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        #146: Treaty Brings Quick End to Spanish-American War

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:7-7-2013

        The Battle of Manila in 1899 help push public opinion in America toward taking possession of the Philippines
        The Battle of Manila in 1899 help push public opinion in America toward taking possession of the Philippines

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        The Spanish-American War took place in the late eighteen hundreds during the administration of President William McKinley.

        美西戰爭爆發于19世紀末,當時的美國總統是威廉.麥金利。

        On December tenth, eighteen ninety-eight, the United States and Spain signed a treaty in Paris officially ending the war between them. However, the fighting had stopped much earlier.

        1898年12月10日,美國和西班牙在巴黎簽署和平條約,正式結束了兩國間的戰爭。

        Spain had made the first move toward peace after its forces surrendered at Santiago, on the Cuban coast. A few weeks before that, the United States Navy had destroyed Spain's Atlantic fleet. The American naval victory ended any chance that Spain could win the war.

        其實,在條約簽訂之前,雙方的交戰早就結束了。美國海軍在戰場上打垮了西班牙的太平洋艦隊,這一勝利使西班牙失去了獲勝的機會。幾個星期后,西班牙軍隊在古巴沿海城市圣地亞哥投降。

        This week in our series, Doug Johnson and Steve Ember continue the story of President William McKinley and the Spanish-American War.

        DOUG JOHNSON: Late in July, the French ambassador in Washington gave President William McKinley a message from the Spanish government. Spain asked what terms the United States would demand for peace. President McKinley sent an immediate answer.

        1898年7月末,法國駐美國大使向麥金利總統轉交了一封西班牙政府的信函。西班牙問美國,要實現和平,美國有什么要求。麥金利總統馬上做出回答說:

        Spain, he said, must give up Cuba. It must also give to the United States the islands of Puerto Rico and Guam. And he said Spain must recognize the right of the United States to occupy Manila in the Philippines. The future of the Philippines, he said, would be decided during negotiations on a peace treaty.

        西班牙必須放棄古巴,必須將波多黎各和關島交給美國,而且,西班牙必須承認美國對菲律賓首都馬尼拉的占領權。至于菲律賓的未來,將由美國和西班牙通過和平談判來決定。

        STEVE EMBER: McKinley's terms seemed severe to Spain. But Spain had no choice. It could not continue the war. So, ten weeks after war broke out, Spain agreed to stop the fighting and accept the American terms. It signed a peace agreement in Washington on August Twelfth.

        對于西班牙而言,麥金利總統的條件似乎太苛刻了。但西班牙別無選擇,因為它已經無力再戰。所以,在美西戰爭爆發10個星期后,西班牙同意?;?,并接受美國提出的條件。1898年8月12日,美國和西班牙在華盛頓簽署和平協議。

        A Spanish note protested sadly that the agreement took away the last memory of a glorious past. "It expels us from the western hemisphere, which became peopled and civilized through the proud efforts of our fathers."

        西班牙的一份文獻資料對這個協議感到不滿,并哀傷地指出,它奪走了對西班牙輝煌歷史的最后一點記憶:"這份和平協議把我們趕出了西半球,而西半球變成今天的繁榮和文明社會,靠的正是我們西班牙父輩們的艱苦努力。"

        DOUG JOHNSON: The two countries agreed to meet in Paris to negotiate details of a peace treaty. The talks opened October first. The two sides agreed quickly on the issue of Cuban independence, and an American takeover of Puerto Rico and Guam. But they could not agree on what to do about the Philippines.

        美國和西班牙同意在巴黎開會,談判和平條約的細節。談判從1898年10月1日開始。雙方很快在古巴獨立、美國接管波多黎各和關島的問題上達成了一致意見,但雙方在菲律賓問題上依然存在分歧。

        At the beginning of the talks, the United States was not sure if it wanted all or only part of the Philippines. At first, President McKinley wanted Spain to give up only Luzon, the main island. Then he decided that the United States should demand all of the Philippines. McKinley explained later how he made this decision.

        會談開始的時候,美國并不清楚自己想要完全控制菲律賓還是只控制一部分。起初,麥金利總統只希望西班牙能放棄菲律賓的主要島嶼--呂宋島。后來,他決定,美國應要求控制整個菲律賓。麥金利事后這樣形容他做決定的過程。

        STEVE EMBER: "I thought first we would take only Manila. Then Luzon. Then other islands, perhaps. I walked the floor of the White House many nights. More than once, I went down on my knees and asked God to help me decide.

        他說:"開始時,我想,我們只控制馬尼拉,后來又想,我們應該拿下呂宋島。后來又覺得,可能應該再控制菲律賓的其它島嶼。很多個夜晚,我在白宮來回踱步,思考這個問題。很多次,我甚至跪在地上,請求上帝幫我作決定。"

        "And one night," said McKinley, "It came to me this way: "That we could not give the Philippines back to Spain. That would be cowardly and dishonorable. We could not turn them over to France or Germany, our trading competitors in Asia. That would be bad business. We could not leave them to themselves. They were not ready for self-government.

        他說:"終于有一個晚上,我這樣做出了決定:我們不能將菲律賓交還給西班牙,因為那是膽怯而沒有尊嚴的做法。我們也不能將菲律賓讓給法國或德國,因為它們是我們在亞洲的貿易對手。這么做是吃虧的買賣。我們也不能把菲律賓交給菲律賓人自己,因為他們還沒有準備好自己管理自己。

        So, there was nothing for us to do but to take them all. And to educate the Filipinos, to civilize them, and make Christians of them.

        所以,美國除了控制整個菲律賓外,別無選擇。我們將教育菲律賓人,讓他們文明開化,讓他們信基督教。

        "With that decision," said McKinley, "I went to bed and slept well."

        當我做出這個決定后,"我上床踏實地睡了一覺。"

        DOUG JOHNSON: Spain, however, did not want to give up the Philippines. It protested that the United States had no right to demand the Islands. True, Americans occupied Manila. But they did not control any other part of the Philippines.

        然而,西班牙不想放棄菲律賓,并抗議說,美國無權對菲律賓提出要求。不錯,美國人是占領了馬尼拉,但他們并沒有占領菲律賓的其它地方。

        The two sides negotiated for days. Finally, they reached an agreement. Spain would give all of the Philippines to the United States. In return, the United States would pay Spain twenty-million dollars.

        雙方為此進行了幾天的談判,最后達成協議。西班牙同意將整個菲律賓交給美國,作為回報,美國向西班牙支付兩千萬美元。

        With this dispute ended, the peace treaty was quickly completed and signed. But trouble developed when President McKinley sent the treaty to the United States Senate for approval.

        隨著菲律賓問題的解決,雙方很快結束談判,并簽署了和平條約。不過,當麥金利總統將這份條約遞交美國國會參議院批準時,麻煩來了。

        STEVE EMBER: Many Americans opposed the treaty. They thought McKinley was wrong to take the Philippines. Opponents of the treaty included former President Cleveland, industrialist Andrew Carnegie, labor leader Samuel Gompers, writer Mark Twain, and others.

        當時,許多美國人反對這項條約。他們認為麥金利接手菲律賓的決定是錯誤的。反對者包括前總統克利夫蘭、工業家安德魯·卡內基、勞工領袖龔帕斯,還有作家馬克.吐溫等。

        A cartoon showing William McKinley, right, trying to raise the United States flag over the Philippines, while William Jennings Bryan tries to chop it down
        A cartoon showing William McKinley, right, trying to raise the United States flag over the Philippines, while William Jennings Bryan tries to chop it down

        They organized anti-imperialist groups in many cities to oppose the treaty. They made speeches and published newspapers explaining their opposition. Imperialism, they said, had ruined ancient Rome. And it would ruin the American republic.

        反對者在許多城市成立了反帝國主義組織。他們發表演講,出版報紙,闡述自己的立場。他們說,帝國主義曾經摧毀了古羅馬,現在也將摧毀美利堅合眾國。

        They said colonies halfway around the world would be costly to protect. A large army and navy would be needed. They said colonial policies violated important democratic ideas upon which the United States had been built. We went to war with Spain, they said, to free Cuba from its colonial masters...not to make ourselves masters of the Philippines.

        他們說,要保護像菲律賓那樣和美國相隔半個地球之遙的殖民地,需要付出沉重的代價,需要耗費大量陸軍和海軍軍力。反對者們還說,殖民政策違背了美國立國的基本民主思想。美國和西班牙打仗是為了將古巴從殖民宗主國手里解放出來,而不是把美國自己變成菲律賓人的宗主國。

        DOUG JOHNSON: Republican Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts led the Senate fight for the treaty. The opposition was led by the other Massachusetts senator, George Hoar, also a Republican.

        當時的國會參議員們為是否通過這條和平條約而分成兩派。麻薩諸塞州的共和黨參議員卡伯特.洛奇領導支持派。而另一位麻薩諸塞州共和黨參議員喬治.霍爾則領導反對派。

        Senator Lodge appealed to national pride. He urged the Senate not to pull down the American flag. Rejection of the treaty, he said, would dishonor the president and the country. It would show that we are not ready as a nation to enter into great questions of foreign policy.

        洛奇參議員拿國家榮譽作理由,敦促參議院不要給美國國旗抹黑。他說,如果參議院拒絕批準這份條約,就會使總統和國家蒙羞,會讓外界認為,美國還沒有能力處理重大外交問題。

        Senator Albert Beveridge of Ohio also spoke in support of the treaty. Senator Beveridge said the Pacific would be of great importance in coming years. Therefore, he said, the power that rules the Pacific will be the power that rules the world. And, with the Philippines, that power is -- and forever will be - the United States.

        俄亥俄州參議員阿爾伯特.貝弗里奇也支持這個條約。他說,在未來年月里,太平洋將成為至關重要的地區,因此,誰控制太平洋,誰就能控制全世界。如果占領了菲律賓,那么美國就是,而且將永遠是,這個控制世界的大國。

        STEVE EMBER: Senator Hoar spoke strongly against the treaty. He said that taking over the Philippines would be a dangerous break with America's past.

        霍爾參議員則強烈反對這份條約。他說,控制菲律賓是危險地背離美國的歷史傳統。

        He said the greatest thing the United States had was its tradition of freedom. To take the Philippines, he said, would deny that tradition. It would violate the Constitution and the ideas contained in the Declaration of Independence: the idea that all men are created equal...and that government exists only with the permission of the governed.

        他說,美國的最偉大財富是其自由的傳統。如果控制菲律賓,就否認了這種傳統,還將違背美國憲法和《獨立宣言》中包含的思想,那就是:所有人生而平等,政府只有在得到被統治者許可的情況下才能成立。

        DOUG JOHNSON: The Senate vote on the treaty was set for February sixth. It seemed that the opposition had enough votes to reject it. But several things happened before the vote.

        參議院預定1899年2月6日就條約進行投票。當時,反對派似乎已經有足夠的票數來否決條約。但就在投票前卻發生了幾件事。

        William Jennings Bryan
        William Jennings Bryan

        William Jennings Bryan, the leader of the Democratic Party, opposed the take-over of the Philippines. But he urged Democratic senators to vote for the treaty. Bryan was looking ahead to the presidential election in nineteen hundred. He believed that the Philippines' takeover would cause the United States nothing but trouble. He could put the blame for all the trouble on the Republicans. Then -- if he was elected president -- the Democrats could give the Philippines their independence.

        首先,民主黨領導人威廉.詹寧斯.布萊恩反對美國接管菲律賓,但他卻敦促民主黨參議員給條約投贊成票。布萊恩這么做是出于長遠考慮,那就是1900年的總統大選。他相信,美國控制菲律賓的結果就是惹來一堆麻煩,不會有什么好處。而他可以把所有問題都歸咎于共和黨,這樣就有利于他競選。如果他真的當選了,民主黨可以讓菲律賓獨立。

        Bryan succeeded in getting seventeen Democrats and Populists in the Senate to vote for the treaty.

        布萊恩成功地爭取到17位民主黨和人民黨參議員支持這個條約。

        STEVE EMBER: Two days before the vote was taken, violence broke out in the Philippines. President McKinley, without waiting for the Senate to act, ordered the American military government in Manila to extend its control throughout the Philippines.

        另外,就在離參議院投票表決還有兩天的時候,菲律賓發生了暴力沖突。麥金利總統不等參議院有所行動,就命令馬尼拉的美國軍政府將權限擴展到整個菲律賓。

        The leader of the Philippine rebels, Emilio Aquinaldo, opposed the order. Rebel forces prepared to fight. On the night of February fourth, thirty thousand rebels attacked American forces around Manila. Sixty Americans were killed, and more than two hundred seventy were wounded. Rebel losses were much higher.

        菲律賓的起義領導人埃米利奧.阿奎納多反對這個命令。起義軍準備戰斗。1899年2月4日晚,3萬起義軍襲擊了馬尼拉周圍的美軍,60名美軍被殺,270多人受傷。菲律賓起義軍傷亡更加慘重。

        DOUG JOHNSON: News of the rebel attack caused some Senators to change their minds about the Philippines. Some who had opposed the treaty now agreed with the Washington Star newspaper that "the Filipinos must be taught to obey."

        菲律賓起義軍襲擊美軍的消息使一些參議員改變了對菲律賓人的態度。有些原本反對和平條約的參議員現在也支持當時《華盛頓星報》的說法了,那就是:"必須讓菲律賓人學會服從 "。

        Eighty-four Senators were present for the vote on the treaty. To pass, the treaty needed a two-thirds majority -- fifty-six votes. One by one, the Senators voted. Then the count was announced.

        參議院有84名議員參加了投票。條約要想獲得通過,必須得到三分之二多數的支持,也就是56票。參議員們一個接一個投票,然后,宣布了計票結果。

        Fifty-seven of the lawmakers had voted yes. Only twenty-seven had voted no. The treaty was approved. The Philippines belonged to the United States.

        有57位議員投了贊成票,只有27位議員投了反對票。條約通過了,菲律賓屬于美國了。

        (MUSIC)

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Doug Johnson and Steve Ember. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:鄭烈波
        3-18-2015 15:46:42
        fifty-seven of the lawmakers had voted yes.only twenty-seven had voted no.the treaty was approved.the philippines belonged to the united states.
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