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        #13: America's Revolution With Britain Divided Families and Friends

        作者:Nancy Steinbach 發布日期:1-31-2013

        VOICE ONE:

        This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

        VOICE TWO:

        And this is Ray Freeman with THE MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history of the United States. Today, we continue the story of the American Revolution against Britain in the late seventeen hundreds.

        (SOUND)

        VOICE ONE:

        George Washington and the colonists fight the British in ''Washington Midway Between the Two Armies at Princeton'' by H. van Ingen
        George Washington and the colonists fight the British in ''Washington Midway Between the Two Armies at Princeton'' by H. van Ingen

        Delegates to the American Continental Congress approved and signed a Declaration of Independence on July Fourth, seventeen seventy-six. The new country called the United States of America was at war with Britain. Yet, not everyone in the former colonies agreed on the decision.

        大陸會議代表1776年7月4號正式批準并簽署了獨立宣言。獨立宣言創立的新國家--美利堅合眾國--跟英國開戰,但是并非所有的人都贊成這樣做。

        No one knows for sure how many Americans remained loyal to Great Britain. The Massachusetts political leader, John Adams, thought about thirty-three percent of the colonists supported independence, thirty-three percent supported Britain, and thirty-three percent supported neither side. Most history experts today think that about twenty percent of the colonists supported Britain. They say the others were neutral or supported whichever side seemed to be winning.

        直到今天,也沒有人確定當時到底有多少人繼續效忠英國。麻薩諸塞的政治領袖約翰·亞當斯認為,北美殖民地支持獨立、效忠英國、和保持中立的人各占大約三分之一。如今,大多數歷史學家都相信,當時有大約百分之二十的人支持英國,其余的人要么中立、要么站在勝利者一邊。

        VOICE TWO:

        As many as thirty thousand Americans fought for the British during the war. Others helped Britain by reporting the movements of American rebel troops.

        在獨立戰爭中,北美殖民地有多達三萬人加入了英軍的陣營,還有一些人向英軍泄漏大陸軍的動向。

        Who supported Britain? They included people appointed to their jobs by the king, religious leaders of the Anglican Church, and people with close business connections in Britain.

        支持英國的都是些什么人呢?他們包括英國國王任命的人、圣公會的宗教領袖,以及跟英國有密切往來的商人。

        Many members of minority groups remained loyal to the king because they needed his protection against local majority groups. Other people were loyal because they did not want change or because they believed that independence would not improve their lives. Some thought the actions of the British government were not bad enough to make a rebellion necessary. Others did not believe that the rebels could win a war against such a powerful nation as Britain.

        一些少數群體繼續效忠英國國王,因為他們希望得到保護,不受當地多數族群的欺壓;另外一些人保持效忠是因為他們不希望看到變革,或是不相信獨立會讓自己的生活有所改善;還有一些人覺得英國政府的所作所為還沒有惡劣到需要奮起反抗的地步,當然了,也有一些人不相信殖民地能打敗強大的英國。

        VOICE ONE:

        Native American Indians did not agree among themselves about the revolution. Congress knew it had to make peace with the Indians as soon as the war started, or American troops might have to fight them and the British at the same time. To prevent trouble, American officials tried to stop settlers from moving onto Indian lands.

        美洲印第安人對北美獨立戰爭的態度也存在分歧。大陸會議的代表們知道,在戰爭期間,他們必須跟印第安人和睦相處,否則就會腹背受敵。為了防止麻煩,美國官員設法制止定居者侵占印第安人的領地。

        In some places, the Indians joined the Americans, but generally they supported the British. They expected the British to win. They saw the war as a chance to force the Americans to leave their lands. At times, the Indians fought on the side of the British, but left when the British seemed to be losing the battle. Choosing to fight for the British proved to be a mistake. When the war was over, the Americans felt they owed the Indians nothing.

        有些地方的印第安人跟美國人同仇敵愾,但更多的印第安人還是站在英國一邊,因為他們覺得最終的勝利將屬于英國。在他們看來,這場戰爭可以迫使北美殖民者離開他們的土地。印第安人有時跟英軍并肩戰斗,但是英國人打敗仗的時候,又會拋棄他們。事實證明,印第安人選擇站在英國一邊是錯誤的,因為獨立戰爭結束后,美國人覺得,自己不欠印第安人的情。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Black slaves in the colonies also were divided about what side to join during the American Revolution.

        在北美獨立戰爭期間,殖民地里的黑奴在立場上也出現了分歧。

        Thousands fought for the British, because that side offered them freedom if they served in the army or navy. Some American states also offered to free slaves who served, and hundreds of free blacks fought on the American side. Many slaves, however, felt their chances for freedom were better with the British. Details are not exact, but history experts say more blacks probably joined the British in the North than in the South.

        數以千計的黑奴替英軍效力,因為如果他們加入英國陸軍或海軍,就能獲得自由。美國的一些州也同意給參軍的黑奴自由,因此不少黑奴加入了大陸軍的隊伍。不過,更多的奴隸覺得站在英國一邊獲得自由的可能性更大。歷史學家說,北方加入英軍的黑人要比南方多。

        VOICE ONE:

        At least five thousand African-Americans served with the colonial American forces. Most had no choice. They were slaves, and their owners took them to war or sent them to replace their sons. Others felt that a nation built on freedom might share some of that freedom with them.

        獨立戰爭期間,至少有五千名非洲裔美國人加入了大陸軍,大多數人是因為沒辦法,他們畢竟是奴隸,奴隸主讓他們去打仗,他們身不由己。也有一些人覺得,一個建立在自由基礎上的國家可能也會讓他們享受自由。

        In the South, many slave owners kept their slaves at home. Later in the war, every man was needed, although most slaves did not fight. Instead, they drove wagons and carried supplies. Many African-Americans also served in the American navy. Blacks who served in the colonial army and navy were not separated from whites. Black and white men fought side by side during the American Revolution.

        在南方,很多奴隸主把奴隸留在農場上。獨立戰爭后期,大陸軍急需兵源,即使是在這種情況下,大多數奴隸也沒有真正參戰,而是負責趕車或是運送供給物資。不少非洲裔美國人還加入了美國海軍。在陸軍和海軍里,黑人和白人并沒有分開,他們在獨立戰爭中并肩作戰。

        History experts say, however, that most black slaves spent the war as they had always lived: working on their owners' farms.

        不過,歷史學家說,大多數黑奴始終沒有離開農場。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        The American rebels called themselves patriots. They called British supporters Tories. Patriots often seized Tories' property to help pay for the war. They also kidnapped Tories' slaves to be used as laborers for the army. Many Tories were forced from towns in which they had lived all their lives. Some were tortured or hanged. In New Jersey, Tories and patriots fought one another with guns, and sometimes burned each other's houses and farms.

        這些人自稱愛國者,把支持英國人叫做 Tories, 效忠派。愛國者經常會奪取效忠派的財物,用做戰爭經費。他們還會劫持效忠派的奴隸,讓他們去充軍。很多效忠派被迫離開家鄉,有些人還遭到折磨,或是被吊死。在新澤西州, 效忠派和愛國者交戰,有時還會燒毀彼此的房屋和農場。

        VOICE ONE:

        A painting of Benjamin Franklin by Joseph-Siffrede Duplissis.
        A painting of Benjamin Franklin by Joseph-Siffrede Duplissis.

        Some history experts say the American Revolution was really the nation's first civil war. The revolution divided many families. Perhaps the most famous example was the family of Benjamin Franklin. Ben Franklin signed the Declaration of Independence. His son William was governor of the colony of New Jersey. He supported the king. Political disagreement about the war tore apart this father and son for the rest of their lives.

        有些歷史學家說,獨立戰爭其實是美國的第一場內戰,造成了很多家庭的分裂,最著名的恐怕要算是本杰明·富蘭克林一家了。富蘭克林本人在獨立宣言上簽了名,但是他的兒子是新澤西的總督,效忠于英國國王。政治上的分歧在父子間筑就了一道難以跨越的鴻溝。

        VOICE TWO:

        Different ideas about the war existed among the patriots, too. That is because the colonies did not really think of themselves as one nation. They saw themselves as independent states trying to work together toward a goal. People from Massachusetts, for example, thought Pennsylvania was a strange place filled with strange people. Southerners did not like people from the North. And people who lived in farm areas did not communicate easily with people who lived in coastal towns and cities.

        愛國者對這場戰爭也有不同的主張,主要是因為13個殖民地并不把自己看做是一個國家,而是13個各自為營的州,為一個共同目標而奮斗。比如說,麻薩諸塞殖民地的人就覺得賓夕法尼亞是一個很奇怪的地方,住著一些很奇怪的人;還有:南方殖民地的人不喜歡北方人;住在農場地區的人又跟沿海城鎮和大城市的人談不來。

        This meant that the Continental Congress could not order the states to do anything they did not want to do. Congress could not demand that the states provide money for the war. It could only ask for their help.

        這就意味著大陸會議無法對各州發號施令,不能讓他們繳納戰爭經費,只能請求他們的幫助。

        George Washington, the top general, could not take men into the army. He could only wait for the states to send them. History experts say George Washington showed that he was a good politician by the way he kept Congress and the thirteen states supporting him throughout the war.

        大陸軍統帥喬治·華盛頓不能要求各州補充兵源,只能等各州自愿派兵。歷史學家說,獨立戰爭期間,喬治·華盛頓能始終讓大陸會議和13個州支持自己,說明他是一位十分出色的政治家。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        As the people of America did not agree about the war, the people of Britain did not agree about it, either. Many supported the government's decision to fight. They believed that the war was necessary to rescue loyalists from the patriots. Others did not think Britain should fight the Americans, because the Americans had not invaded or threatened their country. They believed that Britain should leave the colonies alone to do as they wished.

        不僅是北美殖民地的居民對獨立戰爭存在不同看法,英國人對這場戰爭也出現了分歧。很多人支持政府發動戰爭,認為這是拯救效忠英國的臣民的唯一出路。另外一些人則認為,北美殖民地并沒有入侵英國,英國沒有理由跟北美殖民地交戰,應該讓他們自己處理自己的事務。

        King George was not able to do this, however. He supported the war as a way to continue his power in the world, and to rescue British honor in the eyes of other national leaders.

        喬治國王拒絕放棄對北美殖民地的統治。他要通過戰爭延續自己的權力,同時捍衛英國的榮譽。

        Whichever side British citizens were on, there was no question that the war was causing severe problems in Britain. British businessmen could no longer trade with the American colonies. Prices increased. Taxes did, too. And young men were forced to serve in the royal navy.

        不管英國人對這場戰爭的看法如何,沒有疑問的是,戰爭給英國帶來了嚴重的問題:英國商人不能再跟北美殖民地做生意,造成了物價和稅務的上漲,年輕人也被迫去皇家海軍服兵役。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        At the start of the war, the British believed that the rebellion was led by a few extremists in New England. They thought the other colonies would surrender if that area could be surrounded and controlled. So, they planned to separate New England from the other colonies by taking command of the Hudson River Valley.

        戰爭初始,英國人以為北美殖民地的反叛只是由新英格蘭一小撮極端分子挑起的,只要制伏了他們,其它殖民地就會自動投降。因此,他們決定搶占哈得遜河,把新英格蘭和其他殖民地分隔開來。

        British general Burgoyne's surrenders at Saratoga painted by Percy Moran
        British general Burgoyne's surrenders at Saratoga painted by Percy Moran

        They changed this plan after they were defeated in the Battle of Saratoga in New York state. Later, they planned to capture major cities and control the coast from Maine in the north to Georgia in the south. They failed to do this, although they did occupy New York City for the whole war, and at times had control over Philadelphia and Charleston.

        紐約州薩拉托加戰役英軍被擊敗后,改變了戰略,決定占領所有大城市,并控制從北部緬因到南部喬治亞的沿海地帶。他們沒有成功,但是在整個戰爭期間,英軍一直控制著紐約市,費城和查爾斯敦也曾經在英軍的控制之下。

        VOICE ONE:

        The British experienced many problems fighting the war. Their troops were far from home, across a wide ocean. It was difficult to bring in more forces and supplies, and it took a long time. As the war continued, American ships became more skilled at attacking British ships at sea.

        英軍在戰爭中遇到了很多困難,其中包括:英軍士兵遠渡重洋,在兵源和供給方面都十分困難。隨著戰爭的推進,北美殖民地大陸軍在水路攻打英軍船只方面也越發厲害了,等等。

        The colonial army had problems, too. Congress never had enough money. Sometimes, it could not send General Washington the things he needed. Often, the states did not send what they were supposed to. Americans were not always willing to take part in the war. They were poorly trained as soldiers and would promise to serve for only a year or so.

        不過,北美殖民地的大陸軍也并非一帆風順。首先,大陸會議手里從來沒有充足的戰爭經費,有時無法滿足大陸軍統帥喬治·華盛頓的軍需要求。各州經常不履行義務,殖民地很多人不愿意參軍,沒有戰斗經驗,最多只愿意參戰一年等等。

        VOICE TWO:

        The political and economic developments of the American Revolution concerned not just the Americans and the British. European nations were watching the events in America very closely. Those events, and the reactions in Europe, will be our story next time.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Today's MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach. This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

        VOICE TWO:

        And this is Ray Freeman. Join us again next week for another VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

        網友的學習評論(4條):
        作者:華晨
        2-11-2013 10:46:14
        America's Revolution with Great Britain diveded families and friends. such as the family of Benjamin Franklin, the political disagreement about war tore apart this farther and son for the rest of life. It's a tragedy . The war also causing severe questions in Britain . British business man could no longer trade with American colonise. Prices increased . Taxes did . And young man were force to serve in the royal navy. Let us pray for peace.
        作者:Melody
        1-16-2015 11:58:49
        War between two countries was causing various kinds of catastrophe . Nobody is able to avert it .Let me list some aspects as following :1)It divided families and friends . 2)People who took part in the war will have danger in life , most of them died from the battle . Numerous casualty is unbelievalbe . People became homeless and suffered in pain of the lost of families . 3)The victory of war also count of money . Without economical support ,it is hard to make wonders .
        作者:Melody
        1-16-2015 11:58:57
        4) It took a long time for people can rebuild their home , building , communal facilities etc after war . 5) The life condition for people won't be improved in the short time .
        作者:hliu
        7-13-2015 9:10:17
        Politicians are great in the way that they handle and negosiate diferent, complex and changing and unpredicted problems and contradictions. The obtrusives and extremes are not capable of those things. They help less and sometimes make things worse. The dangerous are those neutrals. They are and not always are loyal to either side. They are gooding at smelling.
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