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        #150: Panama Breaks With Colombia, Clearing Way for the Panama Canal

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:7-11-2013

        Construction on the Panama Canal in 1913
        Construction on the Panama Canal in 1913

        BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        Theodore Roosevelt became president of the United States at the beginning of the nineteen hundreds. He firmly believed in expanding American power in the world.

        西奧多.羅斯福在20世紀初成為美國總統。他堅信,美國必須擴展在全世界的影響力。

        To do this, he wanted a strong navy. And he wanted a waterway that would let the navy sail quickly between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

        為此,他需要一支強大的海軍,以及一條可以讓海軍在大西洋和太平洋之間迅速穿行的運河。

        Roosevelt decided to build that waterway.

        羅斯福決定修一條這樣的運河。

        This week in our series, Richard Rael and Maurice Joyce tell the story of the Panama Canal.

        RICHARD RAEL: For many years, people had dreamed of building a canal across Central America to link the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The most likely place was at the thinnest point of land: Panama. Another possible place was to the north: Nicaragua. President Roosevelt appointed a committee to decide which place would be better.

        多年以來,人們夢想修建一條橫跨中美洲,連接大西洋和太平洋的運河。而最有可能修建運河的地方位于美洲大陸最狹窄的地方:巴拿馬。另外一個地點在稍微靠北的尼加拉瓜。羅斯??偨y指派一個委員會專門研究哪個地方更適合修建運河。

        Engineers said it would cost less to complete a canal that had been started in the eighteen eighties in Panama. But, the United States would have to buy the land and building rights from a French company. The price was high: more than one hundred million dollars.

        工程師們認為,如果在19世紀80年代德·雷賽布在巴拿馬修運河的地方接著把運河修完,整體花費就能小一些。不過,要這么做,美國就必須從一家法國公司購買這片土地的所有權和運河的修建權。這筆費用很昂貴,超過一億美元。

        So, the committee decided it would be less costly, overall, to build a canal in Nicaragua. The proposal went to the United States Congress for approval.

        所以,運河研究委員會最后決定,從總體上算,還是在尼加拉瓜修運河比較省錢。于是這個計劃被提交給美國國會,等待批準。

        MAURICE JOYCE: The House of Representatives quickly passed a bill to build the Nicaragua canal. Then the French company reduced its price for the land and building rights in Panama. It decided some money was better than no money at all.

        國會眾議院迅速通過了修建尼加拉瓜運河的議案??删驮谶@時,法國那家公司降低了在巴拿馬修運河的土地費和建筑權費,因為能得到一些錢總比一分錢都拿不到強。

        President Roosevelt was pleased. He gave his support to the Panama plan. When the Senate began debate, however, it appeared the Nicaragua plan would win.

        羅斯福非常高興。他表示支持在巴拿馬修運河的計劃。不過,在參議院開始就運河問題展開辯論后,議員們似乎更傾向于尼加拉瓜運河計劃。

        Then a volcano exploded in the Caribbean area. A city was destroyed. Thirty-thousand people were killed. Soon, reports said another volcano had become active and was threatening a town. The volcano was in Nicaragua.

        此時,加勒比海地區一座火山噴發,摧毀了一座城市,導致三萬人死亡。很快,有報導說,另外一座火山也進入了活躍期,威脅一個城鎮的安全,而這座火山就在尼加拉瓜。

        Nicaragua's president denied there were any active volcanoes in his country. But one of Nicaragua's postal stamps showed a picture of an exploding volcano.

        尼加拉瓜總統否認這些說法。他說,尼加拉瓜根本沒有活火山。然而,尼加拉瓜卻發行過一枚郵票,上面就印著火山噴發的景象。

        A photo dated 1902 shows smoke coming from the Momotombo volcano, the
        A photo dated 1902 shows smoke coming from the Momotombo volcano, the "smoking terror" in Nicaragua

        That little stamp weakened support for the Nicaragua canal. The Senate passed a bill for a Panama canal instead. The House of Representatives changed its earlier decision. It approved the Senate bill.

        這枚小小的郵票削弱了人們對尼加拉瓜運河計劃的支持。美國參議院通過了在巴拿馬修建運河的議案。眾議院也修改了其先前的決定,同意了參議院的議案。

        RICHARD RAEL: At that time, Panama was a state of Colombia. Canal negotiations between America and Colombia did not go smoothly. After nine months, the United States threatened to end the talks and begin negotiations with Nicaragua. The threat worked.

        當時,巴拿馬還是哥倫比亞的一個州。美國和哥倫比亞關于修建運河的談判進行得不順利。在談了9個月后,美國威脅說,如果再談不攏,美國就要終止談判,去和尼加拉瓜談運河的事。這個威脅奏效了。

        In January nineteen-oh-three, Colombia signed a treaty to permit the United States to build the Panama Canal. The treaty gave the United States a canal zone. This was a piece of land ten kilometers wide across Panama. The United States could use the canal zone for one hundred years. In exchange, it would pay Colombia ten million dollars, plus two hundred fifty thousand dollars a year.

        1903年1月,哥倫比亞在協定上簽字,允許美國修建巴拿馬運河。協定使美國獲得了一個寬10公里、橫跨巴拿馬的運河區。美國對這個地區有100年的使用權。作為交換,美國付給哥倫比亞一千萬美元,每年還要額外支付25萬美元。

        The United States Senate passed the treaty within two months. The Colombian Senate rejected it. The Colombian government demanded more money.

        美國參議院兩個月后批準了這項協定,可是哥倫比亞參議院卻拒絕這么做。接著,哥倫比亞政府要求美國支付更多的錢。

        MAURICE JOYCE: President Roosevelt was furious. He saw the issue in terms of world politics, not simply Colombia's sovereignty. He said: "I do not think Colombia should be permitted to bar permanently one of the future highways of civilization."

        羅斯福為此大為惱火,他認為這件事并不僅僅關乎哥倫比亞主權,還影響到整個世界的政治格局。他說:"我認為,哥倫比亞不能永遠阻礙這條通往文明的未來之路。"

        Roosevelt was ready to take over Panama to build the canal.

        羅斯福決定將巴拿馬從哥倫比亞手里搶過來,修建運河。

        That was not necessary. A revolt was being planned in Panama to gain independence from Colombia. The United States made no promises to support the rebels. But it wanted the rebels to succeed.

        然而,還沒等他動手,巴拿馬已經在醞釀革命,打算脫離哥倫比亞成為獨立國家了。美國沒有承諾支持革命分子,但希望他們成功。

        Under an old treaty, Colombia had given the United States the right to prevent interference with travel across Panama. Now, the United States used the old treaty to prevent interference from Colombian troops. Several American warships were sent to Panama.

        根據美國和哥倫比亞以前簽定的一項條約,如果人們在巴拿馬旅行受到干擾,美國有權制止干擾行為?,F在,美國就用這個條約來對付哥倫比亞軍隊。若干美國戰艦被派往巴拿馬。

        RICHARD RAEL: The local leader of the Panamanian revolt was Manuel Amador. Amador had the support of the French company that still owned the rights to build the Panama Canal. The chief representative of the company was Philippe Bunau-Varilla. He worked closely with an American lawyer, William Cromwell.

        巴拿馬革命力量的領導人是曼努埃爾·阿馬多爾,他得到了依然擁有巴拿馬運河修建權的法國公司的支持。這家公司的首席代表是菲利普.比諾-巴里利亞,他的得力工作伙伴是美國律師威廉.克倫威爾。

        Bunau-Varilla and Cromwell provided Manuel Amador with a declaration of independence, a constitution, and money. Amador used the money to buy the support of the Colombian military commander in Panama City, the capital. He also got the support of the governor, who agreed to let himself be arrested on the day of the revolt.

        比諾-巴里利亞和克倫威爾為阿馬多爾寫好了獨立宣言、憲法,還給他提供了資金。阿馬多爾用這筆錢收買了巴拿馬首府巴拿馬城的哥倫比亞軍隊指揮官。他還得到了巴拿馬州長的支持。州長同意,在起義爆發的那天,自己將束手就擒。

        Amador formed a small army of railroad workers and fire fighters.

        阿馬多爾組織鐵路工人和消防員,成立了一支人數不多革命軍。

        The rebel army planned to take over Panama City on November fourth, nineteen-oh-three. Just before that date, five hundred Colombian soldiers landed at Colon, eighty kilometers away.

        他們計劃1903年11月4號奪取巴拿馬城的控制權。然而,就在起義開始前,500名哥倫比亞軍人登陸距離巴拿馬城80公里的科隆港。

        The soldiers could not get to Panama City, however. All but one railroad car had been moved to the capital.

        不過他們去不了巴拿馬城,因為幾乎所有火車都已經被調進巴拿馬城了,在科隆只剩下一節車廂。

        MAURICE JOYCE: Manuel Amador gave a signal. The revolution began. There was a little shooting, but no one was hurt. Most of the shots were fired into the air to celebrate the call for Panama's independence. Colombian officials were arrested quickly. Then Amador made a speech. He said:

        阿馬多爾一聲令下,起義開始了。雖然開了槍,但是沒人受傷。大部分槍都是沖天開的,為的是慶祝巴拿馬的獨立訴求。哥倫比亞官員很快就被逮捕了。然后,阿馬多爾發表了演講。

        Theodore Roosevelt, left, stands with Manuel Amador, center
        Theodore Roosevelt, left, stands with Manuel Amador, center

        "Yesterday, we were slaves of Colombia. Today, we are free. President Theodore Roosevelt has kept his word. Long live the Republic of Panama! Long live President Roosevelt!"

        他說:"昨天,我們是哥倫比亞的奴隸。今天,我們是自由人了。西奧多.羅斯??偨y言而有信。巴拿馬共和國萬歲!羅斯??偨y萬歲!"

        Colombia asked the United States to help it re-gain control of Panama. The United States refused. It said it would oppose any attempt by Colombia to send more forces there.

        哥倫比亞請求美國幫助它奪回對巴拿馬的控制權。美國拒絕了,并表示,美國反對哥倫比亞一切向巴拿馬增兵的企圖。

        The United States also recognized Panama's independence. And, almost immediately, it started negotiations with the new government on a canal treaty.

        美國還承認巴拿馬獨立,并幾乎馬上開始同新成立的巴拿馬政府就運河事宜展開談判。

        RICHARD RAEL: The two sides reached agreement quickly. The treaty was almost the same as the one the Colombian Senate had rejected earlier. This time, however, the canal zone would be sixteen kilometers wide, instead of ten. And the United States would get permanent control of the canal zone.

        雙方很快達成了協議。這次達成的協議和之前被哥倫比亞參議院拒絕的協議幾乎一模一樣,不同之處在于,原先10公里寬的運河區被加大到了16公里,而且美國將永遠對這一區域擁有控制權。

        The treaty was signed on November eighteenth, nineteen-oh-three. That was just fifteen days after Panama declared its independence.

        1903年11月18號,也就是巴拿馬宣布獨立僅僅15天之后,雙方在協議上簽字。

        MAURICE JOYCE: Colombia protested. It said the United States had acted illegally in Panama. Many American citizens protested, too. They called President Roosevelt a pirate. They said he had acted shamefully.

        哥倫比亞對此表示抗議,說美國在巴拿馬的所作所為是非法的。許多美國人也不滿美國在巴拿馬的行為,說羅斯福是個行為令人不齒的海盜。

        Some members of Congress questioned the administration's deal with the French canal company in Panama. Several investigations examined the deal.

        一些美國國會議員對羅斯福政府同法國運河公司在巴拿馬達成的協議提出質疑,并幾次對該協議進行調查。

        Theodore Roosevelt did not care. He was proud of his success in getting the canal started. He said: "I took the canal zone and let Congress debate. And while the debate goes on, so does work on the canal."

        而羅斯??偨y并不在意這些反對和懷疑。他為自己能開啟運河工程而自豪。他說:"我拿到了運河區,讓國會去辯論好了。他們在那兒繼續辯論,我這邊的運河工程就繼續進行。"

        RICHARD RAEL: It took ten years for the United States to complete the Panama Canal. The first ship passed through it in August, nineteen fourteen.

        美國花10年時間修完了巴拿馬運河,1914年8月,運河通航。

        A ship entering the completed Gatun Lock on the Panama Canal
        A ship entering the completed Gatun Lock on the Panama Canal

        In that same year, the United States signed an agreement with Colombia. The agreement expressed America's regret for its part in the Panamanian revolution. And it provided a payment of twenty-five million dollars to Colombia.

        同年,美國與哥倫比亞簽署一項協議。美國對支持巴拿馬獨立革命表示道歉,并支付給哥倫比亞兩千五百萬美元。

        Theodore Roosevelt was no longer president when the agreement was signed. But he still had many friends in the Senate. He got them to reject it.

        協議簽署時,羅斯福已經不是美國總統了,不過他在參議院朋友眾多,于是他利用自己的關系網,讓參議院否決了這項協議。

        After Roosevelt's death, the United States signed another agreement with Colombia. The new agreement included the payment of twenty-five million dollars. It did not include the statement of regret. The Senate approved the new agreement.

        羅斯福去世后,美國同哥倫比亞簽定了另外一份協議。新協議包含美國支付兩千五百萬美元的內容,但是不包括向哥倫比亞道歉的內容。美國參議院批準了這份協議。

        MAURICE JOYCE: The issue of America's involvement in Panama caused much bitterness in other countries of Latin America. Some did not feel safe from American interference. President Roosevelt said the United States would not interfere with any nation that kept order and paid what it owed.

        然而,美國參與巴拿馬革命的行為讓其它拉丁美州國家感到十分不滿。一些國家覺得,美國的干預會威脅到它們的安全。對此,羅斯??偨y表示,對那些遵守秩序、欠債必還的國家,美國不會干預其事務。

        Roosevelt was worried because some Latin American countries were having difficulty re-paying loans from European banks. He did not want the issue of non-payment used as an excuse for European countries to seize new territory in the western hemisphere.

        當時一些拉美國家無法償還歐洲各銀行發放的貸款,這令羅斯福感到擔心。他不希望歐洲國家以不還債為借口在西半球攫取新的地盤。

        Roosevelt said the United States was responsible for making sure the debts were paid. His policy led to further United States involvement in Latin America.

        羅斯福說,美國有責任確保拉美各國償還這些貸款。他的政策使美國進一步卷入拉美國家的事務。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Richard Rael and Maurice Joyce. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English.

        Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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