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        #153: The Republican Party Is Split Over William Howard Taft

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:7-14-2013

        Former president Theodore Roosevelt, on a hunting trip to Africa, stands beside the body of an elephant
        Former president Theodore Roosevelt, on a hunting trip to Africa, stands beside the body of an elephant

        BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        June eighteenth, nineteen ten, was an exciting day for Theodore Roosevelt. It was the day that the former American president returned from a long trip to Africa and Europe. Hundreds of thousands of people gathered in New York City to welcome him home. There were speeches and bands and a parade.

        對美國前總統西奧多.羅斯福來說,1910年6月18號是令人興奮的一天,因為他在這天結束了在非洲和歐洲的長時間旅行回到美國。幾十萬人聚集到紐約,發表演說、組織樂隊表演和游行,歡迎他歸來。

        This week in our series, Frank Oliver and Tony Riggs tell us about Teddy Roosevelt's trip. They also tell us how political problems hurt his friendship with President William Howard Taft.

        FRANK OLIVER: It was the perfect end to a trip that began three weeks after Theodore Roosevelt completed his presidency.

        羅斯福在卸任總統后三個星期開始出國旅行,這次返回美國,受到熱情歡迎,可以說是給旅行劃上了完美的句號。

        Most of the trip was a huge success. In Africa, Theodore Roosevelt spent months hunting wild animals. He shot many lions, elephants, and other animals. He brought all of them back and gave them to the Smithsonian Institution.

        羅斯福這次旅行基本上很成功。在非洲,他花了幾個月的時間打獵,打了許多獅子、大象和其它野生動物。他把這些獵物都帶回美國,捐贈給史密森國家博物館。

        After hunting in Africa, he and his wife, Edith, went to Europe.

        在非洲的狩獵之行結束后,羅斯福和妻子伊迪思一起前往歐洲。

        TONY RIGGS: The Roosevelts visited Italy and met the king and queen. They visited Vienna and met the ruler of Austria and Hungary. In Germany, they met Kaiser Wilhelm the second.

        他們在意大利與意大利國王和王后見面,去維也納,拜會了奧匈帝國皇帝。在德國,他們見到了德國皇帝威廉二世。

        Kaiser Wilhelm invited the former American president to watch a big parade of German troops. He told him: "You are the first civilian who has ever joined the Kaiser in reviewing the troops of Germany."

        威廉二世邀請羅斯福觀禮德國軍隊的盛大閱兵式。他對羅斯福說:"你是第一位和我一起觀看德軍閱兵式的平民。"

        The two men were photographed shaking hands. On the back of the photograph, the Kaiser wrote: "When we shake hands, we shake the world."

        兩人握手,照相。在照片的背后,威廉二世寫道:"當我們握手時,我們撼動整個世界。"

        The Roosevelts met the kings and queens of Norway, Belgium, and the Netherlands. They met the crown princes of Sweden and Denmark. And, while in England, Mr. Roosevelt served as America's official representative at the funeral of King Edward the Seventh.

        羅斯福夫婦還見到了挪威、比利時和荷蘭的國王和女王,以及瑞典和丹麥的王儲。在英國,羅斯福作為美國官方代表出席了英王愛德華七世的葬禮。

        FRANK OLIVER: Theodore Roosevelt made a number of speeches at several universities, including Oxford and the Sorbonne. Yet all these activities did not keep him from reading newspapers and letters from home. The news troubled him.

        羅斯福還在牛津、索邦等幾所大學發表了多場演講。雖然他參加了這么多活動,但這并不妨礙他閱讀來自美國的報紙和信件。他看到的消息讓他不安。

        He had led the Republican Party with great success. Now, the party seemed to be falling apart. It had split into two groups. One group included conservatives who supported President William Howard Taft. The other group included progressives who opposed Taft.

        羅斯福曾帶領共和黨取得巨大的成功。但現在,共和黨似乎陷入了分裂。黨內出現兩派,一派是支持塔夫脫總統的保守派,另一派是反對塔夫脫的進步派。

        Theodore Roosevelt had worked hard to get William Howard Taft elected. President Taft had been in office a little more than a year. Yet in that short time, he had broken almost completely with the progressives who had supported Roosevelt.

        羅斯福當年費大力氣把塔夫脫推上了總統寶座。塔夫脫這個總統才當了一年多一點,可在這段時間里,他幾乎已經和支持羅斯福的進步派分子徹底決裂了。

        TONY RIGGS: The split developed because progressives expected Taft to rule as Roosevelt had done -- with energy and emotion. They wanted a man who could excite people with dreams of social progress. Theodore Roosevelt was such a man. William Howard Taft was not.

        決裂的原因是,進步派希望塔夫脫像羅斯福那樣精力充沛、激情澎湃地領導國家,用社會進步的夢想激起人民的熱情。羅斯福就是這樣的人,但塔夫脫不是。

        He was a big, slow-moving man. He refused to make quick decisions. As a former judge, he depended on facts, not emotion, to make decisions.

        他高大魁梧,動作緩慢,他拒絕對事情做出迅速的決定。塔夫脫以前當過法官,所以他做決定時以事實為依據,而不會攙入感情因素。

        President Taft did much to carry out the reform programs Theodore Roosevelt had begun. But his methods led people to believe that he was really trying to kill the programs.

        塔夫脫總統為實施羅斯福開創的改革措施做了很多工作,但他做事的方式讓卻人們覺得,他其實是想要扼殺這些改革項目。

        FRANK OLIVER: Taft wrote to Roosevelt shortly before the former president sailed for home.

        在羅斯福返美前不久,塔夫脫給他寫了封信。

        "I do not know if I have had harder luck than other presidents," he said. "But I do know I have succeeded far less than others. I have been trying to carry out your policies. But my method of doing so has not worked smoothly."

        信中說:"我不知道是不是自己的運氣不如其他總統好。但是我知道,我取得的成就遠遠少于他們。我一直努力執行你的政策,但我做事的方法沒能讓事情一帆風順。"

        Theodore Roosevelt is welcomed in New York after his trip
        Theodore Roosevelt is welcomed in New York after his trip

        A few weeks later, Theodore Roosevelt returned home. In a speech to those who welcomed him in New York, he said: "I am ready and willing to do my part to help solve America's problems. And these problems must be solved if this country is to reach the high level of its hopes."

        幾周后,羅斯?;氐搅嗣绹?。他在紐約對歡迎人群發表講話說:"我隨時準備、也愿意為解決美國的問題出力。美國如果要實現它的鴻圖大志,就必須解決這些問題。"

        To President Taft, Roosevelt wrote: "I will make no speeches or say anything for two months. But I will keep my mind open, as I keep my mouth shut."

        羅斯福還給塔夫脫回信說:"我會在兩個月內不發表演講,不說話,但是,在閉嘴的同時,我會保持開放的思想。"

        TONY RIGGS: President Taft invited Theodore Roosevelt to visit him at the White House. Roosevelt said he could not. However, he did meet with many of the progressive opponents of the president.

        塔夫脫總統邀請羅斯福到白宮看他。羅斯福說自己去不了,不過,他會晤了很多反對塔夫脫的進步派分子。

        Later, he met with Taft at the president's summer home in Massachusetts. It was not a happy meeting. The two friends were tense. By this time, Roosevelt had decided that he agreed with the progressives. He believed President Taft had turned back many of Roosevelt's policies.

        后來,羅斯福在麻薩諸塞州的總統夏季度假地同塔夫脫見了面。這并不是一次愉快的會晤。兩位老朋友變得關系緊張。那時,羅斯福已經站到了進步派分子的一邊。他認為,塔夫脫背叛了自己當初推行的很多政策。

        FRANK OLIVER: Roosevelt decided it was time for him to go to the American people. He accepted an invitation to a celebration in Wyoming.

        在沉默了一段時間后,他決定重新走入美國人民。他接受邀請,參加懷俄明州的一個慶?;顒?。

        He traveled west by train. He stopped in many towns and cities to make speeches. He spoke of party unity. He tried to heal the split that had weakened the Republican Party. But the policies he proposed were progressive. Conservatives refused to support them.

        羅斯福乘火車前往西部。沿途,他在許多小鎮和城市停下,發表演說。他大談黨內團結,試圖修復那些使共和黨力量削弱的分歧。但是,他提出的政策是進步主義的,因而遭到保守派的拒絕。

        President Taft could not understand Roosevelt's purposes. "If only I knew what he wanted," Taft said, "I would do it. But he has told me nothing. I am deeply wounded. He gives me no chance to explain my position or to learn his."

        塔夫脫總統不明白羅斯福的意圖。他說:"要是我能了解羅斯福想要什么,我會去做??墒?,他什么都不告訴我。我覺得很受傷。他沒給我機會來解釋我的立場,或者去了解他的立場。"

        TONY RIGGS: Theodore Roosevelt hoped his speaking trip would help Republican Party candidates win in the nineteen ten congressional elections. His efforts seemed to fail. Republicans were defeated in many states.

        羅斯福本希望他的演說之行可以幫共和黨候選人在1910年的國會選舉中獲勝。但是,他的努力似乎失敗了。共和黨在很多州被民主黨擊敗。

        For a year after the party's defeat in the congressional elections, Theodore Roosevelt remained silent. Then, near the end of nineteen eleven, America's political parties began to prepare for the presidential election that would be held the following year.

        在此后的一年里,羅斯福一直保持沉默??斓?911年年底時,美國各政黨開始為1912年的總統選舉做準備。

        Roosevelt was sure Taft could not be re-elected. Taft had become very conservative. He had close ties to business interests. What the people wanted, thought Roosevelt, was a progressive president. What they wanted was a man like himself.

        羅斯福覺得塔夫脫肯定不會獲得連任。塔夫脫變得太保守了,并且和工商界利益集團關系密切。羅斯福認為,人民需要的是一位進步派總統,是一個像他自己一樣的人。

        So, Theodore Roosevelt began to speak out again in opposition to many of the things President Taft was doing. For example, President Taft had proposed treaties with Canada, Britain, and France. Roosevelt criticized them.

        為此,他開始公開反對塔夫脫的許多做法。比如,塔夫脫提議同加拿大、英國和法國簽訂貿易協定,羅斯福則對這些計劃提出批評。

        FRANK OLIVER: Taft was troubled. He told a friend: "It is very hard to take all these blows from Roosevelt. I do not know what he is trying to do, except to make my way more difficult. It is very hard to see a close friendship going to pieces like a rope of sand."

        塔夫脫非常不安。他對一個朋友說:"我很難接受羅斯福的這些攻擊。除了讓我這個總統更難當以外,我不知道他到底想干什么??粗浬詈竦挠亚橄裆匙幼龅睦K子一樣粉碎,我很難過。"

        By now it was clear to Taft that Roosevelt wanted to be the presidential candidate of the Republican Party in the election of nineteen twelve.

        那時,塔夫脫已經清楚,羅斯福想代表共和黨參加1912年總統選舉。

        William Howard Taft at his desk
        William Howard Taft at his desk

        Earlier, this would have pleased Taft. He would have been happy to leave the White House. But the situation was different now. Roosevelt had changed. Taft felt that the policies he proposed seemed too extreme. Taft decided it was his duty to oppose Roosevelt and the progressives. He would seek re-election.

        要在以前,他會為此而高興,他會樂于離開白宮。但現在,情況不一樣了。羅斯福已經變了。塔夫脫覺得,羅斯福提出的政策太極端,他覺得自己有責任反對羅斯福和進步派分子。為此,他要尋求連任。

        Taft believed he could win the Republican nomination for president. He still had the support of many party leaders.

        塔夫脫相信自己能夠獲得共和黨提名,參加總統競選,因為當時還是有許多黨內大佬支持他的。

        TONY RIGGS: Four months before the Republican nominating convention opened, several progressive Republican governors appealed to Roosevelt. They urged him to declare himself a candidate for president. Roosevelt, they said, was the man to lead the nation into a new era of social progress.

        在共和黨提名大會召開前四個月,一些進步派的共和黨州長向羅斯福發出了競選邀約。他們催羅斯福盡快宣布自己參選,他們說羅斯福是可以帶領美國進入社會進步新時代的領袖。

        Then Taft made a strong statement against the progressives. "They are seeking," he said, "to pull down the temple of freedom and representative government." A reporter asked Roosevelt to answer Taft's statement. Roosevelt said: "My hat is in the ring." That meant he was a candidate. Now, the conflict was in the open. And Roosevelt was ready to fight.

        塔夫脫嚴辭批評進步派人士,他說:"這些人試圖搗毀自由和代議政府的神圣殿堂。"一名記者請羅斯福對這個說法做出回應。羅斯福只說:"我已經參加戰斗。"這意味著羅斯福是候選人。雙方的矛盾公開化,羅斯福準備上陣了。

        FRANK OLIVER: In his speeches, Roosevelt criticized Taft bitterly. In a voice shaking with hatred, he said Taft was controlled by conservative politicians. He said Taft stood in the way of progress. He said Taft was disloyal.

        羅斯福在競選演說中大罵塔夫脫。他的聲音因憤恨而顫抖。他說,塔夫脫受保守派政客擺布,是社會進步的絆腳石,而且背信棄義。

        Taft had to answer. In one speech, he said: "This tears my soul. I am here to answer an old and true friend who has made many charges. I deny all those charges. I do not want to fight Theodore Roosevelt. But I am going to fight him."

        塔夫脫必須對此做出回應,他在一次演講中說:"我為此而心碎。我在這里要面對一位多年的摯友,要回應他對我做出的諸多指責。我否認所有這些指責。我不想和羅斯福斗,可我別無選擇。"

        After the speech, a reporter looked for the president. He found him sitting alone, his head in his hands. His eyes were filled with tears. "Roosevelt was my closest friend," Taft said.

        演講結束后,一名記者四處尋找塔夫脫。他看到塔夫脫一個人坐著,頭埋進雙手中間,眼含淚水。他說:"羅斯福曾是我最親密的朋友。"

        (MUSIC)

        BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Frank Oliver and Tony Riggs.

        You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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