<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #156: Foreign Events Begin to Shape Wilson's Presidency

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:7-17-2013

        Woodrow Wilson and his cabinet seated around table, 1913
        Woodrow Wilson and his cabinet seated around table, 1913

        BOB DOUGHTY:? Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        Woodrow Wilson's first year as president showed the American people that they had elected a strong and effective leader. Wilson took office in nineteen thirteen. He moved quickly to fulfill his campaign promises. He won congressional approval for lower import taxes, a new tax on earnings, and restrictions on the power of big companies.

        伍德羅.威爾遜擔任美國總統后的第一年,讓美國人看到,他們選了一位堅強能干的領導人。威爾遜1913年就任總統后,迅速行動,兌現了競選諾言。他促使國會通過法案,降低進口關稅,開征所得稅,以及限制大企業權力。

        These were some of the most important economic reforms the nation had seen in many years.

        這是多年來美國經濟生活中發生的最重大改革。

        This week in our series, Larry West and Maurice Joyce continue the story of Wilson's administration.

        LARRY WEST: ??Most of Woodrow Wilson's political victories were on national issues. He had little experience with international issues. But foreign events soon began to demand more and more of his time. With all of his successes at home, it is a surprising fact of history that his presidency is remembered best for its foreign policy.

        威爾遜的政治勝利絕大多數都涉及國內問題。他沒有什么處理國際問題的經驗。不過,沒過多久,外交事件就開始占據他越來越多的時間。讓人驚訝的是,雖然威爾遜在國內政治上取得了那么大的成就,但后來的人們一提到威爾遜政府,記得最多的卻是它的對外政策。

        The story of Woodrow Wilson's foreign policy is full of high ideas and political bravery. But it also is a story of fierce struggle and lost hopes. It is a story that begins across America's southern border--in Mexico.

        威爾遜的對外政策充滿了崇高的理念和政治勇氣,但同時也寫滿了激烈的斗爭和破滅的希望。所有這些都從美國的南方鄰國--墨西哥開始。

        MAURICE JOYCE: ??At that time, Mexico had been ruled for many years by Porfirio Diaz. As Diaz grew older, his power began to weaken. In nineteen eleven, a revolt broke out. It was led by Francisco Madero, the leader of a land reform movement. Diaz understood he could not win. He resigned and fled the country.

        當時,墨西哥已經被波菲里奧.迪亞斯統治多年。隨著迪亞斯的年齡越來越大,他的權力開始弱化。1911年,墨西哥暴發了叛亂。叛亂的領導人叫弗朗西斯科.馬德羅,是一個土地改革運動的領導人。迪亞斯清楚,自己無法戰勝叛亂隊伍,于是,他辭去職務,逃離了墨西哥。

        Madero declared himself president. However, powerful groups in Mexico opposed him. In a short time, one of his own generals, Victoriano Huerta, arrested him. Madero was murdered soon after Huerta seized power.

        馬德羅宣布自己就任總統。然而,墨西哥國內許多有權勢的政治團體反對他。不久,他的部下維克托里亞諾.韋爾塔將軍把他逮捕。韋爾塔奪取權力后不久,馬德羅就被殺死了。

        President Wilson refused to recognize Huerta's government. He believed other forces would rise up against him. Wilson was right. Another revolt began, led by General Venustiano Carranza.

        威爾遜總統拒絕承認韋爾塔政府,他相信,墨西哥還會有新的勢力起來反對韋爾塔。威爾遜的看法是對的。墨西哥又暴發了新的起義,由維納斯提諾.卡蘭薩將軍領導。

        LARRY WEST:? Wilson offered aid to Carranza. Carranza rejected the offer. He was afraid of American interference in Mexico. He told Wilson that Mexican troops would do all the fighting. He only wanted guns and ammunition.

        威爾遜提出援助卡蘭薩,但遭到拒絕??ㄌm薩擔心美國會借此干涉墨西哥內政。他對威爾遜說,墨西哥軍隊什么仗都能打,他只需要槍支和彈藥。

        American forces did, however, get involved in the conflict. President Wilson learned that a ship from Germany was bringing supplies to the Huerta government. The ship would land at the Mexican port of Vera Cruz. Wilson ordered the United States Navy to seize and occupy the port. The move started a storm of criticism in the United States and throughout Latin America.

        然而,美國軍隊還是卷入了墨西哥的沖突。威爾遜總統得知,一艘來自德國的船只將向韋爾塔政府提供物資,這艘船會在墨西哥的維拉.克魯茲港停泊。于是,他命令美國海軍占領這個港口。這一行動引來了美國國內和整個拉丁美洲的批評浪潮。

        (MUSIC)

        MAURICE JOYCE:? Many people denounced President Wilson. They called him an imperialist and a fool. They asked: what right did the United States have to interfere in Mexico. Wilson finally stopped American military action in Mexico. He tried to settle the dispute at an international conference at Niagara Falls, Canada. The effort failed. The conference did not produce a settlement.

        許多人公開指責威爾遜總統,稱他是帝國主義者和笨蛋。他們質問:美國有什么權力干涉墨西哥內政?威爾遜最終下令美國軍隊停止在墨西哥的行動。他試圖通過在加拿大尼亞加拉瀑布召開一次國際會議來解決這個爭端,但他的努力失敗了,這個會議什么決議也沒產生。

        While the diplomats were talking, Carranza's revolutionary forces were fighting. They moved on Mexico City, the capital. President Huerta fled. Carranza formed a new government.

        正當外交官們討論墨西哥問題時,卡蘭薩的革命武裝發起戰斗,向首都墨西哥城挺進。韋爾塔總統逃跑了,卡蘭薩成立了新政府。

        LARRY WEST:? The new government began to split apart almost immediately. Another general, Francisco "Pancho" Villa, tried to seize power. He forced Carranza out of Mexico City. Then he formed his own government. President Wilson recognized Villa and his government.

        而新政府幾乎馬上就陷入了分裂。另一位將軍弗朗西斯科.潘喬.維拉試圖奪取大權。他把卡蘭薩趕出墨西哥城,隨后成立了自己的政府。威爾遜總統承認了維拉和他的新政府。

        Carranza, however, refused to give up. Day by day, his army grew stronger. He forced Villa to retreat. Then President Wilson recognized Carranza's government. Like Carranza, Villa refused to give up. He decided to try to start a war between Mexico and the United States.

        然而,卡蘭薩拒絕放棄權力。他的軍隊一天天壯大,逼得維拉撤離墨西哥城。這樣,威爾遜總統又承認了卡蘭薩的政府。而和卡蘭薩一樣,維拉也拒絕放棄權力。他決定在墨西哥和美國之間挑起戰爭。

        Pancho Villa wanted the United States to attack Carranza. Then he would step in to lead Mexican forces in battle. That would make him a hero. With this plan in mind, Pancho Villa attacked an American town across the border in Texas. He killed nineteen persons.

        他想讓美國攻打卡蘭薩的軍隊,然后他自己介入,并在戰爭中領導墨西哥軍隊,從而使自己成為墨西哥的英雄。抱著這樣的計劃,維拉襲擊了美墨邊界附近德克薩斯州的一個鎮,殺死了19個人。

        MAURICE JOYCE:? President Wilson immediately ordered a large American force to find and punish Villa. At first, Carranza welcomed the move. Villa was his enemy. He wanted him captured. Then Carranza began to fear that the American troops might threaten his government. He demanded the withdrawal of all American soldiers from Mexico.

        威爾遜總統立即命令一支龐大的美國軍隊尋找并懲罰維拉。起初,卡蘭薩歡迎美軍的這個行動,因為維拉是自己的敵人,他希望維拉被抓。不過,卡蘭薩不久就開始擔心美軍可能會威協到自己的政權,于是他要求所有美軍撤出墨西哥。

        Tensions increased between the two countries. Villa's forces attacked another town in Texas. President Wilson considered asking Congress to declare war. But the crisis cooled down before then. American forces were withdrawn. And the people of Mexico elected a new government. They chose Carranza as president.

        兩國局勢日益緊張。與此同時,維拉的軍隊又襲擊了美國德克薩斯州的另外一個鎮。威爾遜總統考慮請求國會宣布與墨西哥開戰,但還沒等他這么做,美國與墨西哥之間的危機就平靜下來了。美軍撤出了墨西哥,而且墨西哥人民選出了新的政府,選卡蘭薩為他們的總統。

        (MUSIC)

        LARRY WEST:? As President Wilson dealt with the situation in Mexico, trouble began to surface in another part of the world. The crisis was in Europe. Tensions were growing between several groups of nations. They were on the edge of what would become World War One.

        就在威爾遜總統設法解決與墨西哥之間的關系時,在地球的另一邊又開始出現麻煩。這次的危機發生在歐洲。幾個國家聯盟之間的矛盾愈演愈烈,第一次世界大戰爆發在即。

        The major powers in Europe had been threatening each other for years. But they had not fought for more than forty years. Most Americans believed there would never be another European war. Such a war would be unbelievably destructive. Millions would die. No nation would win.

        多年以來,歐洲的主要大國相互威協,不過它們已經有四十多年沒有打仗。因此,絕大多數美國人認為歐洲再也不會發生新的戰爭,因為這樣的戰爭將造成無法估量的損失,數百萬人死亡,而且沒有一個國家會在戰爭中獲勝。

        MAURICE JOYCE:? Europe depended on a balance of power to keep the peace. On one side were the central powers -- Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. On the other side were the members of the triple entente -- Britain, France, and Russia.

        歐洲依靠勢力均衡來維持和平。一方是由德國、奧匈帝國和意大利組成的軸心國集團,另一方是由英國、法國和俄羅斯組成的協約國集團。

        Each side made every effort to win the support of Europe's smaller nations. A number of nations refused to join either side. The neutrals included Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the Scandinavian countries.

        這兩個集團都千方百計地想贏得其它歐洲小國的支持,但很多國家拒絕加入任何一方。這些中立國包括瑞士、比利時、荷蘭和斯堪的納維亞半島各國。

        LARRY WEST:? This political balance did not prevent the major nations from competing with each other for colonies and economic power. They competed all over the world. In China, in the Middle East, in Africa -- everywhere money could be invested. Competition was especially sharp in the Balkans. This was the area of Europe between the Adriatic and Black Seas.

        這種政治平衡并不能阻止幾個大國為了殖民地和經濟權利而相互競爭。它們在世界各地競爭,在中國,在中東,在非洲,在所有可以投資的地方。競爭在巴爾干地區尤為激烈。巴爾干是歐洲的一部分,位于亞得里亞海和黑海之間。

        Many nations claimed special interests in the Balkans. And several Balkan countries were fighting each other. The whole continent seemed ready to explode.

        許多國家都聲稱自己在巴爾干半島擁有特殊的利益,而巴爾干一些國家也在相互交戰。整個地區就好像是要爆炸的火藥桶。

        MAURICE JOYCE:? The spark that set off the explosion came in the city of Sarajevo. The date was June twenty-eighth, nineteen fourteen. Sarajevo had been taken over by Austria. And the Archduke of Austria -- Ferdinand -- had come for a visit. Ferdinand was expected to become the next emperor of Austria.

        而引爆這個火藥桶的火星在薩拉熱窩市被點燃了。這一天是1914年6月28日。那時,薩拉熱窩已經被奧地利占領,奧地利的大公斐迪南訪問薩拉熱窩。他當時正準備作奧地利的下一任皇帝。

        Seven young extremists from the area decided to assassinate the Archduke to protest Austrian control. One of the extremists threw a bomb at the royal family. The bomb missed its target. But another extremist shot at the group. He killed both the Archduke and the Archduke's wife.

        薩拉熱窩七名年輕的激進分子決定刺殺斐迪南,以抗議奧地利的統治。一名激進分子向斐迪南大公和其他皇室成員扔了一枚炸彈。炸彈沒有擊中目標。但另一名激進分子則向斐迪南一行人開槍,打死了斐迪南大公和他的妻子。

        LARRY WEST:? The assassinations in Sarajevo started a series of events that quickly brought war to all of Europe. Soon the continent was covered with armies, battles, and death. The war in Europe forced President Wilson to face the greatest crisis of his presidency.

        薩拉熱窩刺殺事件引發了一系列事件,立即點燃了整個歐洲的戰火。很快,歐洲到處都是軍隊、戰斗和尸體。這場戰爭迫使威爾遜面對他總統任期中最大的危機。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        BOB DOUGHTY:? Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Maurice Joyce.

        You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频