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        #143: McKinley and the Gold Standard Win in 1896

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:7-4-2013

        A 1896 campaign poster for William McKinley and Garrett Hobart showing the candidates' support for sound money based on gold and protective tariffs
        A 1896 campaign poster for William McKinley and Garrett Hobart showing the candidates' support for sound money based on gold and protective tariffs

        STEVE EMBER:? Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        In the eighteen nineties, the American people were deeply divided over the nation's money system. Should the United States support its currency with gold or with gold and silver? This question became the main issue in the presidential election of eighteen ninety-six.

        十九世紀九十年代,美國人對貨幣政策問題存在非常對立的看法。是用黃金支持美元,還是以黃金和白銀共同支持美元呢?這個問題成了1896年總統大選中的一個主要議題。

        This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe tell the story of that election.

        KAY GALLANT:? Many Americans wanted a gold standard. They said the United States should support its money only with gold. A gold standard, they said, would keep the value of the dollar high. These people were called "gold bugs." Most were businessmen, bankers, and investors.

        許多美國人希望實行金本位貨幣政策。他們說,美國應該只用黃金來支持紙幣,金本位制能夠使美元保持高幣值。這些人被稱為"金本位制論者",大多是商人、銀行家和投資者。

        Many other Americans wanted the United States to support its money with both gold and silver. They thought the value of the dollar was too high. A high dollar, they said, drove down prices for agricultural products. A silver standard would lower the value of the dollar. These people were called "silverites."Most were farmers, laborers, and owners of small businesses."

        而其他許多人希望美國實行以金銀共同支撐美元的貨幣政策。他們認為,當時的美元幣值過高,而這會拉低農產品價格,而實行銀本位制可以降低美元幣值。這些人被稱為"金銀雙本位制論者",大多是農民、工人和小企業主。

        HARRY MONROE:? The debate over gold and silver was especially important because of an economic depression that began in the United States in eighteen ninety-three. Thousands of banks and businesses closed. Millions of men lost their jobs. Foreign investors withdrew their money from America. Americans who had money were afraid to invest it.

        美國自1893年開始陷入經濟蕭條,這使得有關金銀的爭論更重要了。當時,數千家銀行和企業倒閉,數百萬人失業,外國投資者從美國撤資,而那些有錢的美國人也不敢投資。

        Many people believed the depression would end if the government issued more paper money backed by silver.

        許多人認為,如果政府發行更多受白銀支撐的貨幣,就能結束經濟蕭條。

        President Grover Cleveland disagreed. And he opposed any legislation that might threaten the gold standard. He noted that every major nation supported its paper money with gold. The United States would be foolish, he said, not to do the same. It could not stand apart from the world's other money systems.

        然而,克利夫蘭總統并不這么認為,而且他反對任何想動搖金本位的法案。他指出,世界上所有大國都用黃金支撐貨幣,如果美國不這么做,就是愚蠢的行為。他說,美國不能孤立于世界其它貨幣體系之外。

        KAY GALLANT:? President Cleveland belonged to the Democratic Party. By eighteen ninety-six, many Democrats had become silverites. They gained control of party organizations in several western and southern states. They called Cleveland a traitor to his party and to the American people. They did not want him to be the party's candidate in that year's election.

        克利夫蘭總統是民主黨人。到1896年,已經有許多民主黨人成了金銀雙本位制論者,這些人在西部和南部各州掌控了民主黨。他們把克利夫蘭稱為民主黨和美國人民的叛徒,不希望克利夫蘭代表民主黨參加1896年的總統選舉。

        The Republican Party also was divided over the issue of gold and silver. Some members from silver-mining states in the west left the party. Others remained in the party, but gave support secretly to silverite Democrats.

        共和黨也在金銀貨幣政策上分裂成兩派。一些來自西部銀礦區的成員脫離了共和黨,另一些雖然還留在共和黨內,但偷偷支持民主黨的金銀雙本位制論者。

        Republicans had done well in the congressional elections of eighteen ninety-four. They won control of both the Senate and House of Representatives. Party leaders were sure a Republican could be elected president in eighteen ninety-six. The most likely candidate appeared to be Governor William McKinley of Ohio.

        共和黨在1894年的國會中期選舉中戰績不錯,取得了參眾兩院的控制權。共和黨領導人確信,共和黨能夠贏得1896年大選,而最有希望的候選人是俄亥俄州州長威廉.麥金利。

        William McKinley
        William McKinley

        HARRY MONROE:? McKinley was, in fact, nominated on the first ballot at the Republican convention in St. Louis, Missouri.

        結果,當共和黨在密蘇里州圣路易斯舉行總統候選人提名大會時,麥金利在第一輪投票中就獲勝了。

        The Democratic Party held its nominating convention in Chicago, Illinois. The most likely candidate was Congressman Richard Bland of Missouri. A majority of convention delegates, however, were silverites. And they expected to nominate a silverite candidate.

        民主黨的總統候選人提名大會在伊利諾斯州芝加哥舉行,最有可能獲得提名的是密蘇里州的眾議員理查德.布蘭德。然而,參加提名大會的代表大多是金銀雙本位制論者,他們希望從自己的陣營中選出總統候選人。

        Supporters of President Cleveland wanted to test the silverites' strength. They demanded a debate on the gold-silver issue.

        克利夫蘭總統的支持者想試探一下金銀雙本位制論者的力量,他們要求就金銀問題進行一場辯論。

        Several men spoke in support of President Cleveland and the gold standard. Several spoke in support of silver. The last to speak was Congressman William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska. He had led an unsuccessful fight in Congress to keep America using silver.

        一些人發表演說,支持克利夫蘭總統和金本位制,另一些人發表演說,支持銀幣政策。最后發言的是來自內布拉斯加州的國會眾議員威廉·詹寧斯·布萊恩,他曾經在國會中領導過一次試圖保持銀幣政策的斗爭,但是失敗了。

        KAY GALLANT:? Bryan spoke emotionally during the convention debate. He said he represented America's farmers, laborers, and small businessmen who wanted a silver standard.

        布萊恩在大會辯論中激動地演說。他表示,他代表的是農民、工人和小企業主的立場,而這些人都希望實行銀幣制。

        A cartoon from the magazine
        A cartoon from the magazine "Judge" criticizing William Jennings Bryan for his "Cross of Gold" speech. The cartoon charges Mister Bryan with disrespect for religion

        Bryan ended his speech with a line that became famous during the campaign. It called to mind the torture and death of Jesus Christ. Bryan said gold supporters could not force their money system on silver supporters. "You shall not," he said, "crucify mankind upon a cross of gold."

        布萊恩演講的最后一句話成了總統競選期間的名言。這句話讓人們想起耶穌基督所受的酷刑和最終的死亡。布萊恩說,金本位制的支持者不能將他們喜歡的貨幣政策強加給銀幣支持者,他說:"你們不能將人類釘死在黃金的十字架上。"

        With those words, William Jennings Bryan won the nomination away from Congressman Bland. He would be the Democrats' presidential candidate. He was just thirty-six years old.

        就憑這句話,布萊恩擊敗了布蘭德議員,贏得了民主黨總統提名。當時,他只有36歲。

        HARRY MONROE:? A number of Democrats refused to accept Bryan as their candidate. They withdrew from the Chicago convention and held one of their own. They called themselves National Democrats. They nominated candidates for president and vice president. But they did not win many votes in the election.

        不過,許多民主黨人拒絕接受布萊恩為總統候選人,他們退出民主黨大會,召開了自己的提名大會。他們自稱為國家民主黨人,并推選出自己的總統和副總統候選人。不過,這些候選人在總統大選中并沒有獲得多少選票。

        America's third party at that time -- The People's Party -- had a difficult decision to make.

        當時美國的第三個政黨--人民黨,也面臨著艱難的抉擇。

        Populists, as they were called, agreed with silverite Democrats that the United States should have a silver standard. So, some believed the party should unite with the Democrats to support democratic candidate William Jennings Bryan. If they did not, Republican William McKinley was sure to win the election.

        人民黨黨員,即民粹主義者,支持民主黨內的銀幣政策者,認為美國應該實行銀本位政策。所以,有些人民黨黨員覺得,他們應該與民主黨聯合,支持民主黨總統候選人威廉·布萊恩,因為如果他們不這樣做,共和黨的候選人麥金利就肯定會贏得總統選舉。

        Other populists feared that such a union would mean the end of the People's Party.

        但其他人民黨黨員則擔心,這種聯合將意味著人民黨的終結。

        William Jennings Bryan
        William Jennings Bryan

        The populists solved the problem at their nominating convention. Like the Democrats, they chose Bryan to be their candidate for president. But they chose a different candidate for vice president. In this way, William Jennings Bryan was able to run for president at the head of two separate political parties.

        好在人民黨在自己的提名大會上解決了這個問題。和民主黨一樣,他們也推選布萊恩為總統候選人,但卻推選了另外一位副總統候選人。這樣,布萊恩就以兩個不同政黨的領導人的身份參加競選了。

        KAY GALLANT:? There was a great difference in the way the two presidential candidates campaigned. William McKinley refused to travel. Instead of going to the voters, he let the voters come to him. And they did. Railroad companies supported McKinley. They ran special trains to his home in Ohio. The trip was free.

        在這次大選中,兩位候選人以完全不同的方式開展選舉。麥金利拒絕外出巡回拉票,他不去找選民,而是讓選民來找他。選民還真這么做了。鐵路公司都支持麥金利,它們開通了免費的特別專列,直接通往麥金利在俄亥俄州的家。

        Each trip was the same. A band met the train and marched with the group to McKinley's home. McKinley came outside to hear a statement of support from the leader of the group. Then he made a short speech and shook hands. The group left and another one came.

        每趟專列都受到同樣的接待:一支樂隊會在列車抵達時接站,然后和乘客們一起浩浩蕩蕩前往麥金利的家。麥金利從家中走出,聆聽支持者代表的講話,然后他發表一個簡短的演說,并和支持者們握手。一批支持者離開后,麥金利再如此這般接待下一群支持者。

        On one day of the campaign, McKinley met thirty groups this way. That was more than eighty thousand people.

        在競選期間,麥金利曾在一天之內這樣接待過30批支持者,人數超過8萬。

        HARRY MONROE:? While McKinley stayed at home, William Jennings Bryan travelled. He visited twenty-seven states and spoke to five million people. Bryan explained that he had to travel, because the Democratic Party did not have enough money to campaign in other ways. Bryan spent six hundred fifty-thousand dollars on his campaign. McKinley spent three-and-a-half-million dollars.

        就在麥金利在家開展競選的同時,布萊恩則四處拉票。他去了27個州,向500萬人發表演說。他說,自己必須這么做,因為民主黨的資金不足以支撐他以別的方式競選。在這次競選活動中,布萊恩花了65萬美元,而麥金利花了350萬美元。

        Bryan's main campaign idea was that the gold standard would ruin America's economy. McKinley's main campaign idea was that silver money would ruin the economy. For a time, Bryan's campaign seemed to be succeeding. More and more people promised to support him. Then, in the final weeks before election day, the situation began to change.

        布萊恩的競選核心是,金本位會摧毀美國的經濟,而麥金利的競選核心是銀幣會摧毀美國的經濟。一度,布萊恩的競選似乎成功了,越來越多的人承諾會支持他。然而,就在選舉日的前幾周,形勢開始發生變化。

        The depressed economy showed signs of improving. The price of wheat rose for the first time in several years. Perhaps, people said, it was wrong to blame gold for the depression. Perhaps, they said, the ideas of William Jennings Bryan were wrong.

        蕭條的美國經濟出現了好轉的跡象。小麥價格幾年來首次上漲。于是人們說,也許將經濟蕭條歸咎于金本位制是錯誤的,也許布萊恩的競選理念是錯誤的。

        KAY GALLANT:? On election day, it was soon clear who had won. McKinley received two hundred seventy electoral votes. Bryan received one hundred seventy-six.

        在選舉日那天,形勢很快就明朗化了。麥金利獲得了270張選舉人票,而布萊恩只獲得176張。

        Bryan congratulated McKinley. Then he told his supporters to begin getting ready for the next presidential election. "If we are right about silver," Bryan said, "we will win four years from now."

        布萊恩向麥金利表示祝賀,然后他告訴支持者們,馬上開始為下一次總統大選做準備。他說:"如果我們的銀幣政策是正確的話,那么四年后我們將會取得勝利。"

        HARRY MONROE:? McKinley's election seemed to give new life to the American economy. Within a month, a business publication reported that buying and selling had increased greatly. It said demand for goods had led to the re-opening of factories closed during the depression.

        麥金利的當選似乎給美國經濟注入了新的活力。在他當選一個月內,一家商業報刊就報導說,購銷活動大幅增加,人們對商品的需求使那些在蕭條時期關門的工廠又重新開工了。

        At the same time, new supplies of gold were discovered in Alaska, Australia, and South Africa. The extra gold increased the supply of money in the same way silver would have increased it.

        與此同時,人們在阿拉斯加、澳大利亞和南非發現了新的金礦。更多的黃金起到了和使用銀幣同樣的效果,那就是增加了貨幣的供應量。

        Taxes on imported goods rose to almost sixty percent. Under this protective tariff, American industry grew fast. The depression ended.

        同時,對進口產品征收的關稅增長到了近百分之60。在關稅的保護下,美國產業快速發展,經濟蕭條結束了。

        KAY GALLANT:? The economic depression of the eighteen nineties forced Americans to worry first about developments at home. But there were a number of international developments then which involved the United States.

        十九世紀九十年代美國的經濟蕭條迫使美國人把國內經濟發展看成頭等大事。其實,當時許多國際問題也都與美國有關。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        STEVE EMBER:? Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:鄭烈波
        9-24-2014 13:51:42
        god love humam ,and mam find gold.right or not also .living going too.
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