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        #120: Andrew Johnson Faces a Fight Over Aiding South

        作者:David Jarmul and Frank Beardsley 發布日期:6-11-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        In the spring of eighteen sixty-five, the American Civil War was over. And the president who had led the Union during that war was dead. Abraham Lincoln had been murdered before the final surrender of Confederate forces.

        1865年春,美國南北戰爭結束了,領導聯邦打贏這場內戰的總統林肯卻在南方軍投降前遇刺身亡。

        Andrew Johnson, left, at President Abraham Lincoln's deathbed in April 1865
        Andrew Johnson, left, at President Abraham Lincoln's deathbed in April 1865

        Now, the re-united nation had a new president, Andrew Johnson. He had been Lincoln's vice president.

        如今,重新統一的國家有了一位新總統,他就是林肯在任時的副總統安德魯·約翰遜。

        The chief justice of the United States swore Johnson into office a few hours after Lincoln's death. Most of Lincoln's cabinet was there, together with leading members of Congress. They looked to the new president with a mixture of shock and hope.

        林肯遇刺身亡幾小時后,美國聯邦法院首席大法官為約翰遜主持宣誓就職儀式。林肯的大部分內閣成員和國會主要領導人都參加了就職儀式,他們在震驚之余,也對新總統充滿希望。

        This week in our series, Shep O'Neal and Tony Riggs begin the story of America's seventeenth president.

        VOICE ONE:

        Andrew Johnson was -- like Abraham Lincoln -- a man of the people. He was born in North Carolina. His family was poor. There was no money, or time, for young Andrew to go to school.

        安德魯·約翰遜跟林肯一樣,也是來自普通家庭。他生在北卡羅來納,家里窮,沒錢也沒有時間讓小安德魯去上學。

        When he was fourteen years old, his mother sent him to work for a tailor to learn to make clothes. Andrew worked hard. He opened his own tailoring business in the eastern part of the state of Tennessee. When he was eighteen, he married. His wife, Eliza, taught him to read and write.

        十四歲的時候,安德魯的母親讓他去給一個裁縫當學徒,學做衣服。 安德魯勤奮努力,后來在田納西州東部開了自己的裁縫店,十八歲成家后,在妻子伊麗莎的教導下,學會讀書寫字。

        VOICE TWO:

        Andrew became active in politics.

        安德魯開始熱心參與政治。

        At the age of twenty-one, he was elected to the town council. Two years later, he became mayor of the town. At thirty-five, he won a seat in Congress, in Washington.

        安德魯21歲當選鎮議員,兩年后成為鎮長,35歲當選聯邦國會議員。

        Next, he became governor of Tennessee. Then the state made him one of its two senators. The poor tailor boy was a success.

        后來又做過田納西州的州長,當過田納西的聯邦參議員。窮裁縫出身的安德魯·約翰遜在政治的道路上越來越成功。

        VOICE ONE:

        Andrew Johnson was a member of the Democratic Party. In the presidential election of eighteen-sixty, he supported his party's candidate, not the candidate of the Republican Party: Abraham Lincoln. But, Lincoln won the election. And, as a result, southern states carried out their earlier threat. They began leaving the Union to form their own nation.

        安德魯·約翰遜是民主黨人,在1860年總統大選中,支持的是民主黨候選人,而不是共和黨候選人林肯。林肯當選總統后,南方各州將威脅付諸行動,紛紛宣布脫離聯邦,成立自己的國家。

        Johnson opposed this secession. He believed the South should remain part of the United States. He decided he had no choice but to support the Republican president.

        約翰遜反對分裂,他認為南方各州應該留在聯邦里。在這種情況下,除了支持共和黨總統,約翰遜別無選擇。

        Most of the other citizens in Tennessee disagreed with him. They decided to leave the Union. Andrew Johnson had to flee his home to save his life. He returned only after Union forces took control of Tennessee and made him military governor.

        然而,田納西州大多數人不同意他的看法。他們決定脫離聯邦。安德魯·約翰遜為了保住性命,被迫出逃,直到北方軍控制了田納西,任命他為軍管州長,約翰遜才返回家園。

        VOICE TWO:

        A political banner supporting Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson
        A political banner supporting Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson

        President Lincoln noticed the man from Tennessee who supported the Union over the opposition of others. In eighteen sixty-four, Lincoln decided to run for re-election. He chose Johnson to be his vice presidential candidate.

        林肯也注意到了這個不顧別人反對、堅決支持聯邦統一的田納西人。1864年林肯競選連任時,就選擇約翰遜作為自己的競選伙伴。

        Lincoln hoped Johnson would win the support of Union-loving Democrats. He hoped Johnson would help heal the wounds between North and South.

        林肯希望約翰遜能贏得忠于聯邦的民主黨人的支持,希望約翰遜能幫助愈合南北之間的戰爭創傷。

        Now, Lincoln was dead. And Johnson was president. It was up to this little-known former tailor to make the decisions on reconstruction -- on rebuilding the Union.

        如今,林肯遇刺身亡,約翰遜成了總統,這個以前鮮為人知的小裁縫,如今卻要肩負起重建南方、重建美國的重任。

        Johnson, not Lincoln, would decide if reconstruction would be easy or hard. Johnson would choose if the North would punish the defeated rebel states or be merciful to them.

        國家重建更容易還是更艱難,取決于約翰遜,而不是林肯。約翰遜還要決定對南方叛州是嚴厲懲罰,還是予以寬恕。

        VOICE ONE:

        The radicals of Lincoln's Republican Party wanted severe reconstruction. They said the South was a defeated enemy. They demanded strong punishment for all southerners who took part in the rebellion.

        林肯所在的共和黨激進派認為南方是被打敗的敵人,主張嚴厲處罰所有參加反叛的南方人。

        These radicals had disliked Lincoln's plans for reconstruction. They felt he was too weak. Now, they hoped Johnson would share their ideas. They urged him to call a special session of Congress to pass strong legislation against the South.

        這些激進派不贊成林肯的重建計劃。他們覺得林肯過于軟弱,希望約翰遜能認同他們的看法。他們敦促約翰遜召集國會特別會議,通過對南方措辭嚴厲的議案。"

        The radicals had reason to believe the new president agreed with them. He had called the rebels traitors. He had demanded strong action against them when the war ended.

        共和黨激進派有理由相信,新總統跟他們想法一樣,因為以前曾把南方反叛者說成是叛徒,要求戰后對他們采取強硬措施。

        "The time has come," Johnson had said, "when the American people should understand what crime is. And that it should be punished."

        他曾經說過,"美國人民了解什么是犯罪,犯罪應該受到處罰的時候到了。

        VOICE TWO:

        But Andrew Johnson surprised the radicals. He did not call the special session of Congress. Instead, he announced his own program for the southern states.

        然而,約翰遜的行動完全出乎激進派的意料。他沒有召集國會特別會議,而是宣布了自己對南方人的政策。

        Johnson declared a pardon for all former confederates who promised to support the Union and obey laws against slavery. Then, he permitted former officials of the confederacy to run for office in their states' new elections. Many of these former rebels were elected.

        約翰遜宣布,凡是保證支持聯邦政府、遵守取締奴隸制度的法律的前南方邦聯居民,一律可以獲得特赦。他還允許前邦聯官員參加自己州內的新選舉,結果很多人都當選了。

        The radical Republicans were angry. They saw these elections as proof that the South had not really changed. They accused Johnson of being too soft. They urged him to punish the rebels.

        約翰遜的舉措讓激進派大為光火。在他們看來,南方各州的選舉恰恰證明,南方并沒有發生實質性變化。他們指責約翰遜過于軟弱,敦促他嚴懲南方叛匪。

        One radical newspaper wrote: "There is only one sure and safe policy for the immediate future. The North must remain the dictator of the republic until the spirit of the North shall become the spirit of the whole country. The South's treason is still unpunished. Southerners cannot be trusted. "

        激進派的一份報紙發表文章說,"眼下唯一安全可行的政策只有一個,北方必須繼續保持專制領導,直到北方精神變成全國精神為止。南方叛逆尚未受到懲罰,南方人不值得信任"。

        VOICE ONE:

        The radicals also worried about what would happen to the recently freed slaves. They said the new state governments of the South would not treat blacks as free and equal citizens. As proof, they pointed to new laws the southern legislatures passed.

        激進派還對新近獲得自由的黑人的情況感到擔憂。他們指出,南方各州新選出的政府不會把黑人當作自由平等的公民來對待。他們還把南方議會通過的各種新法律拿出來作為證據。

        For example, the state legislature in Mississippi said no black person could rent farmland. It said a black person needed special permission to work at any job except farming.

        比如,密西西比州議會說,黑人不能承租農田;黑人需要特殊許可,才可以從事農耕以外的工作。

        Mississippi also passed a law saying a black person could be forced to work for a white man -- usually his former owner -- if he had no other job.

        密西西比還通過法律規定,如果黑人沒有其它工作的話,就可以被強迫為白人工作,雇主往往就是他以前的主人。

        Another way the state governments in the South acted against blacks was by refusing to give them the right to vote.

        除此以外,南方各州政府還拒絕讓黑人享受投票的權利。

        VOICE TWO:

        Andrew Johnson
        Andrew Johnson

        The radical Republicans decided that President Johnson's reconstruction program must be stopped. They began working to get control of Congress to pass their own program. Only by gaining political power could they punish the South and guarantee full political rights to former slaves.

        激進派認為,約翰遜的南方重建計劃必須停止。他們開始爭取國會控制權,以便讓自己的計劃得以通過。只有掌握了政治權力,他們才能懲罰南方,保證以前的奴隸享有全部政治權利。

        The radicals tried to take control in two ways.

        共和黨激進派爭取控制權的手段有兩個。

        First, they refused to let many of the recently elected southern congressmen take their seats when Congress opened.

        首先,他們設法阻擾很多新當選的南方國會議員就職;

        Then they formed their own joint committee on reconstruction. This committee -- not the Senate or the House of Representatives -- would make many of the decisions about reconstruction.

        隨后,他們又成立了重建聯合委員會,由這個委員會,而不是由國會參議院或是眾議院,來負責做出有關重建的很多決定。

        VOICE ONE:

        Radical lawmakers took other steps to seize control of reconstruction efforts in the South.

        激進派國會議員還采取其它步驟,設法掌控有關南方重建的控制權。

        Congress had established a government agency to take care of black refugees in the South. The agency gave food and clothing to former slaves who had no food, money, or jobs. It began to teach them to read and write.

        美國國會已經成立了一個政府機構,專門負責處理南方黑人難民的事務,向那些沒有吃的、沒有錢、沒有工作的原來的奴隸提供衣食,還教他們讀書識字。

        Republicans in Congress moved to extend the life of the agency and increase its powers. They passed a bill and sent it to the White House for the president's approval.

        國會里的共和黨人采取措施,延長這個機構的使命時段,加大這個機構的權力。他們通過一項法案,并提交白宮讓總統批準。

        President Johnson vetoed the bill. He said it would create false hopes among former slaves. He also said it was unconstitutional. The radicals tried to overturn Johnson's veto. However, they failed to get the necessary votes.

        然而,約翰遜否決了法案。他指出,這樣做只會給原來的奴隸制造不現實的希望,而且也不符合憲法的規定。國會激進派企圖推翻約翰遜的否決,但是沒能得到足夠的選票。

        VOICE TWO:

        Congress passed several other bills giving the federal government power to protect the rights of blacks in the southern states. President Johnson vetoed these bills, too. He said they interfered with the rights of the states.

        國會還通過了其它幾項議案,讓聯邦政府有權保護南方各州黑人的權利。這些議案同樣遭到了約翰遜總統的否決,約翰遜認為,這些議案干涉了各州的權利。

        These defeats made the radicals even more angry. Their newspapers began a steady attack against the president and his policy toward the South. Some even accused him of treason.

        這些挫折愈發激怒了國會激進派。激進派報紙不斷對約翰遜總統和他的南方政策發動攻擊,有些報紙甚至指責約翰遜叛國。

        VOICE ONE:

        Many Americans agreed with this criticism of President Johnson. They gave the radicals a big victory in congressional elections of eighteen sixty-six.

        激進派的看法得到了很多美國民眾的認可,并使激進派在1866年的國會選舉中取得了重大勝利。

        Radical leaders gained the power to pass any bill they wished, even over the president's veto. And they wasted no time doing just that. Time after time, they voted to overturn Andrew Johnson's vetoes.

        激進派領導人在國會勢力大增,讓他們足以通過任何法案,而且可以推翻約翰遜的否決。他們立即采取行動,不顧總統的否決,通過了很多法案。

        The atmosphere in Washington became very tense. Relations between Congress and the White House sank to their lowest level in history. The political skies darkened. Soon, the storm broke. The radicals tried something that had never been tried before. They tried to remove the president from office.

        華盛頓的政治氣氛變得十分緊張。國會跟白宮之間的關系陷入建國以來的最低谷。政治天空烏云密布,沒過多久,就迎來了一場疾風暴雨。激進派采取了以前從來沒有人嘗試過的行動---他們試圖把總統趕下臺。

        The conflict between the radicals and Andrew Johnson would provide some of the most historic and intense moments in American history. That will be our story in the next program of THE MAKING OF A NATION.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by David Jarmul and Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Shep O'Neal and Tony Riggs. Transcripts, podcasts and historical images from our series are at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also comment on our programs. And we invite you to follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #120 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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