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        #142: Labor Unrest Grows as Cleveland's Measures Fail to Ease Recession

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:7-3-2013

        Federal troops in Chicago battle strikers at the Pullman factory in 1894
        Federal troops in Chicago battle strikers at the Pullman factory in 1894

        STEVE EMBER:? Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Frank Oliver continue the story of the man who served as America's twenty-second and twenty-fourth president, Grover Cleveland.

        FRANK OLIVER:? Grover Cleveland began his second presidency in eighteen ninety-three. His two terms were separated by the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. Cleveland took office again just as the United States was entering an economic depression. Businesses failed. Banks closed their doors. Workers lost their jobs. And farmers lost their farms.

        克利夫蘭1893年開始他第二個總統任期,他的兩個總統任期之間隔著本杰明.哈里森總統??死蛱m第二次當選時,美國經濟正陷入蕭條時期。公司倒閉,銀行關門,工人失業,農民失去農場。

        President Cleveland believed the depression was caused by the government's money policy. At that time, both gold and silver were used to support the value of the American dollar. In Europe, however, only gold was used. American investors and bankers were afraid their money would drop in value because of the use of silver. They began exchanging their money for gold.

        克利夫蘭總統認為,經濟蕭條是政府的貨幣政策造成的。當時,黃金和白銀都被用來支撐美元。而在歐洲,只有黃金才被用來支撐本國貨幣。美國投資者和銀行家擔心,銀幣流通會使美元貶值,于是他們開始將美元兌換成黃金。

        President Cleveland wanted to return to the gold standard, too. To do this, he had to urge Congress to kill a law which forced the government to buy silver.

        克利夫蘭總統也希望恢復實行金本位制,為此,他必須敦促國會取消一項強行要求政府購買白銀的法律。

        Before Congress began its debate, the president discovered a cancer in his mouth. The cancer needed to be removed immediately. But the operation had to be kept secret. News that the president's life was in danger could have an effect on the debate. It could make the nation's economic crisis worse.

        而就在國會對此展開辯論之前,克利夫蘭總統發現自己患有口腔癌,必須立即動手術,切掉癌腫。但手術必須秘密進行,因為有關總統有生命危險的消息一旦泄露,將會對國會的辯論產生影響,也會惡化美國的經濟危機。

        MAURICE JOYCE:? So, the operation was done on a private boat in New York Harbor. Doctors removed some of President Cleveland's teeth and much of his upper left jaw. Then they removed the cancer. The operation took only a half hour.

        所以,手術在紐約港一艘私人船只上進行。醫生拔掉了克利夫蘭總統的幾顆牙齒,切下了他的大部分左上頜,然后切除了癌腫。這次手術只用了半個小時。

        After a few weeks, doctors made Cleveland a new jaw out of hard rubber. He wore it without difficulty. A newspaper printed a story about the operation. But administration officials denied it. The facts did not become public for many years.

        幾周后,醫生用硬橡膠給克利夫蘭總統做了一個新的上頜,總統很容易地戴上了它。有一家報紙報導了這次手術的消息,但官方拒絕承認。直到多年以后,官方才向大眾公布了克利夫蘭總統做手術的事情。

        FRANK OLIVER:? When President Cleveland returned to Washington, he sent a message to members of Congress. He urged them to kill the law which forced the government to buy silver.

        克利夫蘭總統在返回華盛頓后,向國會議員傳遞信息,敦促他們取消迫使政府購買白銀的法律。

        He noted how people throughout the nation had been exchanging their paper money and silver for gold. He said he was afraid the federal treasury would soon run out of gold. Then it would have only silver to support the dollar. If that happened, he said, the United States no longer could claim to be a major nation.

        他指出,全國各地的人都在將手中的美元和銀幣兌換成黃金。他擔心,用不了多久,國庫中的黃金就會被換光。到時,就只有銀幣來支撐美元了。如果真的如此,美國就會失去世界強國的地位。

        President Cleveland said: "The people of the United States have a right to a money recognized as such on every exchange and in every market of the world. Their government has no right to injure them by financial experiments that are opposed to the policies of other nations."

        克利夫蘭總統說:"美國人民有權使用世界所有交易所、所有市場都認可的貨幣,他們的政府無權通過金融實驗,用和其它國家相反的政策來傷害他們的利益。"

        MAURICE JOYCE:? After the president's message was read, the House of Representatives began its debate. A young congressman from Nebraska spoke in opposition to the president's position. His part in the debate made him famous throughout the nation. His name was William Jennings Bryan.

        總統的信宣讀完畢,國會眾議員們開始辯論。內布拉斯加州的一位年輕議員發表講話,反對總統的觀點。他的名字叫威廉.布萊恩,他在辯論中的表現使他聞名全國。

        Bryan said the United States should continue to make and use both gold and silver money. Using only gold, he said, increased the value of the dollar. And that made life difficult for America's farmers and workers. They had to pay more to borrow money. And, for farmers, a more valuable dollar meant lower prices for crops.

        布萊恩說,美國應該繼續把黃金和白銀都作為貨幣。他說,如果只使用黃金,美元就會升值,而這會使農民和工人陷入困境。因為他們借款的費用會增加,而且對于農民來說,美元變得更值錢意味著糧食價格降低。

        William Jennings Bryan
        William Jennings Bryan

        Bryan described the situation this way: "On one side of the debate stand the business interests of the United States. On the other side stand the unnumbered masses. Work-worn and covered with dust, they make their appeal. But too often their cry for help has sounded hopelessly against the outer walls, while others -- less deserving -- find easy entrance to the halls of Congress.

        布萊恩說:"辯論的一方是美國工商界的利益,另一方是無數普通大眾的訴求。這些工作疲憊、滿身灰塵的人提出自己的要求。但在太多時候,他們呼救的吶喊根本無法穿透國會大廈的外墻。而那些本不該得到政府幫助的人卻能輕易地進入國會大廳。"

        "The president is wrong to act on the demand of the business interests. He can no more judge the wishes of the great mass of our people by the words of these middlemen than he can measure the ocean's silent depths by the foam upon its waves."

        總統應工商業界要求而動是錯誤的。正如一個人不能靠海浪上的泡沫來衡量大海沉靜的深度一樣,總統不能通過聽信這些中間人的言詞來判斷廣大人民的愿望。

        FRANK OLIVER:? No other congressman spoke as well as William Jennings Bryan. Yet his words could not save the silver purchase law.

        布萊恩的演說比其他議員的都精彩,但是這不能挽救白銀采購法。

        The House of Representatives approved President Cleveland's proposal to kill the law. The Senate did, too. The United States was firmly on the gold standard. Everyone -- especially President Cleveland -- waited for the economy to improve. It did not.

        國會眾議院通過了克利夫蘭總統的建議,取消了白銀采購法。參議院也通過了總統的建議。美國開始完全實行金本位制度。在這之后,所有人,特別是總統,都在等待美國經濟狀況出現改善。但結果卻并非如此。

        MAURICE JOYCE:? More businesses failed. More workers lost their jobs. Tens of thousands of men left their homes to look for work. Some of these men began to unite in protest groups they called "industrial armies."

        更多的企業倒閉,更多的工人失業,數以萬計的人離開家鄉外出尋找工作,他們中的一些人開始聯合起來,組成抗議團體,他們稱之為"產業軍"。

        One industrial army was organized by a man named Jacob Coxey. Coxey proposed that the federal government should hire unemployed men to build roads. He said the government could borrow enough money to pay each man a dollar and a half a day.

        有一支產業軍是由一個名叫雅各布.科克塞的人組織起來的??瓶巳ㄗh聯邦政府雇傭無業工人去修建道路。他說,政府可以籌到足夠的資金,每天付給每個修路工一塊半美元。

        Coxey decided to take his proposal to Washington. He also decided to take his industrial army with him.

        科克塞決定去華盛頓提交他的建議,并決定帶領他的產業軍成員一起去。

        FRANK OLIVER:? Coxey's army marched many kilometers from Ohio to Washington. Hundreds of unemployed men joined in along the way. But by the time the army reached the capital, only three hundred men remained.

        一些產業軍成員在科克塞的帶領下,踏上了去華盛頓的道路。他們從俄亥俄州向華盛頓進發,沿路又有數百名失業者加入他們的隊伍。但在這支產業軍到達首都華盛頓時,隊伍里只剩下了三百人。

        City officials barred Coxey's army from meeting on public property. They barred them from asking people for food or money. Jacob Coxey was ready for the worst. He said: "If my men starve in the streets of Washington, the smell of their bodies will force Congress to act."

        市政官員禁止科克塞帶領的產業軍成員在公共場所集會,禁止他們向民眾尋求食品和錢??瓶巳呀涀龊昧俗顗牡拇蛩?,他說:"如果我的人在華盛頓街頭餓死,那么,他們尸體的味道將會迫使國會采取行動。"

        Coxey tried to read a protest statement at the Capitol building. Police stopped him. The protestors then pushed forward in what police later called a riot. Several of the men -- including Coxey -- were arrested. A judge found Coxey guilty of violating public property. He sent him to jail for twenty days.

        科克塞試圖在國會大廈宣讀一份抗議聲明,但警察阻止了他。于是,抗議者向警察涌去。警方后來把這一行動定性為暴亂。包括科克塞在內的一些人被逮捕。法官判科克塞犯有毀壞公共財產罪,坐牢20天。

        Without Coxey's leadership, his army broke up. Its members went home. Yet the economic and social pressures which created Coxey's army did not ease. Protests and strikes continued throughout the nation.

        沒有了科克塞的領導,他的產業軍就解散了,人們打道回府。然而,導致科克塞產業軍出現的經濟和社會壓力并沒緩解。在美國各地,抗議和罷工此起彼伏。

        MAURICE JOYCE:? The biggest strike started in Chicago against the Pullman Company, which made railroad cars.

        規模最大的罷工出現在芝加哥,抗議對象是制造火車車廂的普爾曼公司。

        The man who owned the company, George Pullman, also owned the town where his workers lived. He owned the stores, the houses, the schools, and the library.

        公司老板喬治.普爾曼同時擁有公司工人們居住的小鎮,以及鎮上的商店、住房、學校和圖書館。

        When the economic depression began in eighteen ninety-three, George Pullman cut the size of his work force. Those still working received less pay. Yet Pullman did not reduce the cost of rent for his houses. Anyone who protested lost his job.

        1893年經濟蕭條開始以后,喬治.普爾曼裁減員工,減少留下的工人的工資。然而,他卻沒有降低工人們的房租。所有對此表示抗議的人都被開除了。

        FRANK OLIVER:? In the spring of eighteen ninety-four, a labor union organizer went to George Pullman's town. He was Eugene Debs, leader of the American Railway Union.

        1894年春天,一位工會組織者來到了喬治.普爾曼的小鎮,他就是尤金.德布斯,美國鐵路工會的領導人。

        Pullman did not want his workers to belong to a union. But he did not stop them at first. More than four thousand workers joined.

        普爾曼不想讓他的工人參加工會,但剛開始時他并沒有阻止。結果有四千多人參加了工會。

        Immediately, the new union members voted to go on strike against the Pullman company. Other members of the union supported them. They agreed not to work on trains that included Pullman cars. Within a few days, sixty thousand railway workers were on strike. Twenty railroads were closed down.

        這些新的工會成員馬上投票,決定舉行針對普爾曼公司的罷工,鐵路工會的其他成員也支持他們,同意凡是遇到有普爾曼車廂的火車,他們就停止工作。幾天之內,六萬鐵路工人參加了罷工,二十條鐵路線停運。

        Eugene Debs
        Eugene Debs

        Union leader Eugene Debs attempted to keep the strike peaceful. But he could not control strikers all over the country. So, railroad companies asked the federal government for troops to break the strike.

        工會領導人德布斯試圖讓罷工和平進行,但他無法控制全國各地的罷工者。所以,鐵路公司要求聯邦政府派軍隊瓦解罷工。

        MAURICE JOYCE:? The request involved a legal point. America's constitution says federal troops cannot be sent to a state unless the state government asks for them. And no state government had asked for them.

        而這種要求有個法律問題。美國憲法規定,聯邦軍隊只有在州政府的請求下才能進駐到某一個州,而現在并沒有哪一個州請求聯邦政府派兵。

        President Cleveland met with his cabinet to discuss the railroad companies' request. They finally agreed to send federal troops to Chicago -- where the strike had started -- to enforce federal postal laws. The troops would protect trains carrying mail.

        克利夫蘭總統召集內閣會議,討論鐵路公司的請求。他們最終同意派聯邦軍隊進入此次罷工的發源地--芝加哥,以確保聯邦郵政法的執行。聯邦軍隊將保護運送郵件的火車。

        The arrival of the troops led to more violence. Eugene Debs and other leaders of the American Railway Union were arrested. The Pullman strike ended.

        但是,聯邦軍隊的到來引發了更多的暴力沖突。德布斯和美國鐵路工會的其他領導人被捕。普爾曼罷工結束了。

        FRANK OLIVER:? President Cleveland faced increasing political problems. Organized labor denounced him for using federal troops to break up the Pullman strike. Farmers and westerners attacked him for opposing the use of silver money. And everyone blamed him for not doing more to end the depression. These political problems would have a great effect on the next presidential election.

        克利夫蘭總統面臨日益深化的政治矛盾:工會譴責他派聯邦軍隊瓦解普爾曼罷工,農民和西部居民指責他反對使用銀幣,另外,每個人都責怪他沒有做更多工作來扭轉經濟蕭條的局面。而所有這些政治問題都將對下一次的總統大選產生重大影響。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        STEVE EMBER:? Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Frank Oliver. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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