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        #134: Chester Arthur's Term Marked by Disputes Within His Party

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:6-25-2013

        Chester Arthur
        Chester Arthur

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:? Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        President James Garfield was shot and seriously wounded in the summer of eighteen eighty-one. The man who shot him said he supported the political group that supported Vice President Chester Arthur.

        1881年夏天,詹姆士.加菲爾德總統遭槍手刺殺,傷勢嚴重。行刺的人說,他擁護那個支持副總統切斯特.亞瑟的政治團體。

        The gunman was found to be insane. But some people were ready to believe the worst about Vice President Arthur. They knew that many of the vice president's political allies disliked President Garfield. They thought the vice president might have helped the gunman in some way.

        這名刺客是個瘋子,不過,許多人真的認為副總統參與了這次刺殺行動。他們知道,副總統的許多政治盟友不喜歡加菲爾德總統,所以,副總統也許通過某種方式給兇手提供了幫助。

        This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant tell what happened after President Garfield was shot.

        HARRY MONROE:? For a time, it seemed the President might get better. But the bullet wound became infected. He died of the infection two months after he was shot. Vice President Arthur took the oath of office a few hours after the president's death.

        加菲爾德總統的傷勢曾一度好轉,但是,傷口感染,兩個月后,總統去逝。幾個小時之后,副總統亞瑟宣誓就任總統。

        Vice President Chester Arthur takes the oath of office after the death of President James Garfield
        Vice President Chester Arthur takes the oath of office after the death of President James Garfield

        Chester Arthur had been a successful lawyer. He had worked in politics for a number of years. But he had never before held an elected office. Many Americans questioned his ability to serve in the White House. One person put it this way: "Chet Arthur -- president of the United States. Good God!"

        亞瑟曾經是一位成功的律師,他從政也有幾年時間了,但他此前從來沒有擔任過公職。許多美國人質疑他是否能勝任總統之職。有一個人甚至說:"老天爺啊,連亞瑟都能當美國總統啦?!"

        KAY GALLANT:? Almost everyone feared Arthur would be a tool of a Republican Party leader in New York, Roscoe Conkling. They were sure Conkling would be the real power in Arthur's administration. They were wrong. Chester Arthur surprised everyone. He broke all his ties with the Conkling political machine. He remained independent of any party group.

        幾乎所有的美國人都擔心,亞瑟會成為來自紐約的共和黨大佬康克林的政治工具,他們肯定,康克林將掌握亞瑟政府的實權。然而,他們猜錯了。亞瑟讓所有人大吃一驚。他切斷了與康克林政治集團的所有關聯,獨立于所有黨派之外。

        Arthur asked Garfield's cabinet to resign. He chose new men for all but one department.

        亞瑟要求加菲爾德總統的內閣辭職,除一位部長外,他重新任命了其他所有的內閣部長。

        HARRY MONROE:? In his first message to Congress, President Arthur asked for changes in the way government jobs were filled. He proposed a new civil service system that would let ability -- not politics -- decide who got government jobs.

        他向國會提出的第一項要求是改革聯邦政府的招聘制度。亞瑟總統提出了一項新的公務員制度,依個人能力而不是政治因素來決定聘任誰。

        Republican Party leaders opposed these proposals. The civil service system would stop them from giving federal jobs to their supporters. It would destroy much of their power.

        共和黨領導人反對這些建議,因為新的制度將使他們無法為自己的支持者謀得聯邦政府的職務,而這將使他們失去很多權力。

        These Republican leaders controlled Congress. They refused to act on the civil service proposals.

        當時,這些共和黨領導人控制著國會,所以他們對總統提議的新公務員制度不予理會。

        KAY GALLANT:? Civil service reform, however, was an important issue. President Garfield had been assassinated by a man who believed he should have gotten a government job because of his politics. Also, new cases of dishonesty had been discovered in the Post Office department. The public began to demand laws to clean up the civil service.

        然而,公務員制度改革是一個十分重要的議題。刺殺加菲爾德總統的人就認為,依照自己的政治背景,自己本應獲得政府職務。同時,在美國郵政部出現了新的腐敗問題。所以公眾開始要求凈化公務員隊伍。

        In eighteen eighty-two, a new Congress was elected. The new Congress was controlled by the Democratic Party.

        1882年,新一屆國會產生了,民主黨人得到了國會的控制權。

        President Arthur again appealed for civil service reform. This time, he got results. The new Congress passed a civil service bill that required ten percent of all federal jobs to be filled through competitive examinations. This ten percent included half the officials in the Post Office Department. It included most workers at federal customs houses.

        亞瑟總統再次提出進行公務員制度改革。這次,他取得了一些成功。新一屆國會通過一項公務員法,要求百分之10的聯邦政府職位以競爭考試的方式選人。這百分之10的崗位包括郵政部一半的工作機會,還包括海關的絕大多數工作。

        The bill also said it was illegal for politicians to ask government employees for campaign money. And it set up a civil service committee to enforce the new law.

        新法律還規定,政客們不能要求政府雇員為其競選提供資金。國會還專門成立了一個公務員委員會,確保新法的實施。

        HARRY MONROE:? President Arthur also found himself faced with an unusual problem. The government was earning more money than it needed. Most of the money came from tariffs -- taxes on imports. Each year, tariffs brought in one hundred million dollars more than the government needed.

        亞瑟總統遇到的另一個問題是,政府每年獲得的收入超過了支出所需。當時,美國政府的絕大部分收入來自進口關稅。每年,關稅帶來的財政收入比政府所需的資金多出一億美元。

        The import taxes had been set high to protect American industries from foreign competition. President Arthur wanted to reduce the tariffs. Congress wanted to keep them high. Industrial leaders wanted to keep them high, too. They did not want to compete with low-priced foreign products.

        征收高關稅原本是為了保護美國的民族工業免受外國產品的沖擊。亞瑟總統想降低關稅。但國會卻想保持高關稅。產業界的領袖們也想保持高關稅,因為他們不想與外國的低價產品競爭。

        KAY GALLANT:? Congress saw no problem with the extra money brought in by high tariffs. It found many ways to spend it.

        國會認為通過高關稅獲得額外收入沒什么問題,而且想到很多辦法把這些錢花出去。

        For example, Congress raised payments to soldiers who had fought in the Civil War during the eighteen sixties. It also approved money to build roads, bridges, and waterways throughout the country. Many of these things were not needed. They were approved for political purposes. They put government money into the home areas of powerful congressmen.

        比如,國會提高了內戰士兵的津貼,還批準預算,用于在全國各地興建道路、橋梁和河道。然而,許多這樣的工程是沒有必要的,批準它們只是出于政治目的。國會把政府的錢用在了一些重量級議員的家鄉建設上。

        In eighteen eighty-two, Congress passed the "Rivers and Harbors Bill." The bill would cost almost nineteen million dollars. President Arthur vetoed the bill. He said it would waste too much money. But Congress passed the bill into law over his veto.

        1882年,國會通過了《河流和港口法案》,法案將耗資近一千九百萬美元。亞瑟總統否決了這個議案,但國會駁回否決,硬是通過了議案,使之成了法律。

        HARRY MONROE:? Next, President Arthur urged Congress to form a committee to find a way to reduce tariffs. Congress formed the committee. The committee proposed that tariffs be reduced by twenty percent. But Congress did not consider the proposal when it began debating a new tariff bill.

        后來,亞瑟總統又敦促國會成立一個委員會,研究如何減低關稅。國會成立了這個委員會。委員會建議將關稅降低百分之20。然而,國會在開始討論一項新的關稅議案時,卻對委員會的建議只字未提。

        President Arthur was more successful in getting Congress to reduce the public debt. During his term, the debt was cut by more than four hundred million dollars.

        同減低關稅相比,亞瑟總統在促使國會削減公共債務方面取得了更多的成功。在他的任期內,公共債務減少了四億多美元。

        KAY GALLANT:? Chester Arthur's efforts for honest government and lower taxes won him much support among the people. But he could not win the support of his Republican Party.

        亞瑟總統上臺后推動改革,雖然他在廉政和降低關稅方面所做的努力使他贏得了民眾的支持,但他卻沒有獲得自己的政黨--共和黨的支持。

        Arthur wanted to serve another four years in the White House. His name was put before the Republican nominating convention in eighteen eighty-four. The name of Senator James Blaine of Maine also was put before the convention.

        亞瑟希望能連任。1884年,他成為共和黨總統候選人提名大會考慮的人選之一,另一位候選人是來自緬因州的國會參議員詹姆士.布萊恩。

        On the first ballot, Blaine received three hundred thirty-four votes. Arthur got only two hundred seventy-eight. Three ballots later, Blaine won the presidential nomination.

        在第一輪投票中,布萊恩獲得334張選票,而亞瑟只獲得278張選票。三輪投票過后,布萊恩獲得共和黨總統候選人提名。

        However, many Republicans refused to support Blaine. They accused him of being dishonest. They said he was controlled by powerful politicians.

        然而,許多共和黨人拒絕支持布萊恩,他們指責他為人不正,是有權勢的共和黨大佬們的傀儡。

        HARRY MONROE:? The Democratic Party chose New York Governor Grover Cleveland as its presidential candidate. Like Chester Arthur at the national level, Grover Cleveland was known for fighting dishonesty in government at the local level.

        民主黨推選紐約州州長格羅弗.克利夫蘭為總統候選人。和亞瑟在全國建立廉潔政府一樣,克利夫蘭以在地方上反腐敗而出名。

        Grover Cleveland
        Grover Cleveland

        He began as mayor of the city of Buffalo, New York. He cleaned up the city government and saved the taxpayers much money. Next, he was elected governor of New York state. There, too, he helped end dishonesty in government.

        克利夫蘭最初是紐約州布法羅市的市長。他清理市政府內的腐敗行為,為納稅人節省了很多錢。后來,克利夫蘭當選為紐約州州長,同樣致力于在州政府內反腐敗。

        Cleveland refused to give jobs to Democrats because of their political ties. Instead, he filled state jobs with men of ability. This early success helped him win the Democratic presidential nomination.

        克利夫蘭拒絕將政府的工作機會交給有政治背景的民主黨人,而是在州政府里雇用那些有能力的人。這些政績使他獲得了民主黨的總統候選人提名。

        KAY GALLANT:? The campaign of eighteen eighty-four between Republican Blaine and Democrat Cleveland was one of the most bitter in American political history.

        1884年的總統選舉在共和黨的布萊恩和民主黨的克利夫蘭之間進行,是美國歷史上競爭最激烈的總統選舉之一。

        A group of Republicans who opposed Blaine published letters to prove he was dishonest. Blaine had written the letters several years earlier during a shameful incident concerning the sale of railroad stock. Now, he was forced to defend himself against those old charges.

        一伙反對布萊恩的共和黨人發表了一些信件,以證明布萊恩為人不老實。這些信是布萊恩很多年前寫的,當時他卷入了一樁出售鐵路股票的丑聞?,F在,他不得不為這些陳年舊帳而辯解。

        HARRY MONROE:? Blaine's supporters fought back by discovering a scandal in Cleveland's past. Grover Cleveland had never married. But more than ten years earlier, he had been involved with a young woman. The woman gave birth to a boy. Cleveland was not sure the boy was his son. But he accepted responsibility for the child. He sent money to help care for him.

        布萊恩的支持者進行反擊,挖出了克利夫蘭過去的一個污點??死蛱m從來沒結過婚,但在十多年前,他結識過一位年輕的女士。這位女士后來生下了一個男孩??死蛱m不能肯定自己是孩子的父親,但他承擔起了撫養孩子的責任,經常給孩子寄錢。

        A Republican newspaper published the story. Soon, Republican crowds were shouting a joke about it. "Ma! Ma! Where's my Pa. Gone to the White House, ha ha ha!"

        一家共和黨的報紙刊登了這件事,很快,共和黨支持者們開始拿這件事開玩笑,大喊:"媽媽!媽媽!我的爸爸在哪?他到白宮去了,哈哈哈!"

        KAY GALLANT:? Both candidates campaigned hard. It was clear to everyone that the vote would be close.

        兩位候選人都全力競選。所有人都看得出,兩人的選票會非常接近。

        Election day was cold and rainy. Early results showed the two candidates with almost the same number of electoral votes. The winner would be the one who captured a majority of the popular votes in New York state. That candidate would then get all of New York's electoral votes.

        選舉日那天,下著雨,非常寒冷。初步計票結果顯示,兩人所獲的選舉人票幾乎相等,而獲得大多數紐約州選民票的人將獲得勝利。這是因為,一旦獲得大多數紐約州選民票,就將獲得紐約州所有的選舉人票。

        It was not until three days after the voting that election officials announced Cleveland had won. His victory set off wild celebrations among Democrats across the country. Grover Cleveland really was going to the White House -- ha ha ha! His election would bring some important changes to the country.

        選舉日后的第三天,選舉官員才終于公布了結果。他們宣布克利夫蘭獲勝。全國各地的民主黨人狂歡慶祝。他們高呼,克利夫蘭真的要去白宮了,哈哈哈! 克利夫蘭的當選將給美國帶來許多重大的變化。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:? Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant.? Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #134

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