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        #151: Roosevelt Exercises US Power Around the World

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:7-12-2013

        Theodore Roosevelt stands by a globe in this 1905 photograph
        Theodore Roosevelt stands by a globe in this 1905 photograph

        BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        Theodore Roosevelt was president of the United States during the early years of the twentieth century. He was a forceful leader. His national policies led to social reforms and federal protection of nature. His foreign policy led to greater American involvement in world events.

        西奧多.羅斯福在20世紀的頭幾年擔任美國總統。他是個非常有魄力的領導人。他的對內政策推動美國進行社會改革,推動聯邦政府保護自然資源,而他的對外政策則使美國更深入地參與世界事務。

        This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe continue the story of the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt.

        KAY GALLANT: In nineteen-oh-three, Panama declared its independence from Colombia. Fifteen days later, Panama and the United States signed a treaty. The treaty gave the United States the right to build a canal across Panama.

        1903年,巴拿馬宣布脫離哥倫比亞的統治,成為獨立國家。15天后,巴拿馬和美國簽署協定,美國獲得了修建橫跨巴拿馬的運河的權利。

        To protect the canal, President Roosevelt declared greater responsibility for a wide area around the canal. The greatest responsibility was financial. Roosevelt said the United States would guarantee repayment of loans made to Latin American countries.

        為了保護運河,羅斯??偨y宣布,美國將對運河周圍的廣大地區承擔更大的責任。其中最大的責任是資金方面的。羅斯福說,美國將保證拉美國家償還它們借下的貸款。

        He did this to prevent European countries from using the issue of non-payment as an excuse to seize new territory in the Western Hemisphere.

        他這么做是為了防止歐洲國家以拉美各國欠債不還為借口在西半球攫取新的殖民地。

        HARRY MONROE: Some Latin American nations were in serious economic trouble. Venezuela was one.

        當時,一些拉美國家處在嚴重的經濟困境之中,委內瑞拉就是其中之一。

        At that time, Venezuela owed millions of dollars to Britain and Germany. The Venezuelan ruler refused to make payments on the loans. Britain and Germany decided to use force to get the money.

        委內瑞拉欠英國和德國數百萬美元,而其領導人拒不還錢。于是,英國和德國決定用武力討債。

        Their ships began blocking Venezuela's ports. When they began shelling coastal areas, President Roosevelt intervened. He urged them to let the international court of arbitration at The Hague settle the dispute.

        兩國的軍艦開始封鎖委內瑞拉的港口。當它們炮轟委內瑞拉沿海地區時,羅斯福開始出面干預。他敦促英國和德國把糾紛交由海牙國際法庭裁決。

        They agreed. And the blockade of Venezuela ended.

        英國和德國同意了,并結束了對委內瑞拉的封鎖。

        KAY GALLANT: Less than two years later, a similar financial problem arose in the Dominican Republic. Revolutions and dictatorships there prevented re-payment of foreign loans.

        這之后不到兩年,多米尼加共和國又發生了類似的債務問題。那里的革命活動和獨裁統治使政府無法償還外債。

        The United States offered a solution. It would take over collection of import taxes at ports in the Dominican Republic. Forty-five percent of the money would be paid to the Dominican government. The other fifty-five percent would be used to repay loans. The Dominican Republic agreed. The plan succeeded.

        美國提出了一個解決辦法。那就是,美國接管多米尼加共和國各港口的進口關稅,把收入的百分之45付給多米尼加政府,剩下的百分之55用來還債。多米尼加共和國同意了,美國的計劃成功了。

        Some countries in Latin America and the Caribbean questioned the right of the United States to act as policeman for the Western Hemisphere. But none openly opposed President Roosevelt's policy.

        雖然一些拉美國家對美國是否有權充當西半球警察心存疑慮,但是沒有一個國家公然反對羅斯福的政策。

        HARRY MONROE: Theodore Roosevelt had become president after the assassination of President William McKinley. He completed the last three years of McKinley's term. Then he was ready to be elected in his own right.

        羅斯福是在麥金利遇刺身亡后當上總統的,他干完了麥金利剩下的三年任期,并準備以自己的實力當選總統。

        Republican Party leaders, however, were not so sure. Roosevelt had made businessmen angry, because of his attempts to control big companies. But he made voters happy, because of his fight for social reforms.

        但是,共和黨大佬們并非全力支持羅斯福。一方面,羅斯福因為試圖控制大企業而惹怒了商人,但另一方面,他竭力推進社會改革又博得了選民的愛戴。

        Roosevelt's only serious competitor for the nomination was a long-time senator and presidential adviser. But the man died before the nominating convention. So, Roosevelt won the nomination easily.

        在獲得共和黨提名的問題上,羅斯福唯一的真正對手是一位資深參議員兼總統顧問。不過,還沒等提名大會召開,這個人就去世了。于是,羅斯福輕而易舉地獲得了共和黨提名。

        KAY GALLANT: The Democratic Party, in the past two elections, had nominated a progressive, Congressman William Jennings Bryan, as its candidate. This time, the Democrats chose a more conservative candidate. He was a New York judge, Alton Parker.

        在過去兩次總統選舉中,民主黨推選的都是進步派國會眾議員布萊恩。這次,民主黨選了位比布萊恩保守的候選人,他就是紐約州的法官阿爾頓·帕克爾。

        Judge Parker had no chance to win the election. Theodore Roosevelt was the best-known man in America. He won easily.

        不過,帕克爾根本就沒有任何勝算。羅斯福是美國名氣最大的人,他毫不費力就贏了總統選舉。

        On inauguration day, Roosevelt made a short speech. He said America's capitalist economic system had done much good for the country. But it also had created a crisis in social relations. And the crisis had to be solved. "If we fail," Roosevelt said, "the cause of self-government throughout the world will suffer greatly."

        在總統就職日,羅斯福發表了簡短的演說。他說,美國的資本主義經濟系統為國家帶來了很多好處,但它也使美國人的社會關系出現了危機。美國必須解決這些危機。羅斯福說:"如果我們失敗,那么世界各地的自治運動都將受到重創。"

        HARRY MONROE: During his new term in office, President Roosevelt was able to get Congress to approve two major new laws. One was the Hepburn Act. This law gave the Interstate Commerce Commission power to limit how much railroads could charge for transporting goods. The purpose was to keep the cost of railroad transportation reasonable.

        羅斯福得以在新一屆任期中使國會批準了兩部重要的新法律。一部是赫本法案,它使州際商貿委員會有權限定鐵路公司的貨運價格,目的是把鐵路運費控制在合理的范圍內。

        The other new law was the Pure Food and Drug Act. This law declared it illegal to make or sell foods and medicines containing harmful chemicals. The purpose was to protect the health of all Americans.

        另外一部法律是"清潔食品和藥品法"。該法律禁止制造和銷售含有有害化學成分的食品和藥品,目的是保護所有美國人的身體健康。

        KAY GALLANT: President Roosevelt's most important foreign policy success came as a result of a war between Russia and Japan.

        羅斯福擔任總統期間,在世界各地擴展美國的影響力。而他外交工作上最重要的成功起因于俄羅斯和日本之間的戰爭。

        A Japanese painting from 1904 showing the Battle of the Yalu River between the forces of Japan and Russia
        A Japanese painting from 1904 showing the Battle of the Yalu River between the forces of Japan and Russia

        At that time, Russia occupied Manchuria in northern China. Japan occupied Korea. Japan wanted control of Manchuria. It needed that area's coal and iron ore. Japan also wanted to end any Russian threat to Korea. So, it decided to fight.

        當時,俄羅斯占領了中國北部的滿洲里,日本則占領著朝鮮。但日本也垂涎滿洲里,希望將其占為己有,因為它需要那里的煤和鐵礦石,并想掃清俄羅斯對朝鮮的威脅。所以,日本決定和俄羅斯開戰。

        Japan's navy easily defeated all the Russian fleets sent to the Pacific. But the two sides continued to fight on land. When both began to run out of money, they accepted President Roosevelt's offer to make peace.

        在太平洋的海戰中,日本海軍輕而易舉地擊敗了俄羅斯的艦隊,但雙方在陸上繼續交戰。當兩國都開始感到財力不支,無法繼續打仗時,它們接受了羅斯??偨y出面調停的建議。

        HARRY MONROE: Roosevelt invited Japanese and Russian diplomats to meet with him in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He told them his greatest hope and prayer was for them to find a just and lasting peace quickly. A quick settlement, however, was not easy.

        羅斯福邀請日本和俄羅斯外交官在新罕布什爾州的樸茨茅斯會面,并對他們表示,自己最大的希望就是日本和俄羅斯能迅速實現公正而持久的和平。不過,想要迅速解決此事,并沒有那么容易。

        Japan demanded six hundred million dollars for war damages. It also wanted Sakhalin Island. Russia rejected both demands. It had agreed to give up southern Manchuria. Russia would give up nothing else.

        日本提出6億美元的戰爭賠款,還要求得到庫頁島。這兩個要求都被俄羅斯拒絕了。俄羅斯表示,除了之前答應的把滿洲里南部讓給日本外,不會再做任何讓步。

        Negotiations lasted many days. President Roosevelt became more and more angry when neither side would compromise. But he remained calm and kept the talks going.

        就這樣,談判持續了很多天,兩邊都不肯妥協,這讓羅斯福越來越惱火。不過,他依然保持鎮靜,讓談判繼續進行。

        Later, he said: "What I really wanted to do was give an angry shout, jump up, and knock their heads together."

        羅斯福后來說:"我當時真正想做的是怒吼,跳起來,把日本和俄羅斯的腦袋摁到一塊兒去。"

        KAY GALLANT: Finally, Roosevelt made a secret appeal to the Emperor of Japan. He asked the Emperor to drop demands for money and for Sakhalin Island. He warned that Russia was ready to fight again if the peace talks failed.

        最后,羅斯福秘密懇求日本天皇幫忙。他請天皇放棄賠款和對庫頁島的要求。他警告說,如果和平談判失敗,俄羅斯會再開戰。

        The Emperor agreed to drop the demand for money. But, he still demanded half of Sakhalin Island. Russia agreed to this compromise. The two sides signed a peace treaty.

        天皇同意撤銷賠款要求,但是,他堅持要獲得庫頁島一半的領土。俄羅斯接受了這一妥協,雙方簽定了和平協議。

        President Roosevelt with representatives of the Russian Czar and the Japanese Emperor
        President Roosevelt with representatives of the Russian Czar and the Japanese Emperor

        HARRY MONROE: Theodore Roosevelt received the Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating an end to the Russian-Japanese war. However, his efforts were denounced in Japan. Roosevelt was held responsible for the loss of war damage payments. It was money Japan needed badly.

        因為成功調解日俄沖突,結束戰爭,羅斯福獲得了諾貝爾和平獎。不過,他的努力在日本惹來罵聲一片。日本人認為,就是因為羅斯福,日本才沒能拿到戰爭賠款,而日本當時急需用錢。

        Anti-American riots broke out in some parts of the country. At the same time, tense relations developed between American citizens and Japanese immigrants in California.

        日本一些地方發生了反美暴動。與此同時,在美國加州,美國公民和日本移民的關系也變得緊張起來。

        Poor Japanese immigrants were willing to work for low pay. As a result, Americans lost jobs. They protested. Then school officials in San Francisco barred Japanese children from attending school with white children.

        貧窮的日本移民愿意接受低薪,結果導致美國人失去工作機會。美國人對此進行抗議。后來,舊金山的教育官員禁止日本孩子和白人孩子上同一所學校。

        President Roosevelt opposed the decision. He asked the officials to lift the ban. In exchange, he agreed to ask Japan to stop its poor farmers and laborers from going to live in America.

        羅斯??偨y反對這個決定。他要求教育官員取消這個禁令。作為交換,他同意要求日本政府禁止貧窮農民和勞工移民美國。

        Japan said it would. The understanding became known as the Gentleman's Agreement.

        日本接受了這個要求。雙方達成了所謂的"君子協定"。

        KAY GALLANT: Roosevelt worked hard to improve America's relations with Japan. Yet he made clear that the United States would defend its interests in Asia and the Pacific.

        羅斯福努力改善美國和日本的關系,不過他也清楚地表示,美國會捍衛自己在亞洲和太平洋地區的利益。

        As a warning, he sent a naval force on a voyage around the world. The force included sixteen battleships and twelve thousand men. It was called the Great White Fleet.

        為了警示其它國家,羅斯福派一支海軍艦隊巡航全世界。這支艦隊有16艘戰艦,1200名海員,名叫"大白艦隊"。

        The voyage lasted fourteen months. The fleet sailed down the Atlantic coast of South America. It went around the bottom of South America into the Pacific Ocean, then on to Hawaii, Australia, and Japan.

        這次巡航持續了14個月。艦隊南下南美洲大西洋沿岸,又從南美洲最南端進入太平洋,然后到達夏威夷、澳大利亞和日本。

        Surprisingly, it received its warmest welcome in Japan.

        令人吃驚的是,大白艦隊居然是在日本受到了最熱烈的歡迎。

        An American reporter said: "The fleet made a deep and far-reaching impression. It caused the Japanese to understand the great power of the United States, as nothing else could possibly have done."

        一個美國記者說:"大白艦隊給人民留下了深刻而永久的印象。它讓日本見識了美國強大的力量,沒有別的東西能做到這一點。"

        A cartoon from Harper's Magazine shows President Roosevelt carrying his
        A cartoon from Harper's Magazine shows President Roosevelt carrying his "big stick" while trying to end a dispute of European powers over Morocco

        President Roosevelt believed this show of American strength prevented war with Japan. "Sending out the fleet," he said, "was the most important thing I did for peace."

        羅斯??偨y相信,通過展示美國的國力,他避免了美日之間爆發戰爭。他說:"我為和平做的最重要的事就是派大白艦隊出去巡航。"

        HARRY MONROE: Theodore Roosevelt greatly enjoyed playing the part of peace-maker. After successfully ending the war between Russia and Japan, he was asked to settle another international dispute. At issue was control over Morocco.

        羅斯福很享受自己扮演的和平締造者的角色。在成功結束日俄戰爭之后,他又被邀請去調解因爭奪對摩洛哥的控制權而引發的另一場國際爭端。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English.

        Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:perfect100
        6-27-2014 8:33:38
        that time, the USA made a great contribution for the world peace ,settled sereval international disputs.
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