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        #126: Hayes Wins Hotly Disputed 1876 Election

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:6-17-2013

        President Rutherford Hayes
        President Rutherford Hayes

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        President Ulysses Grant served two terms in office. His administration was marked by corruption. The president himself was not linked directly to any of the incidents. But he was friends with dishonest members of the cabinet and Congress.

        尤利塞斯·格蘭特總統的兩屆任期內,政府官員腐敗盛行。格蘭特本人雖然沒有直接參與,但是內閣和國會里很多腐敗官員都跟他關系密切。

        This week in our series, Jack Weitzel and Tony Riggs tell how Grant's problems affected the Republican Party in the presidential election of eighteen seventy-six.

        JACK WEITZEL: The American people were very disappointed with President Grant. He was the military hero of the Civil War. He had led the Union army of the North to victory over the Confederate army of the South. His popularity dropped, however, during his presidency.

        美國民眾對格蘭特深感失望。格蘭特是南北戰爭期間的戰斗英雄,領導北方軍打敗了南方軍,但是他的民眾支持率在他擔任總統期間顯著下跌。

        Grant was not an effective political leader. Nor was he able to control the men around him. The American people also were worried about the nation's economic situation. A serious depression had begun during Grant's second term. Many people were out of work. They blamed the ruling Republican Party.

        格蘭特絕非優秀的政治領袖,他無法控制自己身邊的人。與此同時,國家的經濟形勢也讓民眾憂心忡忡。格蘭特第二屆任期內,美國陷入嚴重的經濟衰退,失業人數眾多,大家把責任歸咎于執政的共和黨。

        TONY RIGGS: The state and congressional elections of eighteen seventy-four were an important turning point. Republicans were shocked by the results. For the first time in eighteen years, the Democratic Party won control of the House of Representatives. They won one hundred sixty-nine seats. The Republicans won one hundred nine.

        1874年的州和國會選舉是一個重要的轉折點。選舉結果讓共和黨人很吃驚,十八年來,民主黨人第一次奪得了國會眾議院的控制權,民主黨人占有169個席位,而共和黨人只有109個席位。

        Democrats also won control of twenty-three of the thirty-five state governments. These included several northern states, where people were tired of Republican rule.

        此外,在35個州政府當中,民主黨人還掌握了23個州政府的控制權,其中包括幾個北方州,因為當地人已經厭倦了共和黨的統治。

        JACK WEITZEL: Important changes also were made in the South. Democrats won control of southern state governments from radical Republicans.

        南方也發生了重大變化。民主黨人從激進派共和黨人手中奪走了南方一些州政府的控制權。

        One of these states was Mississippi. White Democrats there began organizing groups called White Leagues. These groups wanted to prevent blacks from voting for radical Republicans. They started riots, in which many blacks were killed. They also used economic power against blacks.

        其中一個是密西西比州。那里的民主黨白人組建了名叫"白人聯盟"的團體,目的是防止黑人投票支持激進派共和黨人。他們舉行暴動,打死不少黑人,并利用經濟優勢壓制黑人。

        These efforts succeeded. Most blacks were too afraid to vote. The Democrats took control of both the Mississippi legislature and the governor's office. Similar actions, with similar results, took place in other southern states.

        他們的努力達到了預期效果,大多數黑人都不敢去投票,民主黨人因此奪取了密西西比州議會和州長辦公室的控制權。美國南部其他州的白人也采取類似行動,并取得了類似的成效。

        (MUSIC)

        TONY RIGGS: As Grant's second term came to an end, he began to talk about the possibility of another four years in the White House. Republican politicians were firmly opposed. They blamed Grant for the party's defeats in state and congressional elections. Grant had to give up any hope of a third term.

        格蘭特第二屆任期結束前,他提出愿意再干四年,但遭到共和黨政界人士的堅決反對。他們認為共和黨在州和國會選舉中的失敗都是格蘭特的錯。格蘭特沒辦法,只好放棄連任三屆的指望。

        Congressman James Blaine seemed to have the best chance of winning the Republican presidential nomination in eighteen seventy-six.

        國會眾議員詹姆斯·布賴恩似乎是1876年總統大選共和黨最有可能獲得提名的候選人。

        Blaine had been Speaker of the House of Representatives when the Republicans controlled Congress. He was powerful, and he had many supporters. Some Republican leaders, however, questioned his honesty. Blaine fought this criticism with an emotional speech in Congress.

        布賴恩曾在共和黨控制的國會里擔任眾議院議長,權力很大,也有很多支持者。不過,有些共和黨領袖對他的誠信表示懷疑。布賴恩為此在國會里激動地發表講話,對自己受到的批評提出反駁。

        JACK WEITZEL: When the Republican Party convention opened in Cincinnati, Ohio, Blaine was the leading candidate for the presidential nomination. He expected to win the first day.

        共和黨在俄亥俄州辛辛那提召開全國代表大會,布賴恩是呼聲最高的提名候選人,他本以為自己第一天就能獲得提名。

        There was a wild demonstration of support when his name was put before the convention. But before the voting could begin, the lights went out. Some delegates believed Blaine's opponents were responsible. These opponents worked all night to get other delegates to change their support from Blaine to another candidate. When the delegates voted the next morning, Blaine did not have enough votes to win the nomination.

        大會宣布布賴恩名字時,與會代表歡聲雷動,但投票開始前,突然停電了。一些代表覺得是布賴恩的反對者做了手腳。這些反對布賴恩的人整個晚上馬不停蹄地勸說其他與會代表把票投給別的候選人。第二天早上第一次正式投票,布賴恩沒能得到提名需要的選票數量。

        TONY RIGGS: However, after six ballots, Blaine appeared ready to win. To stop him, his opponents needed to unite behind another candidate. One of these candidates was Rutherford Hayes, the governor of Ohio. Hayes had fewer enemies than the other candidates. So he became the compromise candidate for delegates hoping to stop Blaine.

        經過六輪投票,布賴恩眼看要贏了。要阻止他,布賴恩的反對者就要聯合起來,找到一個大家共同支持的候選人。人選之一是俄亥俄州州長拉瑟福德·海斯。海斯跟其他候選人比,政敵相對較少,因此成了不希望看到布賴恩當選的那些大會代表的妥協人選。

        On the seventh ballot of the convention, Rutherford Hayes captured the Republican nomination.

        海斯在大會代表第七次投票中,被推舉為共和黨總統候選人。

        (MUSIC)

        Samuel Tilden
        Samuel Tilden

        JACK WEITZEL: The Democratic Party met in St. Louis, Missouri. Delegates nominated Samuel Tilden, the governor of New York. Tilden had led the fight to end dishonesty in government in New York state. He had ousted a group called the Tweed Ring, which controlled New York City politics for years. Democrats said he was the man to end dishonesty in government in Washington.

        與此同時,民主黨代表大會在密蘇里州的圣路易斯召開。大會代表推舉紐約州州長塞繆爾·蒂爾登為民主黨的總統候選人。蒂爾登曾帶頭打擊紐約州政府內部的腐敗現象,趕走了多年來一直控制紐約市政壇、被稱為特威德集團的團伙。民主黨人說,蒂爾登是消除華盛頓腐敗的最佳人選。

        Republicans campaigned by denouncing the Democratic Party. They called it the party of southern rebellion and treason. Instead, they said, vote for the Republican Party, the party that had saved the Union.

        共和黨人把競選矛頭直指民主黨,指責民主黨是南方反叛的政黨,呼吁選民投票支持共和黨,支持挽救了聯邦的完整的共和黨。

        Democrats campaigned by attacking Republican dishonesty. They blamed Republicans for the nation's economic problems. And they promised better times for everyone if their candidate was elected.

        民主黨人在競選期間指責共和黨人不正派,說國家的經濟困境都是共和黨人一手造成的。民主黨人保證說,如果民主黨候選人當選,一定會讓大家過上好日子。

        TONY RIGGS: The presidential election of eighteen seventy-six was very close. By midnight of Election Day, the results seemed to show that Democrat Samuel Tilden was the winner. Republican Rutherford Hayes went to bed believing he had lost.

        美國1876年總統大選十分激烈。大選當天午夜,從初步計票結果看,民主黨人蒂爾登似乎勝券在握,共和黨候選人海斯上床休息時以為自己輸定了。

        However, the Republicans quickly saw that the electoral votes of three southern states could decide the winner.

        然而,共和黨人很快發現,鹿死誰手最后完全取決于南方三個州的選舉人票。

        In the American presidential system, whoever wins the most popular votes in a state usually gets all the electoral votes of that state. In eighteen seventy-six, the electoral votes of three states -- Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina -- were enough to give the White House to one candidate or the other.

        根據美國的選舉制度,誰贏得一個州的多數選民票,就能得到這個州的所有選舉人票。1876年總統大選中,佛羅里達、路易斯安那和南卡羅來納州的選舉人票,足以決定誰會入主白宮。

        JACK WEITZEL: Each party claimed victory in these three states. Each accused the other of stealing votes and counting ballots unfairly. Finally, the two parties agreed to form an electoral committee to decide who had won the disputed votes.

        民主、共和兩黨都說自己贏得了這三個州的勝利,都指責對方有舞弊行為。最后,雙方同意成立一個選舉委員會,裁決選票之爭。

        The committee was supposed to include seven Republicans, seven Democrats, and one Independent. But before it could meet, the Independent member resigned. A Republican took his place. The Republicans had a majority.

        委員會原計劃包括七名民主黨人、七名共和黨人,外加一名獨立黨派代表??蛇€沒開會,獨立黨派的代表就退出了,由一名共和黨人取而代之,共和黨因此以八比七的優勢占據了委員會的多數。

        TONY RIGGS: The committee first debated the disputed votes of Florida. After much discussion, the eight Republicans on the committee voted to accept the votes of Florida's Republican electors. They rejected a proposal to investigate the way the votes were counted in the state. They said there was not enough time for a full investigation.

        選舉委員會首先討論佛羅里達的問題。經過深入討論,八名共和黨人投票支持把佛羅里達的選舉人票給共和黨,駁回了民主黨人提出的調查計票方式的建議,理由是沒有足夠時間全面調查。

        The same thing happened with the disputed votes of Louisiana and South Carolina. The Republicans on the committee voted to count the Republican electors. The Democrats voted to count the democratic electors. In each case, the Republicans won, by a vote of eight to seven.

        JACK WEITZEL: As a result, Rutherford Hayes gained the electoral votes of all three states. This gave him enough to win the election.

        路易斯安那州和南卡羅來納州結果也一樣。民主黨人和共和黨人針鋒相對,但最后都因為七比八,一票之差敗下陣來,讓共和黨總統候選人海斯得到了這三個州的選舉人票,當選總統。

        Democrats were furious. Democrats in many states began organizing party militia groups. They said they would fight, if necessary, to prevent the Republicans from stealing the presidency.

        民主黨人氣炸了肺,很多州的民主黨人開始組建民兵,表示在必要情況下,他們寧愿上戰場,也不愿看著共和黨人就這樣把總統一職偷走。

        The situation seemed very tense and dangerous. Many feared the start of another civil war. Negotiations finally provided a peaceful solution.

        TONY RIGGS: Representatives of the two parties met secretly to work out a compromise.

        眼見局勢嚴峻,很多人擔心內戰會再次爆發。民主、共和兩黨代表秘密會見,最終達成了一項妥協方案。

        The Democrats agreed to permit Republican Rutherford Hayes to be sworn-in as President. In return, Hayes agreed to end federal support of radical Republican governments in the south. He promised to name southerners to his cabinet and other important jobs. And he said he would provide more federal aid for schools and railroads in the south. As part of the agreement, Hayes promised not to act aggressively to support the civil rights of black southerners.

        根據方案,民主黨人同意接受海斯就任總統,做為回報,海斯同意停止聯邦政府對南方激進派共和黨人控制下的政府的支持。海斯還保證要任命南方人進入內閣,擔任要職,向南方提供聯邦援助,整修學校,修筑鐵路,并保證不會積極支持南方黑人的民權運動。

        JACK WEITZEL: Hayes' opponent, Democrat Samuel Tilden, did not oppose the agreement. Tilden was an old man. His health was poor. He agreed that four years of Rutherford Hayes would be better than four years of civil war.

        海斯的競選對手蒂爾登沒有提出異議。蒂爾登年事已高,身體又不好。他認為,讓海斯當四年總統,總比打四年內戰要強。

        So it was that Rutherford Hayes became the nineteenth president of the United States. He would surprise a lot of people after he reached the White House. That will be our story next week.

        就這樣,海斯當選了美國第19任總統。

        (MUSIC)

        BARBARA KLEIN: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Jack Weitzel and Tony Riggs. Our programs can be found online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and historical images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #126 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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