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        #135: Labor Unrest Marks Cleveland's First Term

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:6-26-2013

        A print showing the explosion that started the Haymarket riot in May 1886
        A print showing the explosion that started the Haymarket riot in May 1886

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        Grover Cleveland was elected president of the United States in eighteen eighty-four. He was the first Democratic Party candidate to win a presidential election in almost twenty-eight years.

        1884年,格羅弗·克利夫蘭當選美國總統。他是近28年來第一位贏得總統選舉的民主黨人。

        Grover Cleveland defeated James Blaine, a senator from the Republican Party. The election was very close. Many Republicans did not vote for their own candidate. They voted for Cleveland instead. They believed he was honest and that Blaine was not.

        他擊敗了共和黨候選人詹姆士.布萊恩參議員,盡管雙方的得票數很接近。許多共和黨人沒有把選票投給他們自己的候選人,而是投給了克利夫蘭。他們認為克利夫蘭為人正直,而布萊恩則不夠誠實。

        This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe tell us about the presidency of Grover Cleveland.

        KAY GALLANT: Cleveland began his administration by announcing that he would reduce waste in the government. He would make government more like business. He said he would support reforms to let ability -- not politics -- decide who would get government jobs.

        克利夫蘭上任伊始就宣布,他將致力于減少政府的浪費。他將像管理企業那樣管理政府。他說,他將支持進行改革,讓那些有能力,而不是靠政治關系的人進入政府工作。

        Grover Cleveland
        Grover Cleveland

        Democratic Party leaders were quick to protest. They explained to Cleveland that the party owed jobs to those who had worked for his victory. Cleveland had to compromise. He permitted about eighty thousand government jobs to be taken from Republicans and given to Democrats. This left twelve thousand jobs. These would be given to people who did the best on government examinations.

        民主黨領導人馬上表示反對,他們向克利夫蘭解釋說,民主黨必須用政府職務來回報那些下大力氣幫克利夫蘭當選的人??死蛱m不得不做出妥協。他答應把政府中大約八萬名共和黨人的工作交給民主黨人干。這樣,政府還剩下一萬兩千個工作機會,將交給那些在應聘考試中成績最好的人。

        Cleveland's decision angered Republican reformers who had voted for him. They accused him of surrendering to the leaders of the Democratic Party.

        克利夫蘭的決定惹怒了那些投票支持他的共和黨改革派成員,他們指責他向民主黨的領導層投降。

        HARRY MONROE: On other issues, however, Cleveland refused to compromise. He opposed government economic aid to any industrial group. He vetoed a bill giving aid to farmers whose crops had failed. And he vetoed another bill giving more money to men who had served as soldiers during America's civil war of the eighteen sixties.

        然而,在其它問題上,克利夫蘭總統拒絕妥協。他反對政府向任何一個產業組織提供經濟援助。他否決了一項對農作物欠收的農民提供補貼的議案,還否決了一項對內戰士兵提供更多津貼的議案。

        The president also showed his independence by investigating gifts of public land that the government had made to the railroad, wood and cattle industries. He found that many of these land grants were made illegally. He got back much of the land. He opened it to settlers.

        克利夫蘭總統的獨立性還表現在他對政府將公共土地贈與鐵路、木材和養牛業展開調查。他發現,許多撥地是違法的。他將大部分這類土地收回,交給定居者開發。

        KAY GALLANT: President Cleveland signed into law two bills he believed would improve government. One was the Electoral Count Act. It set new rules for counting the electoral votes of the states. It would prevent future disputes over presidential elections, like the one in eighteen seventy-six.

        克利夫蘭總統簽署了兩項他認為有助于改善政府運作的議案。一項是《選舉人票計算法》,為統計各州的選舉人票制定了新規則,以避免再次發生1876年大選那種計票糾紛。

        The other bill changed the list of officials who could become president, if the president and vice president died or were removed from office. First on the list -- after the vice president -- was the secretary of state.

        另一項法律是改變當總統或副總統去世或被罷免后接任總統職位的官員的排名次序。根據該法律,在副總統之后接任總統的是國務卿。

        Congress changed this law again in nineteen forty-seven. And there have been four amendments since then. Today, the speaker of the House of Representatives would succeed the vice president as president. Then would come the president pro tempore of the Senate. And then, the secretary of state.

        美國國會1947年再次修改此法律,此后又四次對法律進行修定。如今,排在副總統之后的依次是國會眾議院議長,參議院臨時議長,然后是國務卿。

        (MUSIC)

        HARRY MONROE: Grover Cleveland approved a bill giving the government control over the cost of railroad transportation. The bill was called the Interstate Commerce Act. It limited the amount of money railroads could demand from people who?needed to travel or transport their goods.

        克利夫蘭總統還批準議案,授權政府控制鐵路運費。這部法律就是《州際商業法》。該法律限制鐵路公司向乘火車出行或以鐵路運輸貨物的人所能收取的運費。

        The law established the idea that the government could control industries, when necessary, for the public good.

        這個法律確立了這樣一個思想,也就是,政府在認為有必要的時候,為了公眾的利益可以控制產業行為。

        President Cleveland also was concerned about a growing number of labor disputes that took place in the United States in the late eighteen hundreds. He proposed that Congress create a labor committee to help settle the disputes.

        克利夫蘭總統還非常關注十九世紀后期美國日益增加的勞資矛盾。他建議國會成立勞工委員會來解決這些糾紛。不過,國會沒有就總統的這項建議采取行動。

        KAY GALLANT: Congress failed to act on this proposal. But its lack of action did not stop the rise of a labor organization that had been formed a few years earlier. The group soon would become the most important labor union in the United States. It was the American Federation of Labor, or A.F.L.

        但國會的不作為并沒能阻止幾年前已經成立的一個勞工組織的興起,這個勞工組織很快就發展成為美國最重要的工會--美國勞工聯合會。

        Led by Samuel Gompers, the A.F.L. was different from earlier labor groups. It did not try to put all workers into one union. Instead, it tied together a number of different unions and gave them general leadership.

        美國勞工聯合會由塞繆爾.古帕斯領導。它和早先成立的一些勞工組織不同,并不要求所有的工人都參加同一個工會組織,相反,它把各個不同的工會聯合起來,對它們進行統一領導。

        HARRY MONROE: The A.F.L. was different in other ways. It did not oppose the economic system of capitalism. It said only that labor should get more of the earnings of capitalism. The A.F.L. also opposed extremists who used labor protests to change the social system.

        美國勞工聯合會的獨特之處還有,它并不反對資本主義經濟體制,只要求勞工在這種體制中獲得更多收入。美國勞工聯合會還反對那些利用勞工抗議來尋求改變社會制度的激進分子。

        What the A.F.L. called for were things workers wanted immediately. Higher wages. A shorter work day. Better working conditions. One of its first demands was an eight-hour work day. This demand led to a number of strikes and protests throughout the country.

        美國勞工聯合會要求的是工人們迫切需要的東西,比如提高工資,減少工作時間,改善工作條件,等等。最早提出的要求之一是八小時工作制。為了實現這一目標,美國全國爆發了多次罷工和抗議。

        KAY GALLANT: The most serious incident took place in Chicago's Haymarket Square.

        最嚴重的抗議發生在芝加哥的干草市場廣場。

        More than one thousand union supporters went to a meeting there organized by an extremist. They stood calmly and listened to speeches. Just before the meeting ended, someone threw a bomb into a group of policemen. The bomb exploded with a blinding flash. Seven policemen were killed.

        當時,一千多名工會支持者參加了由一名激進分子組織的集會,他們靜靜地站在廣場聽演講。就在集會馬上就要結束時,有人向警察扔了一枚炸彈。炸彈爆炸,發出巨大的火光,七名警察被炸死。

        The other policemen began shooting at the crowd. Some people in the crowd fired back. When it was all over, ten persons had been shot to death. Fifty others were hurt.

        其他警察開始朝人群開槍,一些人開槍還擊。沖突結束時,有十個人被打死,還有五十人受傷。

        The incident set off a wave of fear and anger across the country. The public demanded action against union extremists. The Haymarket Square violence slowed the growth of organized labor in the United States for many years. It would be some time before labor became a powerful force in national events.

        這一事件引發了全國性的恐慌和憤怒,人們要求懲治工會的激進分子。在后來的許多年中,干草市場廣場的暴力事件使美國工會組織的發展延緩了許多年。很長時間后,工會才成為美國社會中一支強大的力量。

        (MUSIC)

        HARRY MONROE: In the spring of eighteen eighty-six, President Cleveland announced that he was to be married. The ceremony took place in the White House.

        1886年春天,克利夫蘭總統宣布他要結婚了?;槎Y在白宮舉行。

        A few months later, President Cleveland and the First Lady went to New York City for the official ceremony welcoming the Statue of Liberty.

        幾個月后,總統和第一夫人前往紐約市,參加歡迎自由女神像的正式儀式。

        The statue was a gift to the people of the United States from the people of France. It represented the alliance between their two countries during America's war for independence from Britain.

        自由女神像是法國人民送給美國人民的禮物,它象征著美國獨立戰爭中法美兩國結盟的情誼。

        The statue was the creation of French artist Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi. He decided to make a statue that would represent freedom -- a Statue of Liberty. He said it should stand on an island in New York harbor. There, he said, it would welcome all who came to America through that gateway.

        雕像是法國藝術家巴塞迪的作品。他要創作一尊象征自由的雕像。他說,這尊雕像應該矗立在紐約港的一個島上,歡迎所有從紐約進入美國的人。

        KAY GALLANT: Bartholdi decided to make a copper statue in the image of a woman -- Lady Liberty. High above her head, she would hold a torch of freedom to light the world. The statue's face was the face of Bartholdi's mother.

        巴塞迪決定創作一尊女性銅像,即自由女神。她將高舉一支照亮世界的自由火炬。巴塞迪按照自己母親的形像塑造了女神的臉部。

        The artist asked French engineer Gustave Eiffel to build a steel support to hold the heavy statue. Eiffel was the man who later built the Eiffel Tower in Paris. The statue was built in France. Then the pieces were sent across the Atlantic Ocean. It was rebuilt in New York.

        他請法國工程師埃菲爾為自由女神建造一個鐵基座,來支撐這座巨大的雕像。埃菲爾就是建造法國巴黎埃菲爾鐵塔的人。自由女神像在法國建造完畢,然后拆開裝運,橫渡大西洋,在紐約重新組裝。

        HARRY MONROE: Grover Cleveland and his wife were not the only Americans to attend the Statue of Liberty ceremonies in eighteen eighty-six. Thousands of people crowded onto ships in the harbor to watch the great event. Thousands of others crowded the shorelines around the harbor. Everyone cheered wildly when a signal was given and a huge cloth fell from the statue.

        克利夫蘭和夫人并不是唯一出席1886年自由女神像揭幕典禮的美國人。成千上萬的人聚集在紐約港的大小船只上,觀看這一盛事,還有成千上萬的人來到港口的海岸上觀看揭幕大典。當官員一聲令下,巨幅幕布從自由女神像落下時,每一個人都禁不住縱情歡呼。

        The Statue of Liberty in 1886
        The Statue of Liberty in 1886

        Lady Liberty stood holding her torch high for freedom. Under her feet were the broken chains of tyranny. Below the statue was a poem. It called to the poor and oppressed people of the world. It told them to come to America to find a land of hope and freedom.

        自由女神矗立在那里,高舉象征自由的火炬,她的腳下是斷裂的專制鐵鏈。在自由女神下面有一首詩,它召喚世界各地貧窮和受壓迫的人們到美國來,尋找希望和自由。

        詩中寫道:

        KAY GALLANT:

        Give me your tired, your poor,

        把你, 那勞瘁貧賤的流民

        your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,

        那向往自由呼吸,又被無情拋棄

        the wretched refuse of your teeming shores.

        那擁擠于彼岸悲慘哀吟

        Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,

        那驟雨暴風中翻覆的驚魂,全都給我!

        I lift my lamp beside the golden door.

        我高舉燈盞佇立在金門之旁!

        HARRY MONROE: The Statue of Liberty was a great success. It was one of the great engineering wonders of its time. And it filled Americans with pride in their tradition of freedom and openness to people from all lands.

        自由女神像是一個巨大的成功,它是當時最偉大的工程奇跡之一。它使美國人為自己追求自由、胸懷天下的傳統而感到驕傲。

        We will continue our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        BARBARA KLEIN:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #135

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