<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #125: Grant's Second Term Worse Than First

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:6-16-2013

        Ulysses S. Grant
        Ulysses S. Grant

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        America’s eighteenth president, Ulysses Grant, was elected to his second term in eighteen seventy-two. Grant had led the Union army of the North to victory over the Confederate army of the South during the Civil War. He easily won the presidency in eighteen sixty-eight in the first election held after the war. Now, he would spend four more years as president of the United States.

        尤利塞斯·格蘭特1872年贏得連任,成為美國第18任總統。他曾經是內戰中的將軍,領導北方聯邦軍擊敗了南部邦聯軍。1868年,在內戰結束后舉行的第一次總統大選中,他輕松取勝?,F在,他可以再做4年總統了。

        This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant tell about Grant’s second term in office.

        HARRY MONROE: Grant's first administration was marked by dishonesty and shameful events. The situation grew much worse after he won a second term.

        在格蘭特的頭一個任期中,政府里出現了不法行為和丑聞。在他連任后,這種情況變得更加嚴重。

        Grant himself was not involved directly. But his administration suffered because of his ties to those who were involved.

        雖然格蘭特本人并沒有直接參與,僅僅同當事人有關,但這依然損害到了政府的聲譽。

        Soon after Grant's re-election, for example, there was a serious incident that involved many of his supporters in Congress.

        舉個例子,在格蘭特連任后不久,多位支持他的國會議員就卷入了一個重大丑聞。

        The Union Pacific Railroad Company had helped build a railroad across the American west to California. The cost of building the railroad was very high. The company got large amounts of aid from the government.

        當時,聯合太平洋鐵路公司參與修建了一條縱貫美國西部、一直延伸到加州的鐵路。這項工程耗資巨大,聯合太平洋鐵路公司從政府得到了大筆資助。

        Not all this aid came honestly. An investigation showed that leading members of Congress, and even the Vice President, received shares of ownership in the company for free, or at low cost. In exchange, they voted to use federal money to help build the railroad.

        但是,一些資助款來路不正。調查發現,國會許多重量級議員、甚至當時的副總統都免費或以低價獲得了聯合太平洋鐵路公司的股權。作為交換,他們利用自己手中的投票權,批準撥聯邦經費幫助修建鐵路。

        KAY GALLANT: A few months later, members of Congress voted a pay raise for themselves and the executive branch of government. The pay raise would be retroactive. This meant the extra money would be paid for the two years already past.

        幾個月后,國會議員們又投票通過議案,給他們自己和行政部門的政府雇員漲工資。而且,這一議案有追溯力,也就是說,這些人過去兩年的薪水也要補齊到上漲后的水平。

        Newspapers and citizens raised a storm of protest. Some lawmakers were afraid they would not be re-elected. So they refused to accept the pay raise.

        媒體和民眾強烈抗議這一做法。一些議員擔心自己會在選舉中落選,因此拒絕漲工資。

        Within six months, another shameful incident was uncovered. This one involved Jay Cooke, one of the richest bankers in the country. He also was a good friend of President Grant.

        這件事之后不到半年,另一樁丑聞又被曝光。這次涉及的是美國最富有的銀行家之一杰.庫克,他也是格蘭特總統的好友。

        In eighteen sixty-nine, Cooke began raising money to build another railroad across America's west. He planned to sell one hundred million dollars' worth of railroad bonds.

        1869年,庫克開始籌集資金,打算再修一條縱貫西部的大鐵路。他計劃出售價值1億美元的鐵路債券。

        Many people invested all the money they had in Cooke's railroad. But Cooke was unable to sell as many bonds as he expected. Soon, his banks had no money left. They could return no money to the thousands of people who had bought railroad bonds.

        許多人把自己全部的積蓄投資在這條鐵路上。但是,債券的銷量沒有達到1億美元。很快,庫克的銀行就把錢用光了,無法還錢給成千上萬購買鐵路債券的人。

        HARRY MONROE: People hurried to other banks to withdraw their savings. Within hours, many of these other banks had to close. They, too, were out of money. Within a month, more than five thousand banks across the country failed and closed their doors. This created an economic crisis.

        人們急忙到其它銀行去提取自己的存款。幾個小時之內,很多銀行被迫關門,因為它們也沒錢了。不到一個月,美國各地有5000多家銀行倒閉。這引發了經濟危機。

        The New York Stock Exchange closed for ten days. Factories closed. Thousands of people lost their jobs. Investigations showed that many of the banks that failed had violated banking laws. The laws often were not enforced, because so many bankers had given money to the ruling Republican Party.

        紐約證券交易所停業十天。工廠停工。成千上萬人失業。調查發現,許多倒閉的銀行有過違法行為。相關的銀行法得不到執行,因為太多銀行家給執政的共和黨提供了資金。

        KAY GALLANT: Other incidents followed. One of the biggest was called the Whiskey Ring. It involved a group of whiskey producers and some high officials who were friends of President Grant. Together, they found a way not to pay taxes on their whiskey.

        在鐵路債券事件后,又發生了其它一些丑聞。其中最大的一個叫"威士忌酒集團"事件。這個"威士忌酒集團"的成員包括一些威士忌酒制造商和一些政府高官,這些高官都是格蘭特總統的朋友。

        One of Grant's close advisers was at the center of the incident. A grand jury found him not guilty of any crime. However, it charged several hundred whiskey producers and government officials with illegal activities.

        他們官商勾結,找到了一條不用給威士忌酒納稅的路子。格蘭特一位最親密的顧問是這一丑聞的核心人物。雖然,大陪審團最后判定這名顧問并沒有犯罪,但幾百名威士忌制造商和政府官員被控有違法行為。

        President Grant had done nothing illegal. But the Whiskey Ring incident increased public feeling that there was no honesty in the White House. The feeling grew that Grant was a failure.

        盡管格蘭特總統本身沒有違法,但威士忌酒集團事件使民眾更加認定,白宮毫無誠信可言。人們進而覺得,格蘭特是一個失敗的總統。

        HARRY MONROE: These incidents took place during a time of intense social and political change in the United States. The period after the Civil War was a time of industrial revolution and business growth. Most of this growth was taking place in the North.

        這些丑聞發生在美國社會和政治急劇變革的年代。在內戰結束后,美國正經歷工業革命和經濟快速發展,而這種發展主要集中在北方。

        Before the Civil War, most businesses were small. Now there were many companies with large numbers of workers. The companies also had large numbers of owners. They sold shares of ownership to anyone with enough money to buy.

        內戰前,北方的大部分企業規模很小,但現在已經出現了許多雇用大量工人的公司,這些公司還擁有大量的股東,他們向任何有錢購買他們股票的人出售股份。

        (MUSIC)

        KAY GALLANT: A few men rose to positions of great power in business. In the steel industry, for example, there was Andrew Carnegie. He came to the United States as a boy from Scotland. He took a low-paying job in a factory that produced cotton cloth. He worked hard. In time, he earned enough money to take control of an iron factory.

        有少數人逐漸成了一些行業的領軍人物。例如鋼鐵業里出現了安德魯.卡內基。他小的時候從蘇格蘭移民到美國,后來在一家棉布廠做一份工資很低的工作。他工作勤奮,不久就掙夠了錢,盤下了一家鐵廠。

        Carnegie soon built another factory. This one produced steel with a new technology. The system worked well. Soon, he was earning more than one million dollars a year. He competed fiercely with other steel companies. He pressured railroads to transport his steel for lower prices than his competitors. And he cut his prices to force other steel-makers out of the business.

        不久,卡內基又建起了另一家工廠,用新技術生產鋼材。企業運行得很好,卡內基很快就可以每年贏利一百多萬美元了。他和其它鋼鐵公司展開激烈競爭,并迫使鐵路公司以低于競爭對手的價格運送他的鋼材。

        Before long, Andrew Carnegie was the unquestioned leader of America's steel industry. His position gave him great power over the economy of the whole country.

        他還大幅降價,把其它鋼鐵公司擠出這個行業。不久,卡內基就成為了美國鋼鐵工業無可爭議的領袖人物,他的這一地位使他對整個美國經濟而言舉足輕重。

        John D. Rockefeller
        John D. Rockefeller

        HARRY MONROE: What Carnegie did for the steel industry, John D. Rockefeller did for the oil industry.

        卡內基是鋼鐵大亨,約翰·洛克菲勒則是石油大王。

        Oil became a useful product only in the middle of the eighteen hundreds. Rockefeller was part of a group of businessmen who built an oil processing center in Ohio. It was so successful that Rockefeller gave up his other business interests. He put all his money into oil production. He formed the Standard Oil Company of Ohio.

        石油是到十九世紀中葉才成為有用產品的。洛克菲勒和其他一些商人一道在俄亥俄州建了一座石油加工中心。生意很好,所以他就放棄了其它商業利益,把所有的錢都投在石油生產上,并成立了俄亥俄美孚石油公司。

        John D. Rockefeller's new company used the same aggressive business methods as Andrew Carnegie. Rockefeller bought control of other oil processing companies. He started price wars that forced his competitors out of business.

        這家新公司同卡內基的鋼鐵王國一樣,采取非常有進攻性的商業模式。洛克菲勒買下了其它石油公司控股權,并發動價格戰,迫使其它公司退出這一行業。

        Most important, Rockefeller made a secret deal with the railroads. The deal greatly reduced his transportation costs. This permitted him to crush his competition. Before long, he controlled ninety-five percent of the oil processing industry in the United States.

        更重要的是,洛克菲勒與鐵路公司簽訂了一項秘密協議,極大地降低了他的運輸成本,這使他能徹底打敗競爭對手。不久,洛克菲勒就控制了美國百分之95的石油加工業。

        (MUSIC)

        KAY GALLANT: As with steel and oil, America's railroads were an extremely important business in the eighteen-hundreds. In fact, they were the nation's biggest business. They were as important as automobiles and airplanes are to the American economy today.

        和鋼鐵與石油業一樣,在十九世紀,美國的鐵路運輸業也極為重要。事實上,鐵路是美國當時最大的行業,其經濟重要性如同今天汽車業和航空業。

        Before the Civil War, most railroads were east of the Mississippi River. Most were small lines. In the years after the war, four major railroads got control of almost all the lines in the east. And they began building new lines in the west.

        內戰前,美國的鐵路主要集中在密西西比河以東,而且大多數的鐵路都很短。在內戰結束后的幾年里,四家主要鐵路公司幾乎控制了東部的所有鐵路線,并且開始在西部修建新的鐵路。

        HARRY MONROE: The first rail line to cross the nation was completed in eighteen sixty-nine. It was built by two companies. One company started from the east and went west. The other went in the opposite direction. Finally, after six years of back-breaking labor, the two work teams met in northern Utah. They connected the rail lines with a golden spike.

        1869年,第一條橫貫美國的鐵路竣工。這條鐵路由兩家公司承建,一家從東部開始向西修,另一家則從西開始往東修。經過6年艱苦卓絕的努力,兩支施工隊最終在美國北部的猶他州會合。工人們打下一根金子做的道釘,標志著兩條施工線成功會師。

        It was a great moment in the nation's history. Now, at last, the two coasts of the United States were united by a single line of metal rail. It was like the day -- a hundred years later -- when the first American walked on the moon.

        這是美國歷史上的重要時刻,它意味著東西兩岸終于被一條鐵路連在了一起。其意義不亞于一百年后第一位美國人登上月球。

        KAY GALLANT: Like the steel and oil industries, the railroad industry also had its stories of intense business competition. In this case, the most influential man was Cornelius Vanderbilt. Vanderbilt already was rich from the shipping industry. Now he formed the New York Central Railroad. It was the largest railroad in the east.

        和鋼鐵業與石油業一樣,鐵路業的競爭也非常殘酷。而這一行業里最有影響的是科尼利厄斯·范德比爾特。他在進軍鐵路之前就已經因航運而大發其財,現在,他又成立了當時美國東部最大的鐵路公司--紐約中央鐵路公司。

        Cornelius Vanderbilt tried to take over the railroad industry. He was not as successful as Andrew Carnegie with steel or John D. Rockefeller with oil. A group of other rich railroad owners blocked his plans. But Vanderbilt did succeed in winning a great amount of power and influence.

        范德比爾特也想控制整個鐵路業,但他沒能像卡內基和洛克菲勒那樣成功。其他一些富有的鐵路公司老板阻止了他的計劃。盡管如此,范德比爾特還是擁有巨大的權力和影響力。

        HARRY MONROE: Vanderbilt and the other new leaders of industry were powerful. And they let others know it. They sometimes made statements about how they did not have to obey the law.

        范德比爾特和其他的行業大亨很有勢力,而且他們要讓所有的人都知道。他們有時會發表聲明,公然聲稱說他們不守法律制約。

        Other powerful men thought the same way. Some were officials elected or appointed to serve in the federal government. Political power blinded them to their responsibility to be honest and fair to the public. As a result, the Republican Party lost public support. The blame was placed on Ulysses Grant. That will be our story next week.

        其他一些有權勢的人也這么想。有的甚至是民選或獲得任命的聯邦政府官員。政治權力蒙蔽了他們的眼睛,讓他們忘記了應對公眾誠實公正。結果,共和黨失去了民眾的支持,而格蘭特為此而備受指責。

        (MUSIC)

        BARBARA KLEIN: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs can be found, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #125 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:perfect100
        5-2-2014 8:24:40
        steel,oil and railroad were developed well from the middle of 18 century in the USA.but far away from east Asia ,china which is one of 4 ancient countries,was breaking out wars.
        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频