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        #133: Garfield's Short Presidency Ends in Tragedy

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:6-24-2013

        James Garfield
        James Garfield

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        In eighteen eighty, President Rutherford Hayes completed four successful years in the White House. He did not want to serve another term. Hayes was a Republican. His party had great hopes of electing another Republican in the election of eighteen eighty.

        1880年,盧瑟福·海斯成功地結束了總統任期。他不想再干一任。海斯是共和黨人,而共和黨非常希望在1880年的大選中再次得到總統寶座。

        This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe report on that election.

        KAY GALLANT: Many Republicans wanted to nominate former President Ulysses Grant. Grant had been out of office four years. People seemed to have forgotten the political problems that shook his administration.

        許多共和黨人想提名前總統尤利塞斯.格蘭特為候選人。格蘭特離開白宮已經四年了,人們似乎已經忘記了那些曾經傷害格蘭特政府威望的政治丑聞。

        Other Republicans supported the powerful party leader, Senator James Blaine. A third candidate was John Sherman, the Secretary of the Treasury.

        一些共和黨人則支持本黨強有力的領導人、參議員詹姆斯.布萊恩。還有一位候選人是當時的財政部長約翰.謝爾曼。

        The Republicans had great difficulty choosing among Grant, Blaine and Sherman. At their national convention, Republican delegates voted again and again. None of the three men received a majority.

        共和黨人在格蘭特、布萊恩和謝爾曼三個人中猶豫不決。在共和黨全國大會上,代表們一次又一次地投票表決,可是沒有一位候選人能夠獲得多數票。

        HARRY MONROE: The delegates voted ten times, twenty times, thirty times. Finally, on the thirty-fourth ballot, seventeen of the delegates voted for a compromise candidate. He was James Garfield, a Republican leader in Congress. Soon, both Sherman and Blaine asked all of their delegates to vote for Garfield. The compromise candidate won the nomination.

        代表們不斷地投票,十次、二十次、三十次。終于,在第三十四輪投票中,有十七名代表把票投給一位經各方妥協而產生的候選人,這就是國會共和黨領袖詹姆斯.加菲爾德。很快,謝爾曼和布萊恩也要求他們的支持者把票投給加菲爾德。這樣,加菲爾德獲得了共和黨的總統候選人提名。

        James Garfield offered the vice presidential nomination to Chester Arthur of New York. Arthur's honesty had been questioned when President Hayes removed him as Collector of Taxes for the port of New York. But a powerful party leader there supported him. So delegates gave Arthur the vice presidential nomination to strengthen party unity.

        加菲爾德提議來自紐約的切斯特.亞瑟做副總統候選人。在海斯總統執政期間, 亞瑟曾是紐約海關的稅收長,但后來被海斯撤了職,所以他的誠信受到了人們的質疑。不過,亞瑟得到了一位共和黨大佬的支持。所以,代表們同意提名他為副總統候選人,以加強黨內團結。

        KAY GALLANT: The Democratic Party chose for its presidential candidate a hero of the Civil War -- General Winfield Scott Hancock of Pennsylvania.

        民主黨則推選一位內戰英雄作為他們的總統候選人,這個人就是賓夕法尼亞州的溫菲爾德.斯科特.漢考克將軍。

        The election campaign of eighteen eighty was not exciting. Democrats charged that Republicans were dishonest. Republicans charged that a Democrat in the White House would make the south too powerful. Many people at that time still hated the south for starting the Civil War. They wanted to keep southern states weak.

        1880年的總統大選沒有什么吸引人之處。民主黨指責共和黨人不誠實,而共和黨人則說,如果民主黨人當選總統,就會使南方的政治勢力變得過于強大。當時,許多人仍然因為南方挑起內戰而憎恨南方,所以希望限制南方各州的力量。

        Nine million people voted in the election. James Garfield won. He got only ten thousand more popular votes than Winfield Scott Hancock. But he got a majority of votes in the electoral college. Garfield won two hundred fourteen electoral votes. Hancock got one hundred fifty-five.

        有900萬人在這次總統選舉中投票。結果,詹姆斯.加菲爾德獲勝。他只比漢考克多得了一萬張選民票,但他獲得了大多數的選舉人票。他和漢考克獲得的選舉人票分別是214張和155張。

        HARRY MONROE: The new president was forty-nine years old. He had served in the House of Representatives for seventeen years. He had been a teacher, a college president, and a general in the Union army during the Civil War.

        新總統當時49歲,曾經擔任過17年的國會眾議員。他當過老師和大學校長,內戰期間是北方軍隊的將軍。

        James Garfield became president of the United States on March fourth, eighteen eighty-one. His choices for a cabinet immediately re-opened the conflicts that had appeared during the party convention.

        1881年3月4日,加菲爾德就任美國總統,而在他挑選內閣成員時,共和黨在推舉總統候選人時顯露的矛盾又馬上浮現出來。

        KAY GALLANT: The Republican Party had two powerful leaders. One was Senator Roscoe Conkling. The other was Senator James Blaine. Garfield won Blaine's support by naming him Secretary of State. He lost Conkling's support by refusing to name one of Conkling's supporters Secretary of the Treasury.

        共和黨內有兩位強有力的領導人,一位是紐約州參議員羅斯科.康克林,另一位就是參議員詹姆士.布萊恩。加菲爾德因為提名布萊恩為國務卿而得到了后者的支持,但是,他卻因拒絕提名康克林的支持者為財政部長而得罪了康克林。

        Garfield denied he had promised anything to Conkling. Then he made Conkling even angrier by appointing one of Conkling's political enemies Collector of Taxes for the port of New York. That was the most important federal job in Conkling's home state.

        加菲爾德說,他從未向康克林做過任何許諾。他還提名康克林的一位政治對手擔任紐約海關的稅收長,這進一步激怒了康克林。因為海關稅收長是紐約州最重要的聯邦政府職務。

        Conkling refused to accept the appointment. He began a struggle in the Senate to block it.

        康克林不支持總統的提名,他決定在參議院阻擾提名獲得通過。

        HARRY MONROE: Conkling charged that President Garfield had failed to observe the policy of "Senatorial Courtesy." Traditionally, the president does not fill federal jobs in a state until he discusses them with the senators from that state. This long-time policy gave senators firm control over local federal jobs. They were quick to attack any changes in the method.

        他指責總統沒有遵守所謂的"參議員禮遇慣例"。根據這一慣例,在沒有同某州的參議員充分協商之前,總統不能提名某人擔任這個州的聯邦政府職務。這個多年形成的慣例使參議員可以牢牢控制家鄉州的聯邦政府職位。所以,每當這個慣例面臨挑戰時,都會馬上遭到參議員們的攻擊。

        But many senators were angry at Conkling. They did not like the way he gave orders to everyone. They did not like the way he threatened his opponents. They did not want to support him on this issue.

        但是,許多參議員對康克林不滿,他們不喜歡他那種對人頤指氣使的樣子,不喜歡他威脅對手的樣子。因此,很多參議員沒有在這個問題上支持康克林。

        KAY GALLANT: After several weeks, it became clear that the Senate would approve President Garfield's choice for the tax collector's job. Conkling decided to resign in protest. He would ask the New York legislature to show its support by electing him again to the Senate.

        幾周后,形勢明朗化,參議院將通過加菲爾德總統對紐約海關稅收長的提名??悼肆譀Q定辭職,以示抗議。他還打算要求紐約州議院力挺他,重新把他選為國會參議員。

        Before this could happen, something very unexpected took place. It happened in the train station in Washington, D.C., on July second, eighteen eighty-one. A man ran up to President Garfield, pulled out a gun, and fired twice. One bullet cut Garfield's arm. The other went into his back.

        但是,他還沒來得及這么做,一件人們始料未及的事情發生了。1881年7月2日,有一個人在華盛頓火車站沖向加菲爾德總統,拔出手槍,連開兩槍。一槍打中了加菲爾德的手臂,另一槍打中了他的后背。

        An 1881 print of the shooting of President James Garfield
        An 1881 print of the shooting of President James Garfield

        HARRY MONROE: The assassin was Charles Guiteau. When he fired the gun, he shouted that he supported Roscoe Conkling's political machine.

        這個刺客叫查爾斯.蓋圖,他開槍的時候大喊,自己支持康克林的政治集團。

        Charles Guiteau was insane. He believed God had ordered him to kill the president. But the words he shouted caused many people to wonder if others might be involved. After all, the vice president -- Chester Arthur -- supported Roscoe Conkling, too. If James Garfield died, Chester Arthur would become president.

        蓋圖是一個瘋子,他認為是上帝派他來刺殺總統的。但他的話使許多人懷疑另外有人參與了這起刺殺。畢竟,副總統切斯特.亞瑟也是康克林的支持者,而一旦加菲爾德去世,亞瑟就會接任總統。

        History has provided no evidence that Roscoe Conkling, Chester Arthur, or any other political leader had a part in the shooting. Guiteau is believed to have acted on his own. Yet the situation did cause a great deal of tension while the nation waited to see if Garfield would survive.

        直到今天,沒有任何證據證明康克林、亞瑟或其他政治領導人參與了這起刺殺。人們普遍認為,蓋圖刺殺總統只是個人行為。但當時總統遇刺使社會局勢極為緊張,整個國家都在關注加菲爾德是否能活下來。

        KAY GALLANT: The president was carried to the White House. A doctor tried to remove the bullet from his back. He could not find it. Days passed. The president's condition changed from day to day. Doctors pushed their instruments into the wound as they continued to look for the bullet. The wound became infected. Garfield grew worse. Then he grew better. He asked to be taken to the sea shore.

        總統被送到白宮,醫生設法取出他后背上的子彈,但他們沒能找到這顆子彈。時間一天天過去,總統的身體狀況時好時壞。醫生們不斷把醫療器械探入總統后背上的傷口,去尋找子彈。這導致傷口感染,身體進一步惡化。后來,總統的狀況有所好轉,他要求將他送到海邊養病。

        Two months later, the doctors warned the Cabinet and Vice President Arthur that Garfield was dying. The end finally came on September nineteenth, eighteen eighty-one.

        兩個月后,醫生們警告內閣成員和副總統亞瑟說,總統不行了。1881年9月19日,加菲爾德總統去世。

        The death of President Garfield
        The death of President Garfield

        The president's body was taken back to Washington. Memorial services were held there. And then the body was taken to his home state of Ohio for burial.

        總統的遺體被運回華盛頓,葬禮也在華盛頓舉行。隨后他的遺體被運回他的家鄉俄亥俄州下葬。

        HARRY MONROE: Not until after Garfield's death did doctors find the bullet that killed him. It lay only a few centimeters from the wound. Tissue had grown around it. The bullet itself would not have killed the president. What killed him was the effort made by doctors to find the bullet. Their instruments had spread infection throughout his body.

        直到加菲爾德總統去世后,醫生們才找到了導致總統死亡的那顆子彈。其實,這顆子彈就在傷口邊的幾厘米處,但被組織細胞蓋了起來。這顆子彈本身并不能要總統的命,但是醫生們拼命尋找這顆子彈,他們所使用的醫療器械造成總統全身感染,這才導致了死亡。

        James Garfield had been president for six months. He was the second American President to be assassinated. The first -- Abraham Lincoln -- had been shot just sixteen years before.

        詹姆士.加菲爾德只當了六個月的總統,他是美國歷史上第二位被刺殺的總統,第一位是亞伯拉罕.林肯。兩次刺殺之間只隔了6年。

        KAY GALLANT: The man who shot James Garfield -- Charles Guiteau -- was tried by a court in Washington. He was found guilty of murder. Like those found guilty of plotting to kill Abraham Lincoln, he was hanged.

        開槍刺殺加菲爾德的兇手蓋圖在華盛頓一個法院受審,被判犯有謀殺罪。同那些謀劃刺殺林肯的人一樣,他被處以絞刑。

        Vice President Chester Arthur was in New York when he received news of President Garfield's death. He quickly sent for a judge to give him the oath of office as President. Arthur was in his early fifties. He would serve one term as leader of the United States.

        加菲爾德總統的死訊傳出時,副總統亞瑟正在紐約。他很快叫來一位法官,主持他就任總統的宣誓儀式。亞瑟五十出頭,在接下來的四年中,他將擔任美國總統。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #133

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