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        #128: Gold, Land Drive Settlers West

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:6-19-2013

        Gold miners in California
        Gold miners in California

        FAITH LAPIDUS: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        Soon after the Civil War ended in eighteen sixty-five, thousands of Americans began to move west to settle the land. The great movement of settlers continued for almost forty years. The great empty West, in time, became fully settled. The discovery of gold had already started a great movement to California.

        美國內戰于1865年結束后不久,成千上萬的美國人開始涌向西部,開發那里大片的土地。這一大規模的西部拓殖運動持續了將近四十年。原本廣袤荒蕪的西部沒過多久就住滿了移民。而在加利福尼亞發現的金礦也吸引很多人去淘金。

        This week in our series, Robert Bostic and Leo Scully tell about the gold rush and the important part cowboys played in settling the West.

        ROBERT BOSTIC: Men had rushed to the gold fields with hopes of becoming rich. A few found gold. The others found only hard work and high prices.

        人們懷著發財夢涌向金礦,雖然少數人找到了金子,但等待大部分人的只有艱苦的工作和高昂的物價。

        When their money was gone, they gave up the search for gold. But they stayed in California to become farmers or businessmen or laborers.

        身上的錢都花光了之后,他們放棄了尋找黃金的夢。但他們留在了加州,成了當地的農民、生意人或勞工。

        Some never gave up the search for riches. They moved back toward the east, searching for gold and silver in the wild country between California and the Mississippi river. Men found gold and silver in Nevada, and then in the Idaho and Montana territories. Other gold strikes were made in the Arizona territory, in Colorado and in the Dakota territory.

        當然,也有一些人始終沒有放棄發財夢,他們掉頭向東,在加利福尼亞和密西西比河之間的荒野尋找黃金和白銀。人們先在內華達、后來又在愛達荷和蒙塔那地區發現了金子和銀子。還有人在亞利桑那、科羅拉多和達科他地區發現了黃金。

        LEO SCULLY: Each new gold rush brought more people from the east. Mining camps quickly grew into towns with stores, hotels, even newspapers. Most of these towns, however, lived only as long as gold was easy to find. Then they began to die.

        每一次新的淘金熱出現,就會把大量的人從東部吸引到西部。采礦營地也迅速發展成了擁有商店、旅店甚至地區報紙的小城鎮。不過,絕大多數這樣的城鎮只在淘金熱旺盛期才存在,一旦金子變得不好找,這些城鎮也就衰敗了。

        In some of the gold centers, big mining companies bought up all the land from those who first claimed it. These companies brought in mining machines that could dig out the gold from deep underground and separate it from the rock that held it.

        在一些金礦區,大金礦公司把成片的土地從最早一批地主那里全部買下。這些公司帶來了采礦機械,能夠在地下很深的地方采掘,然后從金礦石中分離出金子。

        These companies needed equipment and other supplies. Transportation companies were formed. They carried supplies to the mining camps in huge wagon trains pulled by slow-moving oxen. Roads were built, and in some places, railroads.

        這些公司需要設備和其它供給,于是運輸公司應運而生。它們靠牛拉大車,一點點地把礦業公司所需的供給緩慢地運來。人們隨之修筑了道路,甚至在一些地方建起了鐵路。

        ROBERT BOSTIC: The great wealth taken from the gold and silver mines was usually invested in other businesses: shipping, railroads, factories, stores, land companies. More jobs were created in the West. And living conditions got better. More and more people decided to leave the crowded East for a new life in the West.

        從金、銀礦中獲得大量的財富通常又被投資到其它行業中,如海運、鐵路、工廠、商店和土地。這樣,西部就出現了更多的就業機會,生活條件也有所改善。于是,越來越多的人決定離開擁擠的東部,到西部開始新生活。

        But the big eastern cities continued to grow. New factories and industrial centers were built. People moved from the farms to find work in the cities.

        東部的大城市也繼續發展,出現了新的工廠和工業中心。人們離開農田,涌向城市找工作。

        LEO SCULLY: The growth of these industrial centers created a big demand for food, especially meat. Chicago quickly became the heart of the meat industry. Railroads brought animals to Chicago, where packing companies killed them and prepared the meat for eastern markets.

        這些工業中心的發展帶來了對食品、特別是肉產品的大量需求。而芝加哥迅速成為了肉制品的加工中心。鐵路把家禽家畜運到芝加哥,那里的包裝公司將它們宰殺,做成肉制品,銷售到東部市場。

        Special railroad cars kept the meat cold, so it would remain fresh until sold. As the meat industry grew, the demand for fresh meat increased. More and more cattle were needed.

        一些特殊的火車車廂能夠使肉制品保持低溫,這樣,這些肉上市時仍然是新鮮的。隨著肉品工業的發展,人們對鮮肉的需求也在增長,這就需要越來越多的牛。

        ROBERT BOSTIC: There were millions of cattle in Texas, but no way to get them to the eastern markets. The closest point on the railroad was Sedalia, Missouri, more than one thousand kilometers away. Some cattlemen believed it might be possible to walk cattle to the railroad, letting them feed on the open grassland along the way.

        在德克薩斯有數百萬頭牛,但人們沒法把這些牛運到東部的市場。最近的火車站在密蘇里州的錫代利亞,有一千多公里遠。有些養牛戶想,如果一路趕著牛,讓牛在沿途的草地上吃草,這樣走到火車站,也許可行。

        Early in eighteen sixty-six, a group of Texas cattlemen decided to try this. They put together a huge herd of more than two hundred sixty-thousand cattle and set out for Sedalia.

        于是,1866年初,一些德州養牛戶決定一試。他們趕著26萬多頭牛,向錫代利亞出發。

        LEO SCULLY: There were many problems on that first cattle drive. The country was rough; grass and water sometimes hard to find. Bandits and Indians followed the herd trying to steal cattle. Farmers had put up fences in some areas, blocking the way.

        這初次嘗試遇到了許多問題:農村很荒涼;草地和水有時很難找到;土匪和印第安人跟蹤牛群,伺機偷牛;有些地方的農場主還把農場用柵欄圍起來,阻擋了牛群的路。

        Most of the great herd was lost along the way. But the cattlemen believed they had proved that cattle could be walked long distances to the railroad. They believed a better way to the railroad could be found, with plenty of grass and water.

        這一大群牛大部分都在路上走丟了、死了。但養牛戶們相信,他們已經證明,長途趕牛到火車站是行得通的。他們覺得,一定能找到一條更好的、有大量草地和水的道路,通往火車站。

        Union Pacific Railroad officials have their picture taken in Nebraska Territory, 1866, during railway construction
        Union Pacific Railroad officials have their picture taken in Nebraska Territory, 1866, during railway construction

        ROBERT BOSTIC: The cattlemen got the Kansas Pacific Railroad to extend its line west to Abilene, Kansas. There was a good trail from Texas to Abilene. Cattlemen began moving their herds up this trail across the Oklahoma territory and into Kansas. At Abilene, the cattle were put on trains and carried to Chicago.

        牛農們找到了堪薩斯太平洋鐵路公司,讓公司向西部加修鐵路,一直延伸到了堪薩斯的阿比林。而從德州到阿比利尼有一條比較好走的小路,叫奇舍姆。于是,牛農們開始沿著這條路趕牛,經過俄克拉荷馬進入堪薩斯。到了阿比林之后,牛農們把牛趕上火車,運到芝加哥。

        In the next four years, more than one-and-a-half-million cattle were moved north over the Chisholm trail to Kansas. Other trails were found as the railroad moved farther west.

        在后來的四年里,超過150萬頭牛經過奇舍姆小路北上進入堪薩斯。隨著鐵路線繼續向西延伸,人們還發現了更多好走的運牛小路。

        LEO SCULLY: Trail drives usually began with the spring "round-up."Cattlemen would send out cowboys to search the open grasslands for their animals.

        這樣的趕牛之旅一般都從春天開始。牛農們派牛仔幫他們尋找開闊的草場。

        As the cattle were brought in, the young animals were branded -- marked to show who owned them. Then they were released with their mothers to spend another year in the open country.

        等牛來到草場后,牛仔們在小牛身上打上烙印,表明它們的主人是誰。然后,牛仔們讓這些小牛和它們的母親一起,在廣闊的草場呆上一年。

        The other cattle were put together for the long drive to Kansas. Usually, they were moved in groups of twenty-five hundred to five thousand animals. Twelve to twenty cowboys took them up the trail.

        其它牛則被集中起來,踏上通往堪薩斯的漫漫長路。通常,每個牛群有2500頭至5000頭牛,由12到20名牛仔負責趕牛。

        ROBERT BOSTIC: The cowboys worked hard on a trail drive. They had to keep the herd together day and night and protect it from bad men and Indians. They had to keep the cattle from moving too fast or running away. If they moved too fast, they would lose weight, and their owner would not get as much money for them.

        牛仔的工作非常辛苦,他們要不分晝夜地把牛趕在一起,還要時刻確保牛群不受壞人或印第安人的侵擾。他們不能讓牛走得太快,不能讓牛逃跑。因為如果牛走得太快,它們的體重就會下降,這樣就賣不出好價錢了。

        The cowboys would walk the cattle only twenty to thirty kilometers a day. The cattle could feed all night and part of the morning before starting each day. If the grass was good, and the herd moved slowly, the cattle would get heavier and bring more money.

        牛仔們每天只能趕牛二、三十公里。每天出發前,要讓牛整夜加大半個早晨埋頭吃草。在水草豐美的地方,牛仔會讓牛群慢慢走,這樣可以把牛喂得更肥,多賣一些錢。

        LEO SCULLY: In the early eighteen eighties, the price of cattle rose to fifty dollars each, and many cattlemen became rich. Business was so good that a five thousand dollar investment in the cattle industry could make forty-five thousand dollars in four years.

        在十九世紀八十年代初,牛的價格上漲到每頭五十美元,許多牛農發了財。養牛很賺錢,投入五千美元,在四年內就能掙到四萬五千美元。

        More and more people began raising cattle. And early cattlemen greatly increased the size of their herds. Within a few years, there was not enough grass for all the cattle, especially along the trails. There was so much meat that the price began to fall.

        于是,越來越多的人開始養牛,而老牛農們大大增加了養牛的規模。在幾年內,已經沒有足夠多的草地來養這些牛了,特別是在鐵路沿線。市場上的牛肉過多,肉價開始下跌。

        ROBERT BOSTIC: There were two severe winters that killed hundreds of thousands of cattle. An extremely dry summer killed the grass, and thousands more died of hunger. The cattle industry itself almost died.

        后來,有兩年的冬天異常寒冷,幾十萬頭牛被凍死。隨后又有一年夏天大旱,很多草干死,結果成千上萬的牛又被餓死。整個養牛業幾乎到了崩潰的邊緣。

        Cattlemen also had problems with farmers and sheepmen. Farmers coming west would claim grassland used by the cattle growers. They would put up fences and plow up the land to plant crops. Other settlers brought huge herds of sheep to compete with cattle for the grass, and the sheep always won. Cattle would not eat grass where sheep had eaten.

        牛農還和農民及羊農產生了矛盾。來到西部的農民聲稱擁有土地所有權,而這些土地是牛農養牛用的。農民們在土地周圍豎起柵欄,還耕作土地種莊稼。其他一些定居者則帶來了很多羊,牛和羊爭奪草地,通常贏的都是羊。因為在羊吃過草的地方,牛就不會吃了。

        Violence broke out. Cattle growers fought the farmers and sheepmen for control of the land. The cattlemen finally had to settle land of their own, putting up fences and cutting the size of their herds. They no longer could let their cattle run free on public lands.

        暴力也就隨之發生。牛農為了控制土地而與農民和羊農發生爭斗。結果,牛農不得不劃定自己的土地,并用柵欄圍起來,同時削減牛的數量。他們再也不能在公共土地上隨意放牧了。

        LEO SCULLY: By the late eighteen hundreds, the years of the cowboys were ending. But the story of the cowboy and his difficult life would not be forgotten. Even today, the cowboy lives in movies, on television, and in books.

        到十九世紀后期,牛仔的時代行將結束。但牛仔們的故事和他們艱苦的生活卻沒有被人們遺忘。即使在今天,我們依然會在電影、電視和書本上看到他們的身影。

        When one thinks of the "Wild West" of America, he does not think of the miners who opened the way to the West. Nor does he think of the men who struggled to build the first railroads across the wild land. And one does not think of the farmers who pushed slowly westward to fence, plow, and plant the land.

        當一個人想到美國的"狂野西部"時,他可能不會想到打開通往西部之路的礦工,也可能不會想到修建第一條橫貫美國的鐵路的工人,也可能不會想到那些慢慢西進,圍起土地,耕作種田的農民。

        ROBERT BOSTIC: The words "Wild West" bring to mind just one character: the cowboy. His difficult fight to protect his cattle on the long trail was an exciting story. It has been told by many writers. Perhaps the best-known was a young easterner, Owen Wister. He worked as a cattleman for several years, then wrote about the heroic life of the cowboy in a book called "The Virginian."

        "狂野西部"只意味著一個經典的形象,那就是牛仔。他們在漫長的道路上為保護牛群而艱苦戰斗的故事總是讓人們激動萬分。許多作家都著筆描述牛仔的故事。也許其中最著名的是一位來自東部的年輕作家,他叫歐文·威斯特,他曾經養過幾年牛,后來在《維吉尼亞人》這本書中描寫了牛仔的英雄事跡。

        Another easterner who came west to learn about the cowboy was the artist Frederick Remington. Remington was a cowboy for only two years. But he spent the rest of his life painting pictures of the west and writing about it. His exciting works made the west and the cowboy come to life for millions who never saw a real cowboy.

        另一位從東岸來到西部了解牛仔生活的是畫家弗雷德里克.雷明頓。雷明頓只當過兩年牛仔,但他此后的一生都在創作以西部為題材的繪畫和書籍。他那激動人心的作品使無數從沒看到過真正牛仔的人領略到了美國的西部風情和牛仔文化。

        LEO SCULLY: The cowboy has also lived in music. He had his own kind of songs that told of his problems, his hopes, and his feelings. That will be our story next week.

        牛仔形象還活躍在音樂中。牛仔們有自己的歌曲,這些歌曲講述他們的問題、希望和感受。

        (MUSIC)

        FAITH LAPIDUS: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Robert Bostic and Leo Scully. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs, along with historical images, are at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #128

        網友的學習評論(3條):
        作者:雄雄
        2-27-2014 10:53:1
        For now, the cowboy lives in movies,lives in music, and television, and in books. Stories of the cowboy and their difficult life would not be forgotten. Their difficult fight to protect their cattle on the long trail ,and their problems, and their hopes, and their feelings were the exciting stories, made the "Wild West" and the cowboy come to life for millions who never saw a real cowboy. I like it very much, like them very much!
        作者:Ronald
        2-28-2014 20:22:44
        Through tis artical,I knew a lot of the American history,for example, the gold rush and the importance rule cowboys played in the histoy of the west.
        作者:鄭烈波
        3-3-2014 15:56:20
        WONDERFULL.LIVING IS HARD.LIFE IS GREAT.
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