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        #136: American History: Immigrants from Europe Seek a Better Life in a New Land

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:6-27-2013

        Horse-drawn wagons and electric trolley cars share the streets in 1897 Philadelphia during a time of revolutionary change in transportation and industry
        Horse-drawn wagons and electric trolley cars share the streets in 1897 Philadelphia during a time of revolutionary change in transportation and industry

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        In our last program, we told you the story of the Statue of Liberty. It was given to the United States by the people of France. Lady Liberty holds a bright torch high over the harbor of New York City. Millions of immigrants coming to America passed the statue as ships carried them to the immigration processing center on Ellis Island.

        自由女神像是法國人民送給美國人民的禮物。自由女神矗立在紐約港,高舉著火炬。數百萬乘船來美國的移民在進入埃利斯島的移民入境處之前,都能看到自由女神像。

        This week in our series, Leo Scully and Maurice Joyce tell the story of immigration in the United States during the eighteen hundreds.

        LEO SCULLY: American life was changing. And it was changing quickly. Before eighteen sixty, the United States had an agricultural economy. After eighteen sixty, the country began to change from an agricultural to an industrial economy.

        美國生活正在急速變化。1860年前,美國是一個農業國,而在1860年以后,美國開始由農業經濟向工業經濟轉變。

        In eighteen sixty, American shops and factories produced less than two thousand million dollars' worth of goods. Thirty years later, in eighteen ninety, American factories produced ten thousand million dollars' worth. By then, more than five million persons were working in factories and mines. Another three million had jobs in the building industries and transportation.

        1860年,美國的工商業生產總值不到20億美元,而三十年之后,也就是1890年時,工業生產總值已經達到100億美元。那時,已經有500多萬人在工廠和礦山工作,還有300萬人在建筑和運輸業工作。

        MAURICE JOYCE: Year after year, production continued to increase. And the size of the industrial labor force continued to grow.

        年復一年,美國經濟持續增長,產業工人的數量也在持續增加。

        A great many of the new industrial workers came from American farms. Farm work was hard, and the pay was low. Young men left the family farms as soon as they could. They went to towns and cities to look for an easier and better way of life. Many of them found it in the factories. A young man who worked hard and learned new skills could rise quickly to better and better jobs.

        許多新興產業的工人來自美國的農場。農耕很辛苦,又掙不到幾個錢。所以年輕人總是千方百計離開農場,到城里去追求更輕松、更美好的生活。許多人在工廠里找到了他們的新生活。一個年輕人,如果工作努力,學會新技術,很快就能得到越來越好的工作。

        This was not only true for farmers, but also for immigrants who came to the United States from foreign countries. They came from many different lands and for many different reasons. But all came with the same hope for a better life in a new world.

        不僅美國的農民有這樣的機會,從世界各地到美國來的移民也同樣如此。這些移民出于不同的理由,從不同的國家來到美國,但他們有一個共同的愿望,那就是在美國這個新世界里過上更好的生活。

        LEO SCULLY: In the eighteen fifties, America's industrial revolution was just beginning. Factories needed skilled workers -- men who knew how to do all the necessary jobs. Factory owners offered high pay to workers who had these skills.

        十九世紀五十年代,美國的工業革命才剛剛開始,工廠需要全能型的技術工人。工廠主出高工資吸引這種技術工人。

        British workers had them. Many had spent years in British factories. Pay was poor in Britain, and these skilled workers could get much more money in America. So, many of them came. Hundreds of thousands. Some factories -- even some industries -- seemed completely British.

        英國工人就是這種全能型的,很多工人在英國的工廠里已經工作了好多年。但是,他們在英國的工資很低。這些技工如果在美國的話,掙的工資會比英國高許多。所以,數十萬英國技術工人來到美國。結果,在美國的一些工廠里,甚至在有的產業里,做工的全是英國人。

        MAURICE JOYCE: Cloth factories in Fall River, Massachusetts, were filled with young men from Lancashire, England. Most of the workers in the shipyards of San Francisco were from Scotland. Many of the coal miners in America were men from the British mines in Wales.

        在麻薩諸塞州的福爾里弗,服裝廠里到處都是來自英國蘭開夏的年輕人;舊金山造船廠里絕大多數工人來自蘇格蘭;而美國許多煤礦里的礦工大都來自威爾士。

        Many were farmers who came to America because they could get land for nothing. They could build new farms for themselves in the rich land of the American west.

        許多移民原本是農民,他們來美國是因為在這里可以免費獲得土地。他們在美國西部富饒的土地上開墾自己的新農場。

        LEO SCULLY: One of the best-liked songs in Britain then was a song about the better life in America. Its name: "To The West." Its words helped many men decide to make the move to America.

        當時,英國最流行的歌曲之一唱的就是在美國的美好生活,這首歌叫《To The West》--《到西部去》。歌中描繪的情景讓許多人決定移民到美國去。歌中唱道:

        "To the West, to the West, to the land of the free

        "到西部去,到西部去,那里是自由的土地,

        Where mighty Missouri rolls down to the sea;

        密蘇里河滾滾而下,奔騰入海;

        Where a man is a man if he's willing to toil.

        那里的人只要肯耕耘就能有收獲,

        And the poorest may harvest the fruits of the soil.

        最窮苦的人也能從大地收獲碩果;

        Where the young may exult and the aged may rest,

        那里年輕人快樂,老人無憂,

        Away, far away, to the land of the west."

        去吧,去那遙遠的西部吧。"

        MAURICE JOYCE: To another group of immigrants, America was the last hope. Ireland in the eighteen forties suffered one crop failure after another. Hungry men had to leave. In eighteen fifty alone, more than one hundred seventeen thousand people came to the United States from Ireland. Most had no money and little education. To those men and women, America was a magic name.

        十九世紀,美國成為一些移民追尋更好生活的目的地。但是,對另外一些人來說,移民到美國也許是他們最后的希望。在十九世紀四十年代,愛爾蘭的農作物連年欠收,饑餓的人們不得不背井離鄉。僅1850年這一年,就有11萬7千人離開愛爾蘭來到美國。他們中的大多數人沒錢,也沒文化。美國對他們而言是一個神奇的名字。

        LEO SCULLY: Throughout Europe, when times were hard, people talked of going to America. In some countries, organizations were formed to help people emigrate to the United States. A Polish farmer wrote to such an organization in Warsaw:

        在整個歐洲,每當生活困苦時,人們就想到移民美國。在一些國家甚至出現了一些幫助人們移民美國的組織。

        "I want to go to America. But I have no money. I have nothing but the ten fingers of my hands, a wife, and nine children. I have no work at all, although I am strong and healthy and only forty-five years old. I have been to many towns and cities in Poland, wherever I could go. Nowhere could I earn much money. I wish to work. But what can I do. I will not steal, and I have no work. So, I beg you to accept me for a journey to America."

        有一位波蘭農民給當時在華沙的一個這樣的組織寫信說:"我想去美國,但我沒有錢,我除了有一雙手、一個妻子和九個孩子外,什么也沒有。盡管我很強壯,身體健康,而且只有四十五歲,但我根本就沒有工作可做。在波蘭,我已經去了我能去的所有城鎮,但沒有一個地方能讓我掙更多錢。我想要工作,但我能做什么呢。我不會去偷盜,但我沒有工作。所以,我請求你們接受我,幫我去美國。"

        An 1880 drawing of immigrants arriving at Castle Garden, New York
        An 1880 drawing of immigrants arriving at Castle Garden, New York

        MAURICE JOYCE: As the years passed, fewer people were moving to America for a better job. Most were coming now for any job at all. Work was hard to find in any of the cities in Europe.

        隨著時間的流逝,已經沒有多少人是為了更好的工作而移民美國了,他們中大多數人到美國只是為了能夠找到工作。在歐洲的所有城市里,找工作已經非常困難。

        A British lawmaker told parliament in eighteen seventy that Englishmen were leaving their country, not because they wanted to, but because they had to. They could not find work at home. He said that even as he spoke, hundreds were dying of hunger in London and other British cities. They were victims of the new revolution in agriculture and industry.

        1870年,一位英國議員對議會說,英國人離開自己的國家,不是因為他們想離開,而是不得已而離開。因為他們在國內找不到工作。他說,就在我說這番話的時候,倫敦和英國的其它城市里成百上千人正因為沒有東西吃而餓死,他們是新一輪工業和農業革命的犧牲品。

        Small family farms were disappearing. In their places rose large modern farms that could produce much more. New machines took the place of men. And millions of farmers had to look for other work. Some found it in the factories. Industry was growing quickly -- but not quickly enough to give jobs to all the farmers out of work.

        當時,小型家庭農場正在消失,代之而起的是現代化大農場,這樣的農場產量更高,新機器取代了工人的位置。數百萬農民不得不尋找其它工作。有些人在工廠里找到了工作。雖然工業也在快速發展,但發展速度還是不能給所有的失業農民提供就業機會。

        LEO SCULLY: In the next ten years, millions of people made the move from Britain, Germany, and the Scandinavian countries. But then, as industry in those countries grew larger, and more jobs opened, the flood of immigration began to slow.

        在此后的十年里,數百萬人從英國、德國和斯堪的納維亞半島各個國家來到美國。但隨著這些國家的工業發展壯大,就業崗位不斷增加,移民美國的洪流開始減慢。

        The immigrants now were coming from southern and eastern Europe. Anti-Jewish feeling swept Russia and Poland. Violence against Jews caused many of them to move to America.

        代之而起的是來自南歐和東歐各國的移民。那時,反猶情緒席卷俄羅斯和波蘭,針對猶太人的暴力迫使許多猶太人移民到美國。

        In the late eighteen eighties, cholera spread through much of southern Italy. Fear of the disease led many families to leave for the United States.

        十九世紀八十年代后期,意大利南部暴發大面積霍亂,許多家庭因害怕得病而移民到美國。

        Others left when their governments began building up strong armies. Young men who did not want to be soldiers often escaped by moving to America. Big armies were costly, and many people left because they did not want to pay the high taxes.

        還有些人是因為本國政府擴軍而決定移民美國。不想當兵的年輕人通常會逃到美國。擴軍需要龐大的經費,許多人不愿意承擔由此而生的高額稅賦,決定移民到美國。

        Whatever the reason, people continued to emigrate to the United States.

        總之,無論出于什么原因,世界各地的人們源源不斷地涌向美國。

        MAURICE JOYCE: These new immigrants were not like those who came earlier. These new immigrants had no skills. Most were unable to read or write.

        這些新移民和早先的移民不一樣。他們沒有什么技術,大部分人是文盲。

        Factory owners found that these eastern and southern Europeans were hard workers. They did not protest because the work was hard and the pay was low. They did not demand better working conditions. They did not join unions or strike.

        工廠主發現,這些南歐和東歐的移民非常能夠吃苦,他們不會因為工作艱苦和工資低而抗議,不會要求改善工作環境,不會加入工會或舉行罷工。

        Factory owners began to replace higher-paid American and British workers with the new immigrants. Business leaders wanted more of the new workers. They urged the immigrants to write letters to their friends and relatives in the old country. "Tell them to come to America, that there are plenty of jobs."

        于是,工廠主開始用這些新移民來替代高工資的美國和英國工人。老板們需要越來越多這樣的新工人,他們還讓新移民寫信給國內的親戚朋友,"告訴他們來美國,這里有的是工作。"

        LEO SCULLY: Letters from America brought many more immigrants. The big steamship companies also helped industry to get more of the new workers. They paid thousands of agents throughout Europe to sell tickets for the trip to America. Their efforts meant that steamships bringing grain to Europe could return to America filled with immigrants.

        美國的來信吸引了更多的移民。大型輪船公司也幫助企業征招更多的工人。它們雇用成千上萬的代理人,在歐洲各地出售到美國的船票。

        They came by the hundreds of thousands. People of all religions, from all across Europe. Many remained in New York and other eastern cities. But many others moved westward. They took jobs in the steel factories of Pennsylvania and the coal mines of West Virginia. They worked in the lumber camps of Michigan and in the stockyards and meat-packing plants of Chicago.

        這么做的目的是,輪船公司的船在把農作物運到歐洲后,返回美國時不跑空船,能再運送大量的移民到美國。數十萬不同宗教信仰的移民從歐洲各地來到美國。許多移民留在了紐約和其它東部城市,但更多的人向西邊遷移。他們在賓夕法尼亞的鋼鐵廠、西維吉尼亞的煤礦、密西根州的木材廠和芝加哥的養殖場、肉聯廠找到了工作。

        MAURICE JOYCE: Within a few years, foreign-born workers held most of the unskilled jobs in many American industries. American workers began to protest. They demanded an end to the flood of immigration.

        在短短的幾年中,外國出生的工人占據了美國許多行業中的非技術型崗位。于是,美國本土工人開始抗議,要求結束移民潮。

        That will be our story in the next program of THE MAKING OF A NATION.

        (MUSIC)

        BARBARA KLEIN: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Leo Scully and Maurice Joyce. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        網友的學習評論(3條):
        作者:read11111
        3-26-2014 20:52:59
        Where is the MP3 of this programme?
        作者:read11111
        3-29-2014 12:56:51
        This programme is so great, only on unsv.com. I'm looking forward to the up-to-date programme.
        作者:hliu
        9-16-2015 9:52:12
        Farm work is hard, and the pay is low. Many farmers leave to find jobs in factories. This happens everywhere.
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