶來的軍力支援將在擊敗德國的戰爭中發揮重要作用。

        (MUSIC)

        BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Maurice Joyce.

        You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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