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        #140: Cleveland Returns to Office Facing Farm, Labor Unrest

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:7-1-2013

        The first troops enter Homestead, Pennsylvania, to end the strike at the Carnegie Company
        The first troops enter Homestead, Pennsylvania, to end the strike at the Carnegie Company

        BOB DOUGHTY:? Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        Eighteen ninety-two was a presidential election year in the United States. In that year, most parts of the American economy were expanding. But one part was not doing well: agriculture. The result was the birth of a new political party. It was called the People's Party. Its members were called Populists.

        1892年是美國的總統大選年。那年,美國經濟的很多領域都在發展,但有一個領域卻不怎么景氣,那就是農業。農業遇到的問題導致新政黨"人民黨"的誕生,人民黨的成員被稱為民粹主義者。

        This week in our series, Stan Busby and Maurice Joyce tell about the Populists, and how they campaigned against the Republicans and Democrats in the election.

        STAN BUSBY:? In the late eighteen eighties, a North Carolina farming publication described America's economy this way:

        在十九世紀八十年代后期,北卡羅萊納的一家農業雜志這樣描述美國的經濟:

        "There is something radically wrong in our industrial system. The railroads are making much money. Yet agriculture is failing. The banks are doing great business. Yet agriculture is failing. Towns and cities grow. Yet agriculture is failing. Wages were never so high. Yet agriculture is failing."

        "我們的經濟系統出現了某些根本性的錯誤。鐵路公司在大筆賺錢,但農業卻在破產;銀行的業務蒸蒸日上,但農業卻在破產;城鎮在發展,但農業卻在破產;人們的工資水平從沒像現在這么高過,但農業卻在破產。"

        Historians give four major reasons why agriculture was failing in the late eighteen eighties. One was the high cost of transportation. Second was high taxes. Third was falling prices for agricultural products. And fourth was the high cost of borrowing money.

        對十九世紀八十年代后期美國農業面臨的困境,歷史學家提出了四個主要原因:一是運輸成本太高;二是高額的稅負;三是農產品價格下跌;四是融資成本高。

        MAURICE JOYCE:? Farmers began to organize to discuss their problems. They formed local groups called "Alliances." An Alliance member described the result of these discussions:

        農民開始組織起來討論他們所面臨的問題,他們成立了一些地方性的組織,叫"農民聯盟"。有一位農民聯盟的成員這樣描述農民們討論的結果:

        "People began to think, who had never thought before. People talked, who had never spoken much. Little by little, they began to study their condition. They discussed taxes on income. Government ownership of property. The unity of labor. And a thousand other opposing ideas."

        "從沒思考過的人開始思考,一貫沉默寡言的人開始討論,漸漸地,他們開始反思自己的處境。他們討論了收入所得稅、政府財產所有權、工會問題以及其它許許多多有爭議的復雜問題。"

        STAN BUSBY:? Local Alliances formed larger groups. The larger groups included many persons who were not farmers, but who lived and worked in agricultural areas. These included teachers, doctors, repairmen, reporters, and church leaders.

        地方農民聯盟發展成為一些較大的組織,這些組織的成員不僅僅是農民,還有在農業區生活和工作的人,包括教師、醫生、修理工、記者和教會領導人。

        In eighteen eighty-nine, the major Alliances held separate conventions in Saint Louis, Missouri. They refused to form one big Alliance. They were divided on several important issues.

        1889年,這些規模較大的農民聯盟在密蘇里州的圣路易斯分別召開大會。它們因在一些重大問題上存在分歧而拒絕組成一個統一的大聯盟。

        MAURICE JOYCE:? The chief issue was political. Leaders of the Northern Alliance had decided that agricultural interests could expect little help from either the Republican or Democratic parties. They believed the answer to their problems was a third national political party.

        其中首要的是政治問題。北方農民聯盟的領導人認為,農業問題不可能指望獲得民主黨或共和黨的幫助,他們認為,要解決農民們的問題,必須成立第三個全國性的政黨。

        Leaders of the Southern Alliance disagreed. They belonged to the Democratic Party. And, at that time, Democrats faced little opposition in the south. A new party would weaken their political power. So they wanted to work for change within the existing Democratic Party.

        但南方農民聯盟的領導人不同意這種看法。他們本來就是民主黨成員,而且在當時,民主黨稱霸南方政壇,如果出現一個新的政黨,就會削弱民主黨的力量。所以,這些領導人希望在民主黨內部尋求改革。

        STAN BUSBY:? Another issue dividing the Northern and Southern Alliances was racial. How would a united Alliance deal with black farmers. The Southern Alliance did not permit black members. And it did not want blacks in a united Alliance. The Northern Alliance said blacks could join.

        另一個導致南北方農民聯盟不和的問題是種族問題,也就是說,一個全國性的農民聯盟要如何對待黑人農民。南方農民聯盟不允許有黑人加入,也不想讓黑人加入全國聯盟。而北方農民聯盟則表示,黑人可以加入。

        The two groups could not settle their differences before the state and congressional elections of eighteen ninety. So, they did not campaign as one party. But they campaigned for one idea: help for America's farmers.

        1890年的州選舉和議會選舉開始前,南北方農民聯盟沒能消除分歧。所以,它們沒有以一個政黨的形式參加選舉,不過他們的競選理念是一致的,那就是,幫助美國的農民。

        Throughout the south and middle-west, they succeeded in electing agricultural candidates as governors, state legislators, Senators, and members of the House of Representatives.

        在整個美國南方和中西部,農民聯盟成功地把自己的候選人送上了州長、州議員、聯邦參議員和眾議員的位子。

        MAURICE JOYCE:? Farm leaders everywhere were surprised by their election victories in eighteen ninety. They had not expected to win so much, so quickly. Leaders of the Northern Alliance decided the time was right to form one party to represent all farmers. They felt sure of success. For now, enough leaders of the Southern Alliance were willing to support the idea.

        美國各地的農民聯盟領導人對他們在1890年選舉中所取得的勝利感到驚訝,他們沒料到會如此快地取得這樣大的勝利。北方農民聯盟的領導人認為,成立一個代表所有農民的新政黨的時機已經成熟,而且他們覺得這個想法肯定能夠成功實現,因為當時已經有足夠多的南方聯盟領導人支持這個想法。

        These southern leaders had succeeded within the Democratic Party. But they quickly learned that they held political power only at the local level. They held almost no power at the national level.

        其原因是,這些領導人雖然在民主黨內部取得了成功,但他們很快就發現,這些成功僅限于地方層面,而在全國層面上,他們幾乎沒有什么權力。

        So, a few months before the presidential election of eighteen ninety-two, America's agricultural Alliances held a joint convention in Omaha, Nebraska. They formed a new party. They called it the People's Party. They called themselves Populists.

        所以,就在離1892年總統大選開始還有幾個月的時候,美國各農民聯盟在內布拉斯加州的奧馬哈召開聯合大會,成立了一個新的政黨,這個新政黨就是人民黨,人民黨黨員則是民粹主義者。人民黨的目的是保護農民的利益,希望扭轉當時美國農業糟糕的狀況。

        A publication supporting the People's Party candidates in the election of 1892
        A publication supporting the People's Party candidates in the election of 1892

        STAN BUSBY:? Delegates to the convention approved a policy statement for the new party. The statement said the national government should own the country's railroads, telegraph, and telephone systems. It said the government -- not banks -- should supply paper money. And it said no limits should be put on government production of silver money.

        在人民黨的成立大會上,與會代表們通過了新政黨的一項政策聲明。聲明說:國家政府應該擁有鐵路、電報和電話系統;政府,而不是銀行,應當發行紙幣;而且對政府發行銀幣不應加以限制。

        The Populists called for a tax on earnings. Fewer working hours for labor. Controls on immigration.

        人民黨的成員,也就是民粹主義者,還要求征收所得稅,減少工人的工時,并控制移民。

        To help farmers, the Populists demanded what they called the "Sub-Treasury Plan." Under this plan, farmers could put their crops in government storehouses. Then they could wait to sell the crops until prices rose. While they waited, they could borrow money from the government at low cost. They would pay back the loans when they sold their crops.

        為了幫助農民,民粹主義者要求實施所謂的"國庫分庫計劃"。根據該計劃,農民可以把農產品存放在政府的倉庫中,等到農產品價格上漲時再賣出去。在此期間,他們可以向政府借到低利率的資金。等他們的糧食賣出去了,再償還政府的貸款。

        MAURICE JOYCE:? The new People's Party also proposed ways to make government more democratic. It said secret ballots should be used in all elections. It said Senators should be elected by the people...not chosen by state legislatures.

        人民黨還提出了幾項使政府更加民主的建議,例如:在所有選舉中都應采取無記名投票;參議員應該由人民來直接選舉,而不應該由各州議員來選擇。

        Most Americans considered Populist proposals extreme. They felt the proposals were too close to socialism or communism. The Populists considered their proposals just. They felt their movement was a struggle for more equal control of the nation.

        絕大多數美國人覺得,民粹主義者的想法太過激進,這些建議太接近社會主義或共產主義的理念。而民粹主義者則認為,他們的建議是正當合理的,他們的運動是為了使管理國家的權力能更公平的分配而進行的斗爭。

        On one side of the struggle were producers. These included farmers, laborers, and small businessmen. They were led by the new People's Party. On the other side were what Populists called non-producers. These included wealthy bankers and leaders of industry. They were led by the Republican and Democratic parties.

        這場斗爭的一方是生產者,包括農民、工人和小企業主,他們由人民黨領導。另一方是民粹主義者所說的"非生產者",包括富裕的銀行家和產業界領導人,他們由共和黨和民主黨領導。

        Populists wanted producers to have some of the political power traditionally held by non-producers. They wanted producers to get a fairer share of the nation's increasing wealth.

        人民黨人希望生產者能夠獲得一些長期以來由非生產者所掌控的政治權力,他們希望生產者能夠更平等地享受到美國不斷增加的社會財富。

        STAN BUSBY:? The People's Party chose James Weaver as its candidate in the presidential election of eighteen ninety-two. Weaver had been an officer in the Union Army during America's Civil War. He had served in the House of Representatives. And he had been the candidate of a minor party in the presidential election of eighteen eighty.

        人民黨推選詹姆士.韋弗為候選人,參加1892年總統大選。韋弗曾經是內戰期間北方軍的一名軍官,當過國會眾議員,在1880年總統大選時,他曾經是一個小黨的總統候選人。

        The Republican Party re-nominated President Benjamin Harrison. And the Democratic Party nominated former President Grover Cleveland.

        共和黨再次提名現任總統本杰明.哈里森為總統候選人,而民主黨則提名前總統克利夫蘭為候選人。

        MAURICE JOYCE:? The campaign began quietly. But a few months before the election, a labor dispute exploded into an important campaign issue. Several thousand steelworkers went on strike at a factory owned by the Carnegie Steel Company in Homestead, Pennsylvania. The steelworkers union called the strike after failing to reach a wage agreement with company officials.

        這次競選活動剛開始時很平靜,但就在大選前幾個月,一起爆炸性的勞工糾紛事件成了競選的重要議題。在賓夕法尼亞州霍姆斯特德的一家屬于卡內基鋼鐵公司的鋼鐵廠,數千工人舉行罷工。在那之前,鋼鐵工人工會與公司管理者未能就工資問題達成協議,于是號召工人罷工。

        After months of growing tension, the head of the company sent three hundred private security officers to break up the strike and protect non-union workers. The security officers and many of the strikers carried guns. Shots were fired. Ten men were killed.

        在幾個月的緊張對峙之后,公司領導人派300名保安去破壞罷工,并保護那些未參加工會的工人。保安和許多罷工工人都有槍。雙方交火了,有十個人被打死。

        The governor of Pennsylvania immediately sent state soldiers to the steel factory. After a few more attempts to continue the strike, the union admitted defeat. Its power was crushed. It would be more than forty years before America's steelworkers were organized again.

        賓夕法尼亞州州長立即派遣州里的軍隊進駐鋼鐵廠。后來,工會幾次試圖繼續罷工,但都沒有成功,只好承認失敗。鋼鐵行業工會的權力被瓦解了,一直到四十多年后,美國鋼鐵業工人才再次組織起來。

        STAN BUSBY:? A short time later, state soldiers were used to break up a strike by railroad workers in New York. And federal soldiers were used against striking silver miners in Idaho.

        不久,政府為了結束紐約鐵路工人的罷工再次動用了州軍隊,后來又派聯邦軍隊去鎮壓愛達荷州銀礦工人罷工。

        This use of government troops to end strikes caused many citizens to vote against the ruling Republican Party. They voted for the opposition Democratic or People's Parties, instead.

        這種使用政府軍隊鎮壓工人罷工的行為使很多民眾對當權的共和黨不滿,于是,他們把選票投給了民主黨或人民黨。

        In the election of eighteen ninety-two, Republican President Benjamin Harrison was defeated. Democrat Grover Cleveland -- who had lost to Harrison four years earlier -- would be president again. The People's Party candidate, James Weaver, won one million popular votes and twenty-two electoral votes.

        在1892年的總統大選中,共和黨總統本杰明.哈里森失敗了,民主黨總統候選人,也就是四年前敗給哈里森的格羅弗.克利夫蘭再次當選總統。而人民黨總統候選人詹姆士.韋弗贏得了100萬張選民票和22張選舉人票。

        MAURICE JOYCE:? Grover Cleveland returned to the White House, just as his wife had said he would. But his second administration would be much more difficult than his first. Within two months of Cleveland's inauguration, the United States entered into one of the worst economic depressions in its history.

        正如他妻子曾經預言的那樣,克利夫蘭總統重返白宮。但他的第二個任期所面臨的困難將遠遠超過第一任。他宣誓就職還不到兩個月,美國就進入經濟蕭條期,這將是美國歷史上最嚴重的幾場經濟衰退之一。

        That will be our story in the next program of THE MAKING OF A NATION.

        (MUSIC)

        BOB DOUGHTY:? Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Stan Busby and Maurice Joyce. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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