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        #157: US Adopts Neutrality as World War One Begins in Europe

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:7-18-2013

        British forces in action during World War One
        British forces in action during World War One

        BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        In nineteen fourteen, Europe exploded into the First World War. It was a war no nation really wanted. But no nation seemed able to stop it.

        1914年,歐洲爆發了第一次世界大戰。沒有一個國家真的希望打這場戰爭,但是也沒有任何國家能阻止戰爭的爆發。

        The assassination of Austria's Archduke Franz Ferdinand in the city of Sarajevo was the spark that set off the explosion.

        一戰的導火線是奧地利大公斐迪南在薩拉熱窩被刺殺。

        This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant tell about the war and how it affected the United States under President Woodrow Wilson.

        HARRY MONROE: The Austrian Archduke was murdered by Serbian nationalists. They opposed Austrian control of their homeland. After the assassination, Austria declared war on Serbia. One of Serbia's allies was Russia. Russia agreed to help Serbia in any war against Austria.

        刺殺斐迪南大公的是塞爾維亞的民族主義分子,他們反對奧地利對塞爾維亞的統治。刺殺事件發生后,奧地利向塞爾維亞宣戰。塞爾維亞的一個盟國是俄羅斯,俄羅斯同意幫助塞爾維亞對奧地利作戰。

        Austria had allies, too. The most important was Germany. Germany wanted Russia to stay out of the war. When Russia refused, Germany declared war on Russia. Then Germany declared war on Russia's close ally, France. Britain entered the war a few days later when Germany violated the neutrality of Belgium.

        奧地利也有盟國,其中最重要的一個盟友是德國。德國希望俄羅斯不要介入奧地利和塞爾維亞的戰爭,但俄羅斯拒絕了,于是,德國向俄羅斯宣戰。隨后,德國又向俄羅斯的親密盟國法國宣戰。幾天之后,由于德軍入侵中立的比利時,英國向德國宣戰。

        An abandoned British trench captured by the Germans. German soldiers are on horseback in the background.
        An abandoned British trench captured by the Germans. German soldiers are on horseback in the background.

        KAY GALLANT: One nation after another entered the conflict to protect its friends or to honor its treaties. Within a week, most of Europe was at war.

        一個又一個國家為了保護自己的盟國或遵守盟國之間的協定而參戰。不到一個星期,歐洲絕大多數國家都卷入了戰爭。

        On one side were the Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary. On the other side were the Triple Entente Allies: France, Britain, and Russia. Many other nations took sides. Bulgaria and Turkey joined the Central Powers. Italy, Romania, Portugal, and Greece joined the Allies.

        戰爭的一方是軸心國,包括德國和奧匈帝國;另一方是協約國,包括法國、英國和俄羅斯。許多其它國家也做出選擇。保加利亞和土耳其加入軸心國,而意大利、羅馬尼亞、葡萄牙和希臘則加入了協約國。

        HARRY MONROE: The United States hoped to stay out of the war. President Wilson immediately declared American neutrality. He said: "It is a war with which we have nothing to do, whose causes cannot touch us."

        美國想置身事外。威爾遜總統在戰爭爆發后立即宣布美國的中立態度。他說:"這次戰爭與美國完全無關,戰爭的是是非非跟美國不沾邊。"

        Most Americans agreed with President Wilson. They did not want to get involved in the fighting. However, many found it difficult to remain neutral in their hearts. Some Americans had family roots in Germany. They supported the Central Powers. A greater number of Americans had family roots in Britain or France. They supported the Allies.

        絕大多數美國人也是這么想的,他們都不想卷入戰爭。然而,許多美國人其實在內心里很難保持中立。有些人的祖籍在德國,因此他們支持軸心國。還有更多的美國人祖籍是英國和法國,因此他們支持協約國。

        Yet the official American policy was neutrality. The United States planned to continue to trade with both sides.

        然而,美國的官方政策是中立,美國還打算繼續同交戰雙方做生意。

        KAY GALLANT: Germany and Austria expected a quick victory in the war. They were caught between two powerful enemies: Russia and France. But German military leaders were not worried. They had a battle plan they were sure would succeed.

        德國和奧地利認為自己很快就能打贏這場戰爭。雖然它們受到俄羅斯和法國兩個強大敵人的夾擊,但德國的將領們并不擔心,他們制定了一項作戰計劃,覺得靠此計劃必能取勝。

        The German generals planned to strike quickly at France with most of the German army. They expected to defeat France in a short time and then turn to fight Russia. In this way, the German army would not have to fight both enemies at the same time.

        這個計劃就是集中德國的大部分兵力快速襲擊法國,在迅速打敗法國后再轉而同俄羅斯作戰。這樣,德軍就不必同時在法俄兩線作戰。

        A 1915 poster showing a French soldier holding a grenade
        A 1915 poster showing a French soldier holding a grenade

        HARRY MONROE: At first, the plan worked. Two million German soldiers swept across Belgium and into France. They rushed forward toward Paris, hoping for a fast victory. But the German commanders made a mistake. They pushed their men too fast. When British and French forces struck back -- outside Paris -- the tired and worn German soldiers could not hold their positions.

        開始時,德國的計劃取得了成效。兩百萬德軍橫掃比利時,進入法國,迅速向巴黎推進,希望能夠速戰速決。但是,德軍將領們犯了一個錯誤,他們的推進速度太快了。當英法軍隊在巴黎外圍反攻時,疲憊的德軍已經無力堅守陣地。

        The battle was fierce and unbelievably bloody. In the end, the Germans were forced to withdraw.

        這場戰斗異常激烈和血腥,最終,德軍被迫撤退。

        The German withdrawal gave the allies time to prepare strong defenses. There was no chance now for a quick German victory. Instead, it would be a long war, with Germany and Austria facing enemies on two sides. Britain and France were on the West. Russia was on the East.

        德軍的撤退使協約國獲得了加固防線的時間。此時,對于德國而言已經沒有速勝的機會了。相反,德國和奧地利現在腹背受敵,在西線同英法作戰,在東線同俄羅斯作戰。

        KAY GALLANT: The Allies took immediate steps to reduce Germany's trade with the rest of the world. The British navy began seizing war supplies found on neutral ships sailing toward German ports. It then expanded its efforts to block food exports to Germany.

        戰爭變成了持久戰。協約國還立即采取措施減少德國與其它國家間的貿易往來。英國海軍開始在駛往德國港口的中立國船只上搜繳戰爭補給品,后來還擴大到封鎖向德國出口的食品。

        The blockade by Britain and the other allies was very successful. Germany faced possible starvation. Its navy was not strong enough to break the blockade with surface ships. Its only hope was to break the blockade with another naval weapon: submarines.

        英國和其它國家的這種封鎖取得了很大的成功,德國幾乎要出現饑荒。德軍的水面艦船無力打破封鎖,只能將希望寄托在另一種海軍武器上,那就是潛艇。

        Germany announced that it would use its submarines to sink any ship that came near the coast of Britain. The threat included ships from neutral nations that tried to continue trading with the Allies.

        德國宣布,將用潛艇擊沉靠近英國海岸的所有船只,包括那些企圖繼續同協約國展開貿易的中立國船只。

        HARRY MONROE: The United States and other neutral nations immediately protested the German announcement. They said it was a clear violation of international law.

        美國和其它一些中立國立即抗議德國的聲明,它們說,這么做顯然違背了國際法。

        A German submarine said to be the one that sank the Lusitania
        A German submarine said to be the one that sank the Lusitania

        When a German submarine sank a British ship in the Irish Sea, one of the victims was an American citizen. A few weeks later, an American oil ship was damaged during a sea battle between British navy ships and a German submarine. Then came the most serious incident of all. It involved a British passenger ship called the Lusitania.

        后來,德國潛艇在愛爾蘭海域擊沉了一艘英國船只,其中一名受害者是美國公民。幾個星期后,一艘美國油船在英國戰艦和德國潛艇之間的戰斗中被毀。之后,又發生了最為嚴重的事件。涉事的是一艘名叫路西塔尼亞的英國客船。

        The Lusitania was sailing from New York City to Britain when it was attacked by a German submarine. The Lusitania sank in eighteen minutes. One thousand two hundred persons were killed. One hundred twenty-nine were Americans.

        路西塔尼亞在從紐約駛往英國的途中遭到德國潛艇的襲擊,18分鐘后沉沒,導致1200人死亡,其中有129個美國人。

        KAY GALLANT: The sinking of the Lusitania shocked and horrified the American people. They called it mass murder. They turned against Germany. President Wilson warned that he might declare war on Germany, if Germany continued to sink civilian ships.

        路西塔尼亞號沉船事件震驚了美國,并引發了人們的恐慌。美國人說這是一次大規模謀殺,他們開始把德國看作敵人。威爾遜總統警告德國說,如果德國繼續攻擊民船,美國可能會對德國宣戰。

        Germany did not want war with the United States. It already faced a strong fight against the European Allies. It promised not to sink any more civilian ships without warning. And it offered regrets for the Lusitania incident.

        德國不希望同美國開戰,因為它已經要應付強大的協約國。于是,德國許諾不會再在沒有警告的情況下攻擊民船,并就路西塔尼亞號沉船事件表示道歉。

        HARRY MONROE: President Wilson accepted Germany's apology. Like most Americans, he hoped to stay out of the bloody European struggle. And he also knew that the record of the Allies was not completely clean.

        威爾遜總統接受了德國的道歉。和許多美國人一樣,他并不想卷入歐洲的血腥戰爭。他也清楚,協約國做的事兒也并不清白。

        For example, he was troubled by reports of mass hunger in Germany. He and other Americans felt the British food blockade was cruel. They also were shocked by the way British forces brutally crushed a rebellion in Ireland at the time.

        比如,德國因為被封鎖而發生了大范圍饑荒,這令威爾遜感到不安。他和許多美國人認為,英國對德國的糧食封鎖是殘酷的。與此同時,英軍對愛爾蘭一次起義的殘酷鎮壓也讓美國人感到震驚。

        Most of all, the American people were sickened by reports of what was happening on the battlefields of Europe. The armies were using poison gas and other terrible weapons. Soldiers on both sides were dying by the millions. The war had become a bloodbath.

        但美國人最反感的還是歐洲戰場上發生的事情,比如軍隊用毒氣彈和其它可怕的武器作戰;雙方士兵死亡數百萬。這場戰爭已經變成了一場大屠殺。

        President Woodrow Wilson in 1916
        President Woodrow Wilson in 1916

        KAY GALLANT: The United States had a presidential election in nineteen sixteen. President Wilson won the nomination of the Democratic Party to seek re-election. Democrats around the country shouted their support with these words: "He kept us out of war!" Wilson himself did not like the words. He felt it raised false hopes. But people continued to say it, because they did not want war.

        1916年是美國總統選舉年,威爾遜總統獲得民主黨的提名,他將尋求連任。全國的民主黨人在表示他們對威爾遜的支持時都高喊:"他讓我們免于卷入戰爭!"威爾遜自己并不喜歡這樣的話,因為他覺得這其實給了人們錯誤的希望。但美國人仍然這樣說,因為他們不想打仗。

        HARRY MONROE: The Republican Party nominated Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes as its candidate for president. Hughes was a moderate Republican. He supported a number of social reforms.

        共和黨提名最高法院大法官查爾斯.休斯為總統候選人。休斯是一位溫和的共和黨人,他支持一系列社會改革。

        Like Wilson, Hughes promised to keep the United States neutral. However, one of his supporters was former President Theodore Roosevelt. And Roosevelt called for strong American policies that could lead to war. Roosevelt's words led many Americans to see Wilson as the candidate of peace....and Hughes as the candidate of war.

        和威爾遜一樣,他承諾保持美國的中立態度。然而,休斯的一個支持者是美國前總統西奧多.羅斯福,羅斯福呼吁美國采取強硬政策,而這些政策可能會導致美國卷入戰爭。結果,羅斯福的話使許多美國人把威爾遜看成了期望和平的總統候選人,而休斯則成了期望戰爭的候選人。

        KAY GALLANT: Voting in the presidential election was very close. At first, it seemed Hughes had won. He went to bed on election night believing he would be America's next president. But voting results later that night confirmed Wilson as the winner. The election was so close the Republicans did not accept defeat for two weeks.

        這次總統選舉競爭非常激烈。開始時,休斯似乎獲勝了。選舉日那晚,他上床睡覺時覺得自己必定就是下一任總統了。但后半夜的計票結果卻確認威爾遜獲得了勝利。由于選舉結果非常的接近,共和黨一直拖了兩個星期才承認競選失敗。

        Woodrow Wilson had won another term. During that term, he would find it increasingly difficult to honor the words of the campaign. Finally, he would find it impossible. The United States entered World War One while Woodrow Wilson was president.

        伍德羅.威爾遜又贏得了一個總統任期。在這個任期內,他將發現,要兌現在選舉中許下的諾言越來越難,最終則變成完全不可能。美國在威爾遜當政期間參加了第一次世界大戰。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant.

        You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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