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        #131: Indian Wars, Part 2

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:6-22-2013

        General George George Custer at the Battle of Little Bighorn
        General George George Custer at the Battle of Little Bighorn

        BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        During the eighteen hundreds, the federal government forced American Indians to live on lands called reservations. No longer could the Indians move freely over the Great Plains to hunt buffalo. White people were settling there. The situation resulted in violence.

        19世紀,美國聯邦政府迫使印第安人搬進保留地居住。他們不能再在大平原地區自由地獵殺野牛。而白人開始在這里定居。這種情況引發了暴力沖突。

        This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe continue the story of the western wars.

        KAY GALLANT: The government sent soldiers to force the Indians to move to reservations. But the soldiers could not keep them there. Groups of Indians would leave the reservations in the spring. They followed the buffalo across the plains.

        聯邦政府派軍隊強行將印第安人遷到保留地。但是,軍隊無法保證印第安人待在保留地里不出來。一到春天,一些印第安人就會離開保留地,到平原上去捕殺野牛。

        Some raided the homes of white settlers. They stole horses and cattle. At the end of the summer, the Indians would return to the reservations. And the government would give them food for the winter.

        有些印第安人襲擊白人的房舍,偷白人的馬和牛。夏末秋初,這些印第安人就回到保留地。然后,靠從聯邦政府那里獲得的食物過冬。

        HARRY MONROE: As years passed, fewer Indians left the reservations to live the old life on the plains. It became difficult to find buffalo. The plains were becoming empty.

        然而,隨著時光流逝,越來越少的印第安人能離開保留地到平原上去捕殺野牛。因為平原的野牛越來越少,捕獵變得非常困難。

        Only a few years before, millions of buffalo lived on the Great Plains. Then railroads were built across the country. White men came to claim the grasslands. They put up fences. Cowboys came up from Texas with huge groups of cattle. They forced the buffalo away or killed them.

        僅僅幾年以前,大平原地區還生活著數百萬頭野牛??墒?,橫穿全國的鐵路建成,白人占據了草原,圍起了柵欄。牛仔們從德克薩斯州趕大群的牛來到了這里。他們把野牛趕走或者殺死。

        The Indians tried to prevent this killing. Angry groups of Indians often attacked white buffalo hunters. But the army was too strong. Soldiers killed or captured many Indians. Finally, most Indians gave up the struggle. They surrendered their guns and horses. They went back to the reservations and became farmers.

        印第安人試圖阻止白人殺野牛。一些憤怒的印第安人經常襲擊那些捕殺野牛的白人。但是,軍隊的力量太強大了,軍人殺死和逮捕了許多印第安人。最后,絕大多數印第安人放棄了這種斗爭,交出了自己的武器和馬。他們回到保留地,當起了農民。

        KAY GALLANT: All this was taking place in what is now the south-central part of the United States. Far to the north, another struggle was taking place involving the great Sioux Indian tribe.

        所有這一切都發生在美國現今的中南部地帶,而在北方,印第安的蘇族部落和美國政府爆發了另一場沖突。

        The Sioux had signed a treaty with the government in eighteen sixty-eight. The treaty gave them a large reservation in what is now Nebraska, South Dakota and Wyoming.

        蘇族曾經在1868年與政府簽署了一項條約,條約規定把目前內布拉斯加、南達科他和懷俄明州內的一大片土地給蘇族部落作保留地。

        The Black Hills in Dakota were part of the reservation. These hills were important to the Sioux. In their religion, the Black Hills were a holy place. They were the center of their world, where the gods lived. They were the place where Indian fighters went to speak with the Great Spirit.

        達科他境內的布萊克山在蘇族保留地境內,而且對蘇族而言是一個重要的地方。根據蘇族的宗教,布萊克山是一處圣地,是他們世界的中心,是他們的神居住的地方。蘇族印第安人的戰士都會到這里與神對話。

        HARRY MONROE: In eighteen seventy-three, the Black Hills suddenly became important to white men, too. Gold was discovered there. Treaties and religion meant nothing to the white miners who rushed to the Black Hills to search for gold. At first, the Indians killed some of the miners. They chased others away. But more miners came.

        而在1873年,布萊克山突然對白人也重要起來。這是因為人們在這里發現了黃金。對于蜂擁而來尋找黃金的白人,印第安人和政府簽訂的條約以及他們的宗教信仰根本就不算什么。開始時,印第安人殺死了一些開礦者,并把其他開礦者趕走了。但是,更多的開礦者不斷涌來。

        The Sioux tribe asked the government to enforce the treaty. Tribal leaders asked the government to keep white men away from the reservation.

        蘇族部落要求政府確保條約的執行。部落首領們要求政府禁止白人進入印第安保留地。

        The army sent soldiers to remove the miners. The soldiers ordered the miners to leave. But they made no effort to enforce the order. Again the Indians protested. This time, the government sent officials to negotiate a new treaty. It asked the Sioux Indians to give up the Black Hills.

        軍隊派兵驅趕開礦的白人,士兵們命令開礦者離開。但是,他們只是嘴上說說,并沒有真地去驅趕白人。印第安人再次表示抗議。這次,政府派官員與印第安人談判,希望達成新的條約。而新條約要求蘇族印第安人放棄布萊克山。

        Sitting Bull
        Sitting Bull

        Some of the Indian leaders refused to negotiate. One who rejected the invitation was Sitting Bull. "I do not want to sell any land to the government," Chief Sitting Bull said. He held a little dust between his fingers. "Not even this much."

        有些印第安首領拒絕與政府談判,其中一人名叫西廷.博爾。他說:"我不想把任何土地賣給政府,"接著,他用兩個手指捏起一撮土,說:"連這么一點都不賣。"

        KAY GALLANT: This resistance did not stop government efforts to get the Black Hills for the miners. The War Department sent General George Crook to punish the Indians and force them back to their reservation. Crook led a large force into Sioux country. He surprised an Indian village, capturing hundreds of horses.

        然而,這種反抗無法阻止政府把布萊克山劃給開礦者。美國戰爭部派喬治.克魯克將軍去懲罰印第安人,把他們趕回到保留地??唆斂寺蚀筌娺M駐蘇族,突襲了一個印第安村莊,搶走了數百匹馬。

        There was another clash a few months later. This time, the result was very different. The Indians gave the army its worst defeat in almost a century.

        幾個月后,政府軍和印第安部落又發生了沖突,而結果和以往大不相同。印第安人使美國政府軍遭遇了近一個世紀以來最慘重的失敗。

        HARRY MONROE: The battle took place near the Little Bighorn River. General George Custer led two hundred twelve soldiers in search of the Indian leader, Crazy Horse. As General Custer moved through the river valley, he sent men ahead to explore the area. His men returned with reports that thousands of Indians were waiting to attack. Custer refused to listen. He pushed forward.

        這次戰斗發生在小比格霍恩河附近。喬治.卡斯特將軍率領212名軍人搜捕印第安首領克雷茲.霍爾瑟??ㄋ固販蕚渫ㄟ^河谷地區,于是派人到前面去探查。他的人回來報告說,成千上萬印第安人正準備發起攻擊??ㄋ固夭宦?,繼續率部隊前進。

        Soon, his forces were surrounded by Indians. In less than an hour, the Indians killed the general and every one of his men. The white soldiers lay dead at Little Bighorn. And Custer's name would go down in history as a symbol of foolish pride in battle.

        很快,他的部隊被印第安人包圍了。不到一小時,印第安人殺死了卡斯特將軍和他所率領的全部軍人。白人士兵的尸體散落在小比格霍恩。而卡斯特也成了戰斗中愚勇軍人的代名詞。

        The battle at Little Bighorn was a serious defeat for the United States Army. But the Indians' victory did not last long. Within a year, the army forced most of the Sioux to surrender. It took the Black Hills for the miners. It moved the Indians to a new reservation.

        小比格霍恩之戰是美國政府軍的一次重大失敗,但印第安人的勝利并沒有持續多久。在一年內,政府軍迫使大多數蘇族印第安人投降,把布萊克山給了開礦者,把印第安人驅趕到新的保留地。

        KAY GALLANT: In the next few years, the same thing happened to other Indian tribes throughout the West. Under great pressure from white settlers, the government took land from the Indians and opened it to settlement. The size of Indian reservations was reduced again and again.

        在隨后的幾年里,西部的各個印第安部落都經歷了同樣的命運。在白人定居者強大的壓力下,聯邦政府不斷把本屬于印第安人的土地拿來,交給白人定居者去開發。印第安人保留地越變越小。

        One by one, the Indian tribes of the West changed. Their fierce fighters became farmers who needed government help. They were weak and broken in spirit.

        西部的印第安部落一個接一個徹底改變了。勇猛的斗士變成了需要政府資助的農民。他們變得無力,精神不振。

        One Indian leader named Black Elk described the situation best. He was a survivor of a battle at a place called Wounded Knee. Many Indian women and children had died there. Years later, Black Elk said:

        一位印第安首領布萊克.艾科生動地描述了這種情形。艾科曾經參加過在傷膝谷發生的戰斗,很多的印第安婦女和兒童在那里遭到屠殺。幾年后,艾科說道:

        "I did not know then how much was ended. When I look back now from this high hill of my old age, I can still see the dead lying all over the ground. And I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud, and was buried. A people's dream died there."

        "我不知道有多少東西在這里終結了?,F在我已經老了,但當我站在這山岡上,回顧過去所發生的一切時,我依然可以看到遍地的尸體。而除了這些尸體外,我還看到,在被鮮血浸透的泥土中,還有一樣東西死去了,被掩埋了。那就是印第安人的夢想。"

        HARRY MONROE: Some Indians turned to religion during this difficult time. An Indian religious leader named Wavoka gained influence.

        在絕望中,有些人印第安人開始信仰宗教。一位名叫瓦維卡的印第安宗教領袖逐漸獲得了巨大的影響力。

        Wavoka declared that the Great Spirit had chosen him to prepare the Indians for a new world. He said the new world would arrive soon. And it would be a wonderful world. There would be no white men, he said. And all dead Indians would come back to life.

        瓦維卡聲稱,天神選擇他帶領印第安人進入新世界。他說,新世界很快就要來到,這將是一個非常美妙的世界。那里沒有白人,所有死去的印第安人將復活。

        Wavoka warned that new soil would rise up and cover the world like a flood. He said Indians could escape destruction by dancing a special dance. It was called the Ghost Dance. Wavoka said the Ghost Dance would make Indians powerful. He said it would even protect them from bullets fired by the white men's guns.

        瓦維卡警告說,新的土地即將崛起,將像洪水一樣淹沒全世界。他說,印第安人可以通過跳一種特殊的舞蹈而逃過這場劫難,這種舞叫鬼魂舞。瓦維卡說,這種舞能給印第安人力量,甚至在面對白人的武器時,也能刀槍不入。

        KAY GALLANT: Thousands of Indians in the American west listened to Wavoka's message. They believed him. And they began to dance for long hours every day. On the Sioux reservations, all other activities stopped. Children no longer went to school. No one did anything but dance.

        在美國西部,成千上萬的印第安人聆聽瓦維卡傳教,相信他的話,每天都要跳好長時間的鬼魂舞。在蘇族保留地,其它所有的活動都停止了,孩子們不再上學,所有人除了跳舞,什么也不做。

        All this frightened white officials. They tried to arrest some Indian leaders to stop the dancing. The arrests led to fighting. And the fighting led to a final battle in which the army defeated the Indians completely. The Indian wars were over.

        這種情形嚇壞了白人官員,他們試圖逮捕一些印第安首領,以阻止印第安人繼續跳鬼魂舞。這又引發了交戰,而在最后的決戰中,白人徹底打敗了印第安人。白人與印第安人的戰爭從此劃上了句號。

        Wavoka himself told his followers: "Our trails are covered with grass and sand. We cannot find them. Today I call upon you to travel a new trail. It is the only trail now open -- the White man's road."

        瓦維卡對他的信徒說:"我們祖輩所走的路布滿了荒草和黃沙。我們再也無法找到它們。今天,我希望你們去走一條新路,這也是我們唯一可走的路,那就是,白人的路。"

        (MUSIC)

        BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also get our programs on Twitter and at our new fan page on Facebook. Find us at VOA Learning English (Special English). Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #131

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