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        #138: Benjamin Harrison Defeats Cleveland Over Tariffs in 1888

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:6-29-2013

        Benjamin Harrison
        Benjamin Harrison

        FAITH LAPIDUS:? Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        In the presidential election of eighteen eighty-eight, one issue that played a major part was tariffs.

        在1888年的美國總統大選中,一個十分重要的議題就是關稅。

        At that time, import taxes were high on many products. The high tariffs protected American goods from competing with lower-priced foreign imports. The tariffs protected millions of jobs in American industry. Not everyone, however, supported high tariffs.

        當時,許多產品的進口稅都很高。高關稅保護美國產品避免與外國廉價進口商品競爭,保護了美國各個行業的數百萬個工作機會。然而,并非每個人都贊成征收高額關稅。

        The president of the United States, Grover Cleveland, decided that high tariffs were wrong. He told other Democratic leaders that he would try to get the tariffs reduced.

        當時的美國總統克利夫蘭認為,征收高額關稅是錯誤的。他告訴其他一些民主黨領導人,他準備設法降低進口關稅。

        The politicians warned him not to try. They said he would only lose the support of business people. They said he would need campaign money from business if he expected to be elected president again. But Cleveland rejected their advice.

        但這些政治人士警告他不要這樣做。他們說,他這樣做只會失去商界人士的支持,而如果克利夫蘭還計劃連任總統的話,他會需要商界提供的競選資金。但是克利夫蘭拒絕了他們的建議。

        This week in our series, Shirley Griffith and Ray Freeman tell about the presidential election of eighteen eighty-eight.

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:? President Cleveland believed that high tariffs hurt more Americans than they protected. High tariffs, he said, led to high prices on all products. He also opposed high tariffs because they brought in more money than the government needed. The extra money was kept in the public treasury. And this, Cleveland believed, slowed the American economy.

        克利夫蘭總統相信,高額關稅給美國人民帶來的傷害要超過所提供的保護。他說,高關稅導致所有商品的高價。他反對高關稅的另一個原因是這些關稅帶來的收入超過政府所需。額外的資金則存放在國庫中。他認為,這個作法減慢了美國經濟的發展。

        The president's Democratic Party united to support his policy of lowering tariffs. When the party held its presidential nominating convention in eighteen eighty-eight, delegates quickly re-nominated Cleveland.

        克利夫蘭總統所在的民主黨一致支持他降低關稅的政策。在民主黨召開1888年總統候選人提名大會時,代表們很快就再次推舉克利夫蘭為下一屆總統的候選人。

        RAY FREEMAN:? At the Republican Party convention, delegates were expected to nominate Senator James Blaine. Blaine had been the party's candidate four years earlier. He had lost to Cleveland in a very close election.

        在共和黨的總統候選人提名大會上,代表們原本要提名參議員詹姆士.布萊恩。布萊恩在四年前就是共和黨的總統候選人,僅以微弱的劣勢敗給了克利夫蘭。

        Senator Blaine publicly criticized the president's policy on tariffs. He said he looked forward to a full debate on the issue. Republicans thought this meant that Blaine wanted to be nominated for president again. They told him he was sure to win. They said it would be such an easy victory that he would not have to campaign.

        布萊恩參議員公開批評克利夫蘭總統的關稅政策,并說他期待就這一問題與總統進行全面辯論。共和黨人認為,這表明布萊恩希望能夠再次獲得總統候選人提名。他們對布萊恩說,他肯定會勝選,而且會是一場輕松的勝仗,他甚至都不需要去競選。

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:? In fact, Blaine did not want the nomination. He asked that his name not be put before the convention. He met with reporters to talk about his decision. He said: "A man who has once been the candidate of his party -- and defeated -- owes it to his party not to be a candidate again."

        而事實上,布萊恩并不想成為候選人。他請求不要在大會上提他的名。布萊恩與記者們見面,談論他的這一決定。他說:"一個曾經獲得本黨提名卻在總統選舉中敗選的人,出于對本黨負責就不應該再次成為候選人。"

        Many Republicans refused to accept Blaine's decision. They felt that if Blaine were nominated, he would run. Blaine replied: "If the presidential nomination is offered to me, I could not and would not accept it."

        許多共和黨人拒絕接受布萊恩的決定。他們覺得,如果布萊恩獲得提名,他就會去競選。但布萊恩回答說:"如果讓我當總統候選人,我不能,也不愿意接受這一提名。"

        That was final. Blaine's supporters had to find someone else to nominate for president.

        一錘定音。布萊恩的支持者們只好另尋他人來當總統候選人。

        (MUSIC)

        RAY FREEMAN:? Fourteen men declared themselves to be candidates for the Republican nomination. A leading candidate was Senator John Sherman of Ohio. Another was former Senator Benjamin Harrison of Indiana.

        有十四人宣布參加共和黨總統候選人的角逐。最有希望的參選人之一是俄亥俄州參議員約翰.謝爾曼,還有一位是曾任印第安那州參議員的本杰明.哈里森。

        Convention delegates voted several times. No man received enough votes to win the nomination. Then a message came from James Blaine. It said: "Nominate Harrison." On the eighth vote, the delegates did.

        共和黨代表們進行了數次投票,但沒有一個參選人能獲得足夠多的票數而得到候選人提名。這時大會收到布萊恩的一封信,信中說:"提名哈里森。"于是,在第八輪投票中,代表們選擇了哈里森。

        Benjamin Harrison was the grandson of the ninth President of the United States, William Henry Harrison. Benjamin was a lawyer. He had been a General in the Union Army during America's Civil War of the eighteen sixties.

        本杰明.哈里森是美國第九任總統威廉.哈里森的孫子。他是一位律師,也曾是美國內戰期間北方聯盟軍的將軍。

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:? After nominating Harrison, the Republicans approved a strong policy statement on the tariff question. The statement said:

        共和黨人在提名哈里森為總統候選人后,批準了一份在關稅問題上立場強硬的政策聲明。該聲明說:

        "We fully support the American system of protection. President Cleveland and his party serve the interests of Europe. We would support the interests of America. We would see all other taxes ended before we surrender any part of the protective tariff system."

        "我們完全支持美國的保護制度??死蛱m總統和民主黨是為歐洲的利益服務的,而我們支持美國的利益。我們在看到所有的其他稅收停止之前,不會放棄關稅保護制度的任何部分。"

        RAY FREEMAN:? Benjamin Harrison's campaign was well-organized.

        His campaign workers went to businessmen who had become rich because of high protective tariffs. They asked for support, and the businessmen gave millions of dollars to the campaign. The businessmen also put pressure on the people who worked for them. They warned workers that if Cleveland were re-elected, there might be no more jobs.

        哈里森的競選工作組織得很好,他的競選團隊走訪那些因高保護關稅而發財的商業人士,請求幫助。這些人為哈里森的競選活動捐款數百萬美元,還向那些為他們工作的人施壓。他們警告那些工人說,如果克利夫蘭競選連任,工人們可能會失業。

        Republican Party leaders took an active part in the campaign of eighteen eighty-eight. They made speeches and led parades across the country. The party also printed millions of pamphlets that warned against what it called "Cleveland's free trade policies."

        共和黨領袖們也積極參與了1888年的總統大選。他們在全國各地發表演講,帶頭游行。共和黨還印刷了數百萬本小冊子,攻擊其所謂的"克利夫蘭自由貿易政策"。

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:? Grover Cleveland's campaign was not well-organized. It started slowly. It did not raise much money. No effort was made to answer Republican attacks on the tariff issue. And the president himself refused to campaign. He said he had more important things to do.

        相比之下,克利夫蘭的競選活動組織得就不好。競選活動啟動慢,沒有募集到太多資金。他們也沒有設法對共和黨在關稅問題上的攻擊作出回應??死蛱m總統本人拒絕參加競選活動。他說,他有更重要的事要做。

        The Democrats also failed to stop the Republicans from buying votes on election day. In Indiana, for example, men were paid fifteen dollars to vote for the Republican candidate. The Democrats bought votes, too. But they had less money to spend than the Republicans.

        民主黨人也沒能阻止共和黨人在選舉當天賄賂選民。比如在印第安那州,選民投票給共和黨候選人就會得到15美元。民主黨也花錢買選票,但他們的資金沒有共和黨雄厚。

        When the popular votes were counted, Cleveland had about one hundred thousand more than Harrison. But Harrison had more electoral votes. He won the election.

        當選票統計結果出來時,克利夫蘭獲得的票數比哈里森多大約10萬張,但哈里森獲得了更多的選舉人票,從而贏得了選舉。

        An 1888 campaign poster for President Grover Cleveland supporting tariff reform
        An 1888 campaign poster for President Grover Cleveland supporting tariff reform

        RAY FREEMAN:? Grover Cleveland had mixed feelings about his defeat. He wanted to win, because he believed his policies were best for the country. He said he was not sorry that he had made tariffs the major issue in the campaign. "I do not regret it," he said. "It is better to be defeated battling for an honest idea, than to win by a cowardly trick."

        克利夫蘭對于他的失敗百感交集。他希望能夠獲勝,因為他相信自己的政策對國家最有利。不過,他對于將關稅問題弄成競選中的重要話題并不后悔。他說:"我不感到遺憾,為一個誠實的想法而戰,結果失敗,比靠懦夫伎倆獲勝要強。"

        When President Cleveland and his wife left the White House, Missus Cleveland said goodbye to the servants. She told one of them: "I want you to take good care of all the furniture and other things in the house. I want to find everything the same when we come back...four years from now."

        當克利夫蘭總統夫婦離開白宮時,克利夫蘭夫人向那里的工作人員告別。她對其中一位說:"我希望你們好好保管白宮里的所有家俱和其他物件,我希望我們四年后回來時,一切都沒變樣。"

        (MUSIC)

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:? The new president, Benjamin Harrison, had big political debts to re-pay. He understood this when he began organizing his administration. "When I came to power," Harrison said, "I found that my party's leaders had taken all the power for themselves. I could not name my own cabinet. They had sold every cabinet position to pay for the election."

        新總統本杰明·哈里森有一大筆政治人情債要還。他開始組閣時明白了這一點。哈里森說:"當我接掌權力時,我發現我們共和黨的領導人已經拿走了所有的權力。我無法提名我自己的內閣人選,共和黨的大佬們已經賣掉了所有的內閣職位,來為這場選舉付帳。"

        RAY FREEMAN:? The position of Secretary of State went to James Blaine, who had refused his party's requests to run for president. Blaine had served as Secretary of State under Presidents James Garfield and Chester Arthur.

        國務卿的職務給了曾經拒絕成為共和黨總統候選人的詹姆士.布萊恩。布萊恩曾經在加菲爾德總統和亞瑟總統執政期間擔任國務卿。

        The position of Postmaster General went to John Wanamaker. Wanamaker had raised most of the money for Harrison's campaign. He had given fifty thousand dollars of his own money. He planned to re-pay party supporters with jobs in the post office department.

        郵政局局長的職位給了約翰.沃納梅克。他為哈里森籌集了大部分競選資金,他還自掏腰包捐了五萬美元。他打算把郵政局的工作作為償還,留給共和黨的支持者。

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:? During the campaign, Harrison had promised to enforce the civil service law that protected the job rights of government workers. He promised that workers would be removed only in the interests of better government.

        在競選期間,哈里森曾許諾要落實保護政府雇員工作權益的公務員法。他許諾說,政府公務員只有在有利于改進政府的情況下才會被開除。

        Wanamaker and other party leaders criticized Harrison. They said they could not build a strong party organization without promising government jobs to voters.

        沃納梅克和其他共和黨領導人批評哈里森。他們說,如果不答應將政府部門的工作給那些選民,他們就無法建立起一個強有力的政黨。

        So, President Harrison suspended the civil service laws that protected postal workers. Within a year, thirty thousand Democrats were removed from the department. Their jobs went to Republicans. The president then announced that the post office would, once again, be protected by the civil service laws.

        所以,哈里森總統暫停了保護郵局工作人員利益的公務員法。在一年內,有三萬名民主黨人被調離郵政局,共和黨人得到了他們的職位。之后哈里森總統才宣布,郵政局重又受到公務員法的保障。

        RAY FREEMAN:? Former President Cleveland had been troubled by the extra money in the federal treasury. This was tax money the government collected, but did not use. Most of the extra money came from high protective tariffs on imported products. Cleveland wanted to reduce the surplus by reducing the tariffs.

        前總統克利夫蘭曾經為國庫中多余的資金而頭疼。這些資金是政府通過稅收得來卻沒有花掉的錢。大部分多余收入來自針對進口產品的保護性高額關稅??死蛱m想通過降低關稅來減少財政盈余。

        President Harrison decided to reduce the surplus, too. But he would do it by increasing government spending, not by cutting taxes. Congress agreed. It became the first Congress to spend one thousand million dollars.

        哈里森總統也決定要減少財政盈余,但他要通過增加政府開支,而不是削減稅收來實現。當時的國會同意這么做,結果成為美國有史以來第一個批準十億美元預算的國會。

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:

        Much of the money was spent on payments to men who had fought in the Union Army during the Civil War. These payments cost the government more than one hundred million dollars a year.

        這筆錢的絕大部分被發放給那些在美國內戰期間為北方聯盟軍而戰的人。政府付給他們的錢每年超過一億美元。

        Congress also approved millions of dollars for government projects in the home states of important congressmen. This was called "pork barrel" spending. It paid for new roads, bridges, and government buildings -- for almost anything the congressmen wanted.

        國會還批準了幾百萬美元用于政府建設項目,這些項目都在一些重要國會議員所代表的州。這就是所謂的"豬肉桶"開支,用來為新的道路、橋梁、政府大樓以及那些國會議員們想要的幾乎一切買單。

        Congress reduced the surplus even more by approving money to build coastal defenses and to buy warships for the Navy.

        國會還批準修建海岸防御設施和為海軍購買戰艦,來進一步減少財政盈余。

        RAY FREEMAN:? The American Congress passed several historic pieces of legislation during Benjamin Harrison's administration: The Sherman Anti-Trust Act. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act. And the McKinley Tariff.

        美國國會在哈里森總統執政期間通過了幾項具有歷史意義的立法,包括謝爾曼反托拉斯法、謝爾曼白銀收購法和麥金利關稅法。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        FAITH LAPIDUS:? Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Shirley Griffith and Ray Freeman. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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