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        #127: President Hayes Promises Only One Term in Office

        作者:David Jarmul 發布日期:6-18-2013

        A Portrait of Rutherford Hayes
        A Portrait of Rutherford Hayes

        BARBARA KLEIN: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        Rutherford Hayes was sworn into office as the nineteenth president of the United States in eighteen seventy-seven. Hayes, a Republican, became president after a disputed election.

        共和黨人拉瑟弗德.海斯贏得了一場有爭議的總統選舉。1877年,他宣誓就任第19任美國總統。

        Representatives of his party and the Democrats met secretly to work out a compromise.

        此前,共和黨和民主黨的代表召開秘密會議,達成了妥協。

        The Democrats agreed to let Hayes be sworn in. In return, he agreed to end federal support of radical Republican governments in the South.

        民主黨同意讓海斯出任總統,作為回報,海斯同意聯邦政府不再支持南方各州的激進共和黨政府。

        He promised to name southerners to his cabinet and other important jobs. And he said he would provide more federal aid for schools and railroads in the South.

        他還答應讓南方政客在內閣和政府中擔任要職, 并為南方的學校和鐵路提供更多的聯邦撥款。

        As part of the agreement, Hayes promised not to act aggressively to support the civil rights of black southerners.

        作為協議的一部分,海斯還承諾,不會積極支持南方黑人的民權運動。

        This week in our series, Steve Ember and Richard Rael tell the story of Rutherford Hayes.

        STEVE EMBER: Rutherford Hayes was born in Ohio in eighteen twenty-two. He was a good student at Kenyon College and at Harvard Law School. He opened a law office in Cincinnati. When he was thirty years old, he married Lucy Webb. Later, he served as an officer in the Union army during America's Civil War. He was elected to the United States House of Representatives. He also served as governor of Ohio. In this job, he helped establish the college that became Ohio State University.

        海斯1822年出生在俄亥俄州。他以優異的成績畢業于凱尼恩學院和哈佛法學院。后來,他在辛辛那提開了一家律師事務所。30歲時,他與露西.韋伯結婚。在美國內戰期間,他是北方聯軍的一名軍官,后來又當選國會眾議員。海斯還當過俄亥俄州州長,并在任職期間幫助創辦了俄亥俄州立大學的前身。

        RICHARD RAEL: Hayes was a Republican. In eighteen seventy-six, he was the party's compromise candidate for president. His opponent in the national election was Democrat Samuel Tilden. Tilden won more popular votes than Hayes. In the American political system, whoever wins the most popular votes in a state usually gets all the electoral votes of that state.

        海斯是共和黨人。1876年,共和黨內各派勢力經過妥協,同意推舉海斯為總統候選人。在全國大選中,他的對手是民主黨的薩繆爾.蒂爾登。蒂爾登獲得的選民票數超過了海斯。根據美國的政治制度,在某個州贏得多數選民票的候選人通常就獲得該州所有的選舉人票。

        In eighteen seventy-six, both the Republicans and Democrats claimed the electoral votes of three southern states: Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina. So it was not clear at first who had won the presidential election.

        可是,在1876年,共和黨和民主黨都聲稱本黨候選人贏得了佛羅里達、路易斯安那和南卡羅萊納州的選舉人票。人們當時搞不清楚究竟誰贏得了總統選舉。

        STEVE EMBER: Congress appointed a committee to decide the issue. The committee had a Republican majority. It gave the disputed electoral votes to Hayes. He won the election by just one electoral vote. The results came just a few days before the inauguration.

        國會指定了一個委員會來決定此事。在這個委員會中,共和黨人占多數,所以委員會就把有爭議的選舉人票判給了海斯。最后,在離總統就職儀式還有幾天時,海斯以一張選舉人票的優勢當選總統。

        The swearing in of Rutherford Hayes in 1877
        The swearing in of Rutherford Hayes in 1877

        Democrats protested that the Republicans had stolen the election. Yet they agreed to accept Hayes as president. In exchange, Hayes and the Republicans agreed to accept Democratic Party policies on several issues. Hayes's administration would deal mainly with national -- not international -- problems.

        民主黨提出抗議,說共和黨人竊取了這次選舉。不過,他們還是同意讓海斯就任總統。作為交換,海斯和共和黨同意在一些問題上采納民主黨的政策。海斯政府將重點解決國內問題,而不是國際問題。

        RICHARD RAEL: At first, people wondered: would President Hayes keep the promises that were made to help him win the election. Most thought he would not. Hayes surprised everyone. In his inaugural speech, he promised to put the country ahead of the party. He said, "He serves his party best who serves his country best."

        剛開始,人們都犯嘀咕:到底海斯是否會履行那些使他得以當選的諾言?絕大多數人認為,他不會這么做。然而,海斯讓所有人吃了一驚。他在就職演說中承諾,要把國家利益放在黨派利益之上,他說:"盡最大努力為國家服務,才是對本黨的最好服務。"

        Party leaders told Hayes which men to appoint to his cabinet. He refused and made his own choices. He ordered federal troops to withdraw from South Carolina and Louisiana. The troops had been there since the end of the Civil War. He also helped southern Democrats establish new governments in their states.

        共和黨領袖們告訴海斯,應該提名哪些人進入內閣。但是,海斯拒絕了,他按照自己的意愿選擇內閣成員。他還命令聯邦軍隊撤出南卡羅萊納和路易斯安那。自從內戰結束后,這些部隊就一直駐扎在這些地方。此外,海斯還幫助南方的民主黨人在他們所控制的州里建立起新政府。

        STEVE EMBER: Republican Party leaders criticized President Hayes. Anti-slavery groups also criticized him. They said former black slaves in the south had gained a lot under Republican rule. Now, they said, these black Americans would lose everything.

        共和黨領導人批評海斯,反奴隸制的組織也批評他。他們說,以前在南方做奴隸的黑人本來已經在共和黨當權的時候爭到了許多權利,而現在,這些黑人有可能會失去一切。

        Hayes did not agree. He had received promises that the new democratic state governments would protect the rights of black Americans. It was not to be. White Democrats kept political control in some southern states for many years. They often denied civil rights to black citizens. Only with the rise of the civil rights movement in the nineteen fifties would the situation begin to change.

        對此,海斯并不認同,因為民主黨掌權的州政府已經向他承諾,會保護黑人的權利??上?,這些承諾并沒有兌現。白人民主黨在后來的許多年里一直控制著南方一些州,他們幾乎沒有給黑人任何民權。直到20紀50代民權運動興起后,這種狀況才開始改變。

        RICHARD RAEL: After becoming president, Rutherford Hayes announced that he would serve just one term. He wanted to make serious reforms in the federal government. This would be easier to do if he did not have to worry about getting re-elected. Hayes started by changing the system that employed people in government jobs.

        海斯就選總統后宣布將只當一屆總統,因為他想對聯邦政府進行重要的改革,如果他不用擔心連任的問題,改革就能進行得順利一些。海斯首先要改革政府的用人制度。

        Party leaders usually had great power to fill government jobs. They used the jobs to reward loyal party workers and to increase their own political strength. President Hayes demanded that federal jobs be given to people because of their abilities, not because they supported a politician.

        當時,各黨派的大佬們在政府用人問題上擁有很大的權力。他們把政府的工作職位獎勵給那些對自己忠心耿耿的人,并以此增強自己的政治力量。而海斯總統要求聯邦政府用人要根據一個人的能力,而不是看他支持哪個政客。

        STEVE EMBER: At that time, the best jobs were with the customs service of the Treasury Department. The people who collected customs -- taxes on imports -- could keep part of the money they collected.

        那個時候,最肥的政府工作是財政部下面的海關。海關工作人員收取進口關稅,而他們可以把其中的一部分錢留在自己腰包里。

        President Hayes took action against the customs service office in New York City. One of the men removed from the job there was James Garfield. Garfield would later become president of the United States.

        海斯總統對紐約市的海關采取行動,把一些官員撤職。其中一個人叫詹姆士.加菲爾德,他后來成為了美國總統。

        Hayes also banned all federal workers from taking part in political organizations, conventions, and campaigns. And he said politicians no longer could demand campaign money from federal workers.

        海斯還禁止所有聯邦政府雇員參加政治組織、集會和選舉活動。他說,政客們不能再向聯邦政府雇員募集競選資金。

        RICHARD RAEL: Rutherford Hayes showed more political strength during a nationwide railroad strike. The strike began during his first summer as president.

        在海斯當總統后的第一年夏天,美國發生了全國鐵路大罷工,在此期間,人們看到了一個更加果敢的海斯。

        For several years, the nation had suffered from a serious economic depression. Three million people were out of work. Factories and businesses reduced the pay of those who still had jobs. Workers with the Baltimore and Ohio railroad protested. They took control of many areas along the railroad. They refused to let the trains move. The strike spread to other railroads. In some places, the strikes turned into riots, and the riots became violent.

        幾年來,美國一直遭受嚴重的經濟衰退。300萬人失業,工廠和企業也給在職員工減薪。巴爾的摩和俄亥俄州的鐵路工人展開抗議活動,他們控制了許多鐵路沿線地區,不讓火車通過。這兩個地方的鐵路工人罷工很快蔓延到其它路段。在一些地方,罷工變成了騷亂,而騷亂又進一步演變成了暴力沖突。

        Some governors ordered their state armed forces to intervene. The state forces were not strong enough, however. So the governors asked President Hayes for help. He immediately sent federal troops to troubled cities. The troops stopped the riots and ended the strikes.

        一些州長下令武裝部隊進行干涉,但州里的武裝力量不夠強大。于是,州長們向海斯總統求援。海斯立即派聯邦軍隊進入動亂城市。軍隊阻止了騷亂,結束了鐵路工人的罷工。

        STEVE EMBER: Another issue during Hayes's administration involved a railroad in the western United States. It was both a labor problem and an immigration problem thousands of Chinese workers had been brought to America to help build the Central Pacific Railroad. After the railroad was built, many of them remained. Most settled in California. Others came from China to join them. These immigrants competed with white workers for jobs. Whites protested, because the Chinese agreed to work for less money. They said this kept wages down for all workers.

        在海斯執政期間,還有一個涉及西部鐵路的問題,這個問題既是勞工問題,又是移民問題。成千上萬的中國勞工被招到美國,參加了美國中央太平洋鐵路的建設。鐵路建成后,許多中國勞工留在了美國,大部分人住在加利福尼亞。另外一些中國人也陸續依親來到美國定居。這些移民自然會和當地的白人爭奪就業機會。白人對此表示抗議,因為華人愿意接受比白人更低廉的工資。白人說,這種做法拉低了所有工人的工資水平。

        RICHARD RAEL: The white workers asked Congress for a law to stop Chinese workers from coming to the United States. Members of Congress from both parties wanted the support of these voters. So they quickly passed a bill that made it much more difficult for Chinese citizens to come to live in the United States.

        白人工人要求要求國會出臺一項法律,禁止中國人移民到美國。國會兩黨議員都需要得到這些白人的選票,所以他們就很快通過了一項提案,大大增加了中國人移民到美國的難度。

        The bill said the president must cancel part of a treaty between the United States and China. That part of the treaty permitted citizens of each country to settle in the other country.

        該提案規定,總統必須刪除美國與中國簽定的一項條約的部分內容。這部分內容允許兩國的公民在對方國家定居。

        STEVE EMBER: President Hayes vetoed the bill. He said the United States had proposed the treaty. So, he said, the United States could not change it without agreement from China. Hayes did agree, however, that some action was necessary. So he opened negotiations with the Chinese government. He won an agreement to limit the number of Chinese who could enter the United States.

        海斯總統否決了這項提案。他說,是美國主動提出的這項條約,所以,在沒有與中國政府達成協議之前不能改變條約內容。不過,他也同意,必須就白人的抱怨采取一些措施。于是,他和中國政府展開談判。雙方達成協議,美國可以限制中國移民的數量。

        RICHARD RAEL: During the administrations of Andrew Johnson and Ulysses Grant, Congress had weakened many powers of the president. Congress had become the strongest of the three branches of the American government. Throughout his administration, Rutherford Hayes worked hard to strengthen presidential powers.

        在安德魯.約翰遜和尤利塞斯.格蘭特執政期間,國會削弱了總統的許多權力,成為了美國政府三個分支中最強大的一支。而在海斯執政期間,他積極努力,強化總統權力。

        For example, the United States Constitution gives the president power to veto bills passed by Congress. In the eighteen hundreds, Congress tried to prevent presidential vetoes. It used a method of attaching "riders" to legislative proposals. This is how the method works:

        例如,美國憲法允許總統否決國會通過的法案。而在十九世紀,國會試圖阻止總統行使這項否決權。為此,國會采取了一種做法,就是所謂的"搭車"。

        STEVE EMBER: Congress considers a bill the president believes is necessary. Then it joins that bill to a measure the president would veto if passed separately. The extra measure is called a "rider" to the first bill. To get the bill he wants, the president must accept the "rider," too.

        也就是說,在國會考慮總統認為有必要通過的某項法案時,會把一個如果單獨通過可能會遭總統否決的條款以附加的方式加入主法案。這種附加條款就搭上了主法案的車。

        President Hayes refused to sign any bills with riders. So the Congress during his administration stopped using the method. Congresses since then have used it successfully.

        為了讓主法案通過,總統也必須接受這個"搭車"的條款。不過,海斯總統拒絕簽署任何有"搭車"條款的法案。所以,在海斯執政期間,國會就無法再使用"搭車"手段。而在海斯離任后,國會又恢復了這一做法。

        RICHARD RAEL: Rutherford Hayes kept his promise to serve only four years. He did not regret his decision. After leaving office in eighteen eighty-one, he said he was satisfied with what he had done. He looked back on his administration and wrote:

        海斯遵守承諾,只干了一任總統。他并不后悔自己的這個決定。1881年離任后,他說,他對自己在任期內的表現感到滿意,他回顧執政的四年,這樣寫道:

        "I left this great country prosperous and happy. I left the party of my choice strong, victorious, and united. In serving the country, I served my party. "He died in eighteen ninety-three.

        "我讓這個偉大的國家繁榮昌盛,充滿歡樂,我讓我所選擇的黨強大、勝利和團結。在為國家服務的過程中,我也服務了我的黨。" 拉瑟弗德.海斯于1893年逝世。

        STEVE EMBER: Hayes was right in saying that the United States was strong and prosperous. The late eighteen-hundreds were a time of growth for the nation. They also were a time of expansion into new territory.

        美國正如他生前所說的那樣,成為了一個強大、繁榮的國家。十九世紀晚期,美國經歷了高速發展,并開辟了新的疆域。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        BARBARA KLEIN: Our program was written by David Jarmul. The narrators were Steve Ember and Richard Rael. Our programs can be found online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and historical images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #127 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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