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        #14: How Britain's Defeat at Saratoga Marked a Turning Point

        作者:Nancy Steinbach 發布日期:2-1-2013

        VOICE ONE:

        This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

        VOICE TWO:

        And this is Sarah Long with THE MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history of the United States. Today, we complete the story of the American Revolution against Britain in the late seventeen seventies.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        It is December, seventeen seventy-six. British General William Howe has decided to stop fighting during the cold winter months. The general is in New York. He has already established control of a few areas near the city, including Trenton and Princeton in New Jersey.

        1776年12月,英軍司令威廉·豪決定,寒冬臘月,暫停戰斗。當時,威廉·豪將軍駐扎在紐約市,周圍的一些地區都在他的控制之下,包括新澤西的特倫頓和普林斯頓。

        Detail from ''Washington and Lafayette at Valley Forge'' painted by John Dunsmore
        Detail from ''Washington and Lafayette at Valley Forge'' painted by John Dunsmore

        General George Washington and the Continental Army are on the other side of the Delaware River. The Americans are cold and hungry. They have few weapons.

        與此同時,喬治·華盛頓將軍統帥的大陸軍駐扎在德拉瓦河對岸。大陸軍士兵饑寒交迫,缺少武器和彈藥。

        Washington knows that if Howe attacks, the British will be able to go all the way to Philadelphia. They will then control two of America's most important cities. He decides to attack.

        華盛頓心里明白,一旦威廉·豪將軍發起進攻,英軍就會直搗費城。這樣一來,紐約和費城這兩座美國最重要的城市就會落入英軍的手中。

        His plan is for three groups of troops to cross the Delaware River separately. All three will join together at Trenton. Then they will attack Princeton and New Brunswick. Washington wants to surprise the enemy early in the morning the day after the Christmas holiday, December twenty-sixth.

        華盛頓因此決定主動出擊。他的計劃是,派遣三股部隊分批橫渡德拉瓦河,在特倫頓會師后攻打普林斯頓和新不倫瑞克。華盛頓將軍計劃圣誕節的第二天--12月26號行動,給敵人一個措手不及。

        VOICE TWO:

        On Christmas night, two thousand four hundred soldiers of the Continental Army get into small boats. They cross the partly-frozen Delaware River. The crossing takes longer than Washington thought it would. The troops are four hours late. They will not be able to surprise the enemy at sunrise.

        圣誕之夜,兩千四百名大陸軍將士坐著小船,橫渡冰凍的德拉瓦河,不過時間比華盛頓將軍預想的多出了四個小時。

        Yet, after marching to Trenton, Washington's troops do surprise the Hessian mercenaries who are in position there. The enemy soldiers run into buildings to get away. The Americans use cannons to blow up the buildings. Soon, the enemy surrenders. Washington's army has captured Trenton. A few days later, he marches his captured prisoners through the streets of the city of Philadelphia.

        盡管天色已經大亮,但是大陸軍抵達特倫頓的時候,還是讓駐守在那里的黑山雇傭軍大吃一驚。他們躲進樓里藏身,美軍動用大炮,迫使敵人投降。大陸軍一舉奪取了特倫頓。幾天后,華盛頓押著戰俘在費城游街。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Washington's victory at Trenton changed the way Americans felt about the war. Before the battle, the rebels had been defeated in New York. They were beginning to lose faith in their commander. Now that faith returned. Congress increased Washington's powers, making it possible for the fight for independence to continue.

        特倫頓一戰的勝利改變了美國人對獨立戰爭的看法。這場戰役前,大陸軍在紐約慘遭失敗,大家開始對華盛頓將軍失去信心。特倫頓一戰士氣大振。大陸會議增加了華盛頓的權力,讓獨立戰爭繼續下去。

        Another result of the victory at Trenton was that more men decided to join the army. It now had ten thousand soldiers. This new Continental Army, however, lost battles during the summer to General Howe's forces near the Chesapeake Bay. And in August, seventeen seventy-seven, General Howe captured Philadelphia.

        同時,更多的人愿意參戰,大陸軍增加到一萬人。然而,第二年夏天,大陸軍在切薩皮克灣附近還是敗在了英軍的手下。1777年8月,費城失陷。

        VOICE TWO:

        Following these losses, Washington led the army to the nearby area called Valley Forge. They would stay there for the winter. His army was suffering. Half the men had no shoes, clothes, or blankets. They were almost starving. They built houses out of logs, but the winter was very cold and they almost froze. Many suffered from diseases such as smallpox and typhus. Some died.

        打了敗仗的華盛頓將軍,帶領大陸軍來到附近的福吉谷安營扎寨,打算在那兒過冬。當時,大陸軍狼狽不堪,一半人沒有鞋子、衣服和毛毯不說,食物也十分短缺。士兵們自己動手,用木頭蓋起房屋,但還是擋不住刺骨的嚴寒。很多人死于天花和傷寒。

        General Washington and other officers were able to get food from the surrounding area to help most of the men survive the winter. By the spring of seventeen seventy-eight, they were ready to fight again.

        華盛頓將軍和他手下的將領們從附近地區找來糧食,幫助士兵挺過了這個冬天。到1778年春暖花開的時候,他們已經恢復了元氣。

        VOICE ONE:

        General Howe was still in Philadelphia. History experts say it is difficult to understand this British military leader. At times, he was a good commander and a brave man. At other times, he stayed in the safety of the cities, instead of leading his men to fight. General Howe was not involved in the next series of important battles of the American Revolution, however.

        威廉·豪將軍一直呆在費城。歷史學家說,這位英軍統帥實在讓人難以捉摸。有的時候,他是一名非常出色的指揮官,是英勇善戰的斗士;而有的時候,他又躲在安全的城市里,不肯主動出擊。不過,威廉·豪將軍沒有參與獨立戰爭中接下來的幾場重大戰役。

        The lead part now went to General John Burgoyne. His plan was to capture the Hudson River Valley in New York State and separate New England from the other colonies. This, the British believed, would make it easy to capture the other colonies.

        英軍的另外一位將領約翰·伯戈因打算搶占紐約州的哈得遜河谷,把新英格蘭和其他殖民地分隔開來。他相信,這樣一來,攻打其他殖民地就會容易得多。

        The plan did not succeed. American General Benedict Arnold defeated the British troops in New York. General Burgoyne had expected help from General Howe, but did not get it. Burgoyne was forced to surrender at the town of Saratoga.

        然而,這一計劃沒有成功。大陸軍的阿諾德將軍在紐約打敗了英軍。伯戈因將軍本來希望得到威廉·豪的支援,但是沒有等到,最后被迫在薩拉托加投降。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        British general John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga, New York, in October 1777, as painted by Percy Moran
        British general John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga, New York, in October 1777, as painted by Percy Moran

        The American victory at Saratoga was an extremely important one. It ended the British plan to separate New England from the other colonies. It also showed European nations that the new country might really be able to win its revolutionary war. This was something that France, especially, had wanted ever since being defeated by the British earlier in the French and Indian War.

        這次勝利至關重要,不僅粉碎了英軍將新英格蘭和其他殖民地分隔開來的企圖,而且向其它歐洲國家顯示,美國真有可能打贏這場獨立戰爭。對于在法印戰爭中敗給英軍的法國來說,這正是他們希望看到的。

        The French government had been supplying the Americans secretly through the work of America's minister to France, Benjamin Franklin. Franklin was popular with the French people and with French government officials. He helped gain French sympathy for the American cause.

        法國政府一直通過美國駐法使節本杰明·富蘭克林向美國提供物資。富蘭克林很受法國人民和法國政府的喜愛,爭取到了法國對獨立戰爭的同情。

        VOICE ONE:

        After the American victory at Saratoga, the French decided to enter the war on the American side. The government recognized American independence. The two nations signed military and political treaties. France and Britain were at war once again.

        薩拉托加戰役結束后,法國決定參戰。法國政府宣布承認美國的獨立。兩國簽署了軍事和政治協議。法國和英國再次成為敵對國。

        The British immediately sent a message to America's Continental Congress. They offered to change everything so relations would be as they had been in seventeen sixty-three. The Americans rejected the offer. The war would be fought to the end.

        英國立即向美國大陸會議提議,愿意將雙方的關系恢復到1763年的樣子。這一提議遭到了美國的拒絕,他們決心將獨立戰爭進行到底。

        In seventeen seventy-nine, Spain entered the war against the British. And the next year, the British were also fighting the Dutch to stop their trade with America.

        1779年,西班牙也站到了美國一邊。1780年,為了防止荷蘭人跟美國做生意,英國和荷蘭開戰。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        The French now sent gunpowder, soldiers, officers, and ships to the Americans. However, neither side made much progress in the war for the next two years.

        法國不斷向美國輸送彈藥、士兵、軍官和船只,但是在接下來的兩年時間里,交戰雙方勢均力敵,難分上下。

        A French blockade of the Chesapeake Bay during the Revolutionary War prevented British forces from reaching Yorktown
        A French blockade of the Chesapeake Bay during the Revolutionary War prevented British forces from reaching Yorktown

        By seventeen eighty, the British had moved their military forces to the American South. They quickly gained control of South Carolina and Georgia, but the Americans prevented them from taking control of North Carolina. After that, the British commander moved his troops to Yorktown, Virginia.

        到1780年的時候,英軍轉移到了美國南方。他們迅速控制了南卡羅來納和喬治亞,大陸軍奮力抵抗,才沒讓北卡羅來納陷落。

        The commander's name was Lord Charles Cornwallis. Both he and George Washington had about eight thousand troops when they met near Yorktown. Cornwallis was expecting more troops to arrive on British ships.

        英軍將領康華里隨即率領英軍向維吉尼亞的約克鎮前進。兩軍對陣時,康華里和華盛頓手里都有大約八千人的部隊。

        What he did not know was that French ships were on their way to Yorktown, too. Their commander was Admiral Francois Comte de Grasse. De Grasse met some of the British ships that Cornwallis was expecting, and he defeated them. The French ships then moved into the Chesapeake Bay, near Yorktown.

        康華里以為會有英國援軍從水路趕來接應,但是他沒有想到,英國的運兵船早就在半路上被法國船只擊敗,法國船只已經開進了約克鎮附近的切薩皮克灣。

        VOICE ONE:

        On this page in his diary, George Washington recorded the British surrender at Yorktown
        On this page in his diary, George Washington recorded the British surrender at Yorktown

        The Americans and the French began attacking with cannons. Then they fought the British soldiers hand-to-hand. Cornwallis knew he had no chance to win without more troops. He surrendered to George Washington on October seventeenth, seventeen eighty-one.

        美國和法國軍隊聯合對英軍發起炮擊,隨后又跟英軍展開肉搏戰??等A里知道,如果沒有援軍,他就沒有絲毫希望。1781年10月17號,康華里投降,北美獨立戰爭宣告結束。

        The war was over. American and French forces had captured or killed one-half of the British troops in America. The surviving British troops left Yorktown playing a popular British song called, "The World Turned Upside Down."

        一半英軍被美國和法國部隊打死或俘虜,活下來的人唱著著名的歌曲《這世界完全顛倒了過來》(The World is Turned Upside Down)離開約克鎮。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        How were the Americans able to defeat the most powerful nation in the world? Historians give several reasons:

        美國是如何戰勝英國這個當時世界上最強大的國家的呢?歷史學家認為,原因有以下幾個:

        The Americans were fighting at home, while the British had to bring troops and supplies from across a wide ocean.

        第一,美國人是在自己家里打仗,而英軍卻是遠渡重洋。

        British officers made mistakes, especially General William Howe. His slowness to take action at the start of the war made it possible for the Americans to survive during two difficult winters.

        第二,英軍將領犯了很多錯誤,特別是威廉·豪將軍在戰爭初期行動遲緩,讓大陸軍渡過了兩個嚴冬。

        Another reason was the help the Americans received from the French. Also, the British public had stopped supporting the long and costly war. Finally, history experts say America might not have won without the leadership of George Washington. He was honest, brave, and sure that the Americans could win. He never gave up hope that he would reach that goal.

        第三,美國得到了法國的幫助,而英國民眾卻對這場耗費巨大的持久戰怨聲載道。最后,歷史學家認為,如果沒有喬治·華盛頓的英明領導,美國可能不會打贏這場戰爭。華盛頓將軍誠實、勇敢,對美國的勝利堅信不移,他從始至終從來沒有對勝利失去過信心。

        VOICE ONE:

        The peace treaty ending the American Revolution was signed in Paris in seventeen eighty-three. The independence of the United States was recognized. Western and northern borders were set.

        英國和美國1783年在法國巴黎正式簽署了停戰協議,承認美國獨立,并確定了美國西部和北部的邊境線。

        Thirteen colonies were free. Now, they had to become one nation.

        由此,北美的十三個殖民地正式獨立,它們接下來的任務是如何融合為一個國家。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Today's MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach. This is Sarah Long.

        VOICE ONE:

        And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

        網友的學習評論(6條):
        作者:華晨
        2-12-2013 9:49:40
        "The World Turned Up Side Down". American might not have won without the leadership of George Washington . He never gave up hope that he would reach that goal. He was honet and brave.
        作者:xuding45
        3-20-2013 10:27:37
        The American people got a difficult win against Birtish‘ army,they hold a firm faith for the war and the god also showed appreciate for American people。At finally they suceed in。
        作者:鄭烈波
        11-5-2014 9:10:58
        he was honest,brave,and sure that the americans could win.
        作者:Melody
        6-4-2015 16:35:1
        How were the Americans able to defeat the most powerful nation in the world? Historians give several reasons: The Americans were fighting at home, while the British had to bring troops and supplies from across a wide ocean. British officers made mistakes, especially General William Howe. His slowness to take action at the start of the war made it possible for the Americans to survive during two difficult winters.
        作者:Melody
        6-4-2015 16:35:46
        Another reason was the help the Americans received from the French. Also, the British public had stopped supporting the long and costly war. Finally, history experts say America might not have won without the leadership of George Washington. He was honest, brave, and sure that the Americans could win. He never gave up hope that he would reach that goal.
        作者:xiaofenfen
        3-19-2017 15:15:22
        this passage mainly talk about Washington leads the american people beat the english with the support of French and their own efforts. The reasons why the british lost the control of the america are a lot. One is the brave and clever Washington leading the war .Another is the mistake they have made,the supply they need is transport from the other side of the sea. After that war the United States declared the independence .The brave and cleverness of the Washington impressed me a lot
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