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        #148: Teddy Roosevelt Leads Nation After McKinley's Murder

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:7-9-2013

        A drawing of the shooting of President William McKinley on September 6, 1901
        A drawing of the shooting of President William McKinley on September 6, 1901

        BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        In September of nineteen hundred and one, President William McKinley was assassinated. His vice president, Theodore Roosevelt, was sworn in to replace him.

        1901年9月,美國總統麥金利遇刺身亡。副總統西奧多.羅斯福接替了麥金利的位置。

        Roosevelt was forty-two years old -- the youngest man ever to hold the office of president of the United States.

        當時羅斯福只有42歲,成了美國歷史上最年輕的總統。

        This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Shep O'Neal tell the story of President Theodore Roosevelt and his administration.

        MAURICE JOYCE: Theodore Roosevelt became president at the beginning of the twentieth century. It was a time of rapid changes in American society. The changes were a result of technology.

        在西奧多.羅斯福就任總統的20世紀初,美國社會正經歷著快速的變化,而這些變化是技術革新帶來的結果。

        Great progress had been made, for example, in transportation. Almost every American city had a street railroad, or trolley. These systems were powered by electricity. Thousands of Americans owned automobiles. And Henry Ford was planning a low-cost version which even more people could buy.

        比如,美國的交通運輸業出現了大發展,幾乎每個城市都有依靠電力運轉的市內電車系統。成千上萬的美國人擁有自己的小汽車。而汽車大王亨利·福特正計劃推出價格更低廉的汽車,以滿足更多人擁有私家車的夢想。

        Great progress had been made in communications. There were telephones in almost every business office in the cities and in many homes. And Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi had sent the first wireless message across the Atlantic Ocean.

        電信業也經歷著大發展。城市里的幾乎所有辦公室和許多老百姓家里都安了電話。意大利發明家馬可尼成功發射了跨越大西洋的無線電報。

        SHEP O'NEAL: It was clear that the United States had made great progress in technology. Yet many believed it had made little progress in social issues. These people felt America's natural resources were being mis-used. They felt America's farmers were poorer than they should be. They felt America's industries were unfair to workers.

        不過,盡管美國在技術革新方面取得了極大發展,但許多人認為,美國的許多社會問題并沒有得到解決。這些人覺得,美國的自然資源遭到不合理開發,農民過于貧窮,工商企業惡待工人。

        Since the late eighteen hundreds, a spirit of reform had been growing in the United States. It started among farmers and led to the creation of a new political party -- the Populists. Then organized labor joined the movement. Then middle class Americans.

        從19世紀晚期開始,美國興起了一股改革之風。這股風潮始于農民,導致了新政黨--人民黨的誕生。隨后,工會組織加入了這一運動,后來,美國中產階級也參與進來。

        Not everyone agreed on ways to solve society's problems. But they were united in the belief that social progress had to be made. The future of American democracy, they said, depended on the success of the progressive movement.

        對于如何解決社會問題,改革派們并沒有達成共識。不過,他們都堅信,美國必須實現社會進步。他們說,美國民主的未來走向取決于進步運動能否成功。

        The man who came to represent the spirit of reform most of all was the new president, Theodore Roosevelt.

        而最能代表改革精神的人就是新上任的總統西奧多.羅斯福。

        MAURICE JOYCE: Roosevelt was born to a wealthy family in New York City in eighteen fifty-eight. He was a weak child with poor eyesight. He spent much of his time reading. When Theodore was thirteen years old, he got into an argument with two other boys. He tried to fight them. But he was not strong enough.

        1858年,羅斯福出生在紐約市一個富有家庭。他身體不好,視力差,酷愛讀書。13歲時,羅斯福和兩個男孩吵架,他想去揍人家,可發現自己瘦小無力。

        That incident was a turning point in Roosevelt's life. He decided to overcome his physical weaknesses through exercise and hard work. He lifted weights, ran long distances, and learned how to be a boxer. He continued these activities while he attended Harvard University.

        這件事成了羅斯福一生的轉折點。他決定通過鍛練和努力工作來戰勝身體的孱弱。他練舉重、長跑、學習拳擊。在哈佛大學念書期間,他也一直堅持這些運動。

        Theodore Roosevelt in 1901, the year he became president
        Theodore Roosevelt in 1901, the year he became president

        After college, Roosevelt married Alice Lee and returned to New York. He became active in the Republican Party. When he was just twenty-three years old, he was elected to the state legislature. Roosevelt quickly became known as a reform politician. He denounced all forms of dishonesty in government.

        大學畢業后,羅斯福和愛麗斯.李結婚,并回到了紐約。他成為共和黨的積極分子。23歲時他當選州議員,并迅速向人們展示了他改革派的立場,并抨擊政府中一切弄虛作假的行為。

        SHEP O'NEAL: Roosevelt's first political career did not last long. He withdrew after four years, following the deaths of his wife and mother. His sadness was so great that he could not continue.

        不過,他的這一段政治生涯并沒有持續多久。4年之后,他的妻子和母親相繼去世,這讓他大受打擊,悲痛之下,他決定告別政壇。

        Roosevelt moved to a ranch in the Dakota territory of the American West. He began to raise beef cattle. At first, the local cowboys laughed at him. They called him "four eyes," because he wore eyeglasses. They stopped laughing when they found he could do the hard work of a cowboy as well as any of them.

        羅斯福搬到了西部現在達科他州境內的一個農場,開始養牛。起初,那里的牛仔們都笑話他,因為他帶眼鏡,所以人們都叫他"四眼"??扇藗兒髞戆l現,羅斯福做起辛苦的牛仔工作來不輸給他們任何一個。所以,他們不再嘲笑他了。

        MAURICE JOYCE: Roosevelt spent two years in the West. Then he returned to New York and a life in politics.

        羅斯福在西部待了兩年。然后他返回紐約,再次進入政壇。

        He became the Republican candidate for mayor of New York City, but lost the election. Then he campaigned for Republican Benjamin Harrison in the presidential election of eighteen eighty-eight. Harrison won. And he named Roosevelt head of the federal Civil Service Commission. Roosevelt fought hard to keep politics out of the civil service.

        羅斯福作為共和黨候選人競選紐約市長,但沒有成功。后來,他幫助1888年共和黨總統候選人哈里森競選總統。哈里森當選后,任命羅斯福為聯邦公務員敘用委員會的負責人。羅斯福排除種種阻力,力圖使公務員隊伍不受政治權力的影響。

        Democrat Grover Cleveland was elected president four years later. He approved of Roosevelt's civil service reforms. He asked him to remain in the job. Roosevelt did so for another two years. Then he became Commissioner of Police in New York City. Once again, he pushed for reforms. He removed policemen found guilty of receiving illegal payments.

        四年后,民主黨人克利夫蘭當選總統。他認可羅斯福對公務員用人制度進行的改革,并請他留任。羅斯福又干了兩年,然后他當上了紐約市警務處處長。他再次推行改革,把那些非法收受錢財的警察革職。

        SHEP O'NEAL: In eighteen ninety-seven, President William McKinley named Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy. The United States went to war against Spain a year later.

        1897年,麥金利總統任命羅斯福為海軍部長助理。一年后,美西戰爭爆發。

        Roosevelt wanted an active part in the war. So, he resigned and joined the army. He organized a force of horse soldiers known as the "Rough Riders." They were honored for bravery in the Battle of San Juan Hill in Cuba.

        羅斯福希望能親臨戰場,因此他辭去海軍部長助理的職務,加入了陸軍。他組建了一支騎兵隊,名叫"勇猛騎士"。這支隊伍的戰士因在古巴圣胡安山戰役中作戰英勇而受到嘉獎。

        Roosevelt was now a war hero. Republican Party leaders in New York thought he would be the perfect candidate for governor. Teddy, as the public called him, won a close election. He soon made clear he would not take orders from party leaders.

        羅斯福成了英雄。紐約的共和黨大佬們覺得,他是競選紐約州長的不二人選。羅斯福也不負眾望,在激烈的競選中贏得了勝利。不過,他很快就讓共和黨大佬們明白,自己不會聽命于他們。

        The new governor proposed controls on businesses. His main targets were companies that supplied the public with water, electricity, and natural gas. He demanded changes in the food and drug industries. And he shortened the work day for women and children.

        羅斯福當上州長后,提議政府對公司企業進行控制。他主要針對的是為公眾提供水、電和天然氣的公司。他還要求對食品和藥品公司進行改革,并縮短了婦女和兒童的工作時間。

        MAURICE JOYCE: The public praised Roosevelt's reform efforts. Local party leaders did not. As one said: "I do not want him raising hell in my state any longer." Local leaders decided the best way to get him out of New York politics was to support him for vice president of the United States. The office gave a man very little voice or power in politics.

        公眾稱贊羅斯福的改革努力,但紐約的共和黨領袖們卻并不高興。其中一人說:"我不想再讓羅斯福在我的州里搗亂了。"這些共和黨大佬們決定,把羅斯福踢出紐約政界的最好辦法就是支持他競選美國副總統。副總統是個虛職,沒有什么發言權和權力。

        Roosevelt did not want the job, for that reason. By then he wanted just one thing: to be president of the United States. He was sure being vice president would ruin his chances. But he accepted the nomination at the national convention. He would run on the ticket with William McKinley. Sadly he said: "I do not expect to go any further in politics."

        為此,羅斯福對這個職位并不感興趣。那時,他眼里的目標只有一個:成為美國總統。他確信,當副總統只會斷送自己的前途。不過,在共和黨全國大會上,他還是接受了副總統候選人的提名,同意和麥金利一起競選。他難過地說:"我的政治生涯這就走到頭兒了,我再也不奢望能取得什么更大的成就了。"

        Several months after he was sworn-in as vice president, he was sworn-in as President. William McKinley was dead. Theodore Roosevelt became president as the result of an assassin's bullet.

        然而,羅斯福就任副總統才幾個月,就宣誓就任美國總統了。刺客的子彈要了麥金利總統的命,卻把羅斯福送上了總統寶座。

        SHEP O'NEAL: Roosevelt promised party leaders that he would continue McKinley's policies. He said he would move slowly in making any changes.

        羅斯福向共和黨領袖們承諾,他將繼續執行麥金利的各項政策。他說,他不會急于改革。

        In his first message to Congress, President Roosevelt offered a few new proposals. He asked for a Department of Commerce and Labor to deal with industrial problems. He called for a stronger Navy and for limits on immigration. And he proposed building a canal in central America to link the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

        羅斯福在對國會發表的首次演講中提出了幾項新建議。他要求成立商務和勞工部,專門處理工商界的問題。他要求增強海軍力量,并限制移民。此外,他還提出在中美洲修建一條運河,把大西洋和太平洋連接起來。

        MAURICE JOYCE: Businessmen who feared the worse when Roosevelt became president began to breathe easier. It seemed he was not going to push for reforms after all. But Roosevelt was only following an old hunting rule of African tribesmen. "Speak softly," the rule said, "and carry a big stick."

        商人們發現,羅斯福的當選并沒有使事情變得像他們預想的那樣糟糕,于是他們松了口氣。羅斯福似乎根本不會推行什么改革。其實,羅斯福用的正是非洲土著們打獵時的老招數,那就是:"輕聲說話,但手持大棒。"

        Roosevelt spoke softly during his first months as president. He would use the big stick later. When the blow came, it was against big business.

        在羅斯福當總統后的頭幾個月,他說話的口氣溫和。他把大棒留在了后面。他要等到對付大企業的時候才揮起大棒。

        "Taking the Bull by the Horns," a cartoon showing President Roosevelt trying to control the railroad trusts represented by a bull

        A group of wealthy railroad owners had agreed to join their railroads into one. They formed a company to control it. The new company would have complete control of railroad transportation in the American West. There would be no competition.

        當時,幾個富有的鐵路公司老板決定把自己手中的鐵路合并為一,建立一個公司,控制合并后的鐵路。新的公司將掌控美國西部所有的鐵路線,完全杜絕競爭的可能。

        SHEP O'NEAL: President Roosevelt believed the company violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Law. The law said it was illegal for businesses to interfere with trade among the states. The law also said it was illegal for any person or group to get control of a whole industry. Since the anti-trust law had been passed in eighteen ninety, few companies had been found guilty of violating it.

        羅斯??偨y認為,這個公司違犯了謝爾曼反托拉斯法。這個法律規定,企業不得干預州際商貿活動,還規定,個人或團體不能控制某個行業。不過,自從這項法律在1890年獲得通過以來,并沒有什么人被裁定違犯該法。

        So, many people were shocked when Roosevelt announced he was taking action under the law against the railroad trust. He said there could be no compromise in how the law was enforced.

        正因為如此,當羅斯福宣布他要根據謝爾曼反托拉斯法采取行動,整治鐵路托拉斯的時候,許多人都感到震驚。羅斯福說,在執行這項法律的問題上,他決不妥協。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Shep O'Neal. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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