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        #119: The Final Surrender

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:6-10-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        President Abraham Lincoln
        President Abraham Lincoln

        Abraham Lincoln did not live to see the final surrender of the armies of the Confederacy. A Confederate sympathizer shot the president at Ford's Theatre in Washington on April fourteenth, eighteen sixty-five.

        亞伯拉罕·林肯總統領導美國走過了四年內戰,但最終卻沒能親眼看到戰爭的結束。1865年4月14號,林肯在首都華盛頓的福特劇院看戲時,被一名同情南方的激進分子刺殺身亡。

        By that time, however, the American Civil War really was over.

        林肯遇刺時,美國南北戰爭其實已經見了分曉。

        General Robert E. Lee surrendered in early April, bringing an end to four years of fighting. Several other Confederate armies were still in the field. But they were too small and too weak to continue the fight.

        南軍將領羅伯特·李將軍4月初宣布投降,另外幾股南軍部隊雖然尚未投降,但他們勢單力薄,根本無力還擊,內戰事實上已經結束。

        This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Leo Scully tell the story of the final surrender of the Confederate armies.

        VOICE ONE:

        General William T. Sherman
        General William T. Sherman

        One army was in North Carolina, commanded by General Joe Johnston. Five days after Lee's surrender, Johnston asked for a meeting with General William Sherman, the commander of Union forces in North Carolina.

        南方當中一股在北卡羅來納的部隊,由約翰斯頓將軍指揮。羅伯特·李宣布投降五天后,約翰斯頓要求跟駐扎在北卡的北軍將領謝爾曼會面。

        Sherman met with Johnston a few days later. He offered him the same surrender terms that General Lee had accepted. He said the Confederates must give up their weapons and promise to fight no more. Then they would be free to return to their homes.

        兩人幾天后見面時,謝爾曼提出跟羅伯特·李投降時同樣的條件,要南軍將士交出武器,保證不再參加戰斗,做為交換,他們可以回家去。

        Johnston said he could not accept these terms. Johnston said he had the power to surrender all the Confederate armies everywhere in the South he said he would do so if Sherman agreed on a political settlement.

        然而,約翰斯頓拒絕接受。他表示,自己有權讓南方的所有部隊投降,但條件是,雙方必須達成一項政治協定。

        VOICE TWO:

        The two generals met again the next day. Sherman listened as Johnston explained his demands. Most of them, Sherman accepted. He believed that President Lincoln wanted to help the South as much as possible. He had heard Lincoln say that he wanted to make it easy for the southern states to return to the Union.

        兩人次日再次談判。謝爾曼耐心聽取約翰斯頓提出南軍的所有要求。謝爾曼同意接受約翰斯頓提出的大部分要求,因為他相信,林肯總統愿意盡最大可能幫助南方。他曾親耳聽林肯說過,他愿意為南方各州回歸聯邦提供方便。

        When the agreement was completed, Sherman sent it immediately to Washington for approval by the new president, Andrew Johnson. The agreement seemed to give the South everything it wanted.

        雙方達成一致意見后,謝爾曼立即將協議送往華盛頓,請新總統安德魯·約翰遜批準。協議似乎滿足了南方提出的全部條件。

        VOICE ONE:

        General Joe Johnston
        General Joe Johnston

        Instead of surrendering to Sherman, the Confederate Armies would break up. The soldiers would return to their homes, taking their weapons with them. They would sign a promise not to fight again and to obey state and federal laws.

        協議里規定,南軍不用向謝爾曼投降,但是必須解散,南軍士兵可以帶著武器返回家園。他們要在保證書上簽字,保證不再參加戰斗,并且遵守聯邦和各州法律。

        In exchange for this, Sherman said the president would recognize state governments in the south which promised to support the Constitution. He said federal courts would be established in the south again. And he said the president -- as well as he could -- would protect the political rights promised to all people by the Constitution of the United States and the state constitutions.

        謝爾曼說,做為交換條件,總統將承認那些保證支持憲法的州政府的合法性,南方各州恢復聯邦法院,而且根據聯邦和州憲法的規定,所有公民享受的政治權利都將受到總統和他本人的保護。

        And Sherman said the United States government would not interfere with any of the southern people, if they remained peaceful and obeyed the laws.

        謝爾曼還說,只要南方人和平地過日子,遵紀守法,就不會受到聯邦政府的干預。

        VOICE TWO:

        President Johnson held a cabinet meeting to discuss the agreement Sherman had signed. War Secretary Stanton and the other members of the cabinet were violently opposed to it. They said Sherman had no power to make any kind of political settlement.

        約翰遜總統召集內閣會議,商討謝爾曼簽署的協定書。戰爭部長斯坦頓和其他內閣成員堅決反對協定內容。他們認為,謝爾曼無權跟南方達成任何形式的政治協議。

        President Johnson rejected the agreement. He said Johnston's army must surrender within forty-eight hours or be destroyed. He said the surrender terms could be no better than those given General Lee.

        約翰遜總統因此否決了謝爾曼簽署的協定,并表示,約翰斯頓的部隊必須在48小時內投降,否則就要被徹底消滅,投降條件不能比給羅伯特·李將軍的條件更優惠。

        VOICE ONE:

        Johnston decided to surrender. On April twenty-sixth, his army laid down its weapons. One by one, the remaining armies surrendered. The soldiers began returning home.

        約翰斯頓最后還是決定投降。他的部隊4月26號放下武器。接下來,南軍其它部隊也紛紛投降,士兵們開始返回家園。

        General Nathan Bedford Forrest
        General Nathan Bedford Forrest

        Many of them were bitter. They wanted to continue to fight. They spoke of guerrilla war against the Yankees. But most of the Confederate commanders opposed this. Many, like cavalry General Nathan Bedford Forrest, urged their men to accept defeat.

        他們當中很多人怨氣十足,他們想繼續打下去,跟北方佬打游擊戰,但是南軍大部分指揮官不同意。很多軍官勸說部下認輸。

        Said Forrest in a farewell speech to his men:

        騎兵將軍弗里斯特在告別講話中說:

        "It is a clear fact that we are beaten. We would be foolish to try to fight further. The government which we tried to establish is at an end. Civil War -- such as you have just passed through -- naturally causes feelings of bitterness and hatred. We must put these feelings aside. Whatever your responsibilities may be, meet them like men. You have been good soldiers. You can be good citizens."

        "現實很清楚,我們輸了。繼續打下去是愚蠢的。我們試圖建立的政府已經跨了。剛剛過去的內戰,勢必引起仇視和怨恨,我們必須把這種情緒放在一邊,不論你們的責任是什么,都應該像男人一樣去面對。你們都是好戰士,也一定會是好公民。"

        VOICE TWO:

        Confederate President Jefferson Davis fled south after the fall of his government. He hoped to get across the Mississippi River. He believed that he could form a new Confederate army. If this failed, he planned to escape to Mexico.

        邦聯政府垮臺后,邦聯總統戴維斯逃往南方,準備跨過密西西比河,重組一支邦聯部隊,如果失敗,就逃往墨西哥。

        President Lincoln had hoped that Davis would escape. He felt that punishing Davis would only create more bitterness and make reconstruction -- the rebuilding of the South -- more difficult. But President Johnson did not share Lincoln's feelings. He believed Davis had a part in the plot to kill Lincoln. He said Davis must be captured.

        戴維斯逃跑正是林肯希望看到的。林肯覺得,懲罰戴維斯只會加劇仇恨情緒,讓南方的重建工作更加困難。但是約翰遜總統跟林肯的看法不一樣。他認為,戴維斯肯定參與了刺殺林肯的陰謀,所以一定要將他緝拿歸案。

        On May tenth, Union forces found the Confederate president's camp in southern Georgia. They seized him and took him to Fort Monroe, Virginia. He remained there for many months under close guard. His trial was never held. And finally, in eighteen sixty-seven, he was freed.

        5月10號,聯邦士兵在喬治亞南部抓到戴維斯,將他押送回維吉尼亞的門羅城堡。戴維斯被關在那里好幾個月,重兵把守,但是始終沒有出庭受審,最后于1867年獲得了釋放。

        VOICE ONE:

        Union soldiers march in the Grand Review in Washington in May 1865
        Union soldiers march in the Grand Review in Washington in May 1865

        Late in May, one hundred fifty thousand Union soldiers, representing every one of the Union armies, came to Washington. They came to take part in a big parade -- a victory march through the city.

        5月下旬,15萬名聯邦士兵來到首都華盛頓,代表北軍全體官兵,參加大規模游行,慶祝勝利。

        For two days, the soldiers marched past the White House. Many of the marching men had fought at Bull Run, at Fredericksburg, Antietam, Gettysburg, Petersburg, and Appomattox. Sherman's western army was there from battles at Shiloh, Vicksburg, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga and Atlanta.

        游行持續了兩天,士兵中很多人都參加過在布爾溪、弗雷德里克斯堡、安蒂特姆、葛底斯堡和阿普馬托克斯的戰斗;謝爾曼的手下則經歷過在西部的夏洛、維克斯伯格、亞特蘭大等戰役。

        The soldiers marched proudly past the president and other government leaders.

        游行士兵驕傲地從總統和政府官員面前走過。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        All along the way, from the Capitol building to the White House, were huge crowds of cheering people. Hour after hour, the soldiers passed. Never had the city seen such a celebration. Each group of soldiers had its band and carried its own battle flags. Some proudly carried flags that had been torn in fierce fighting.

        從國會大廈到白宮,沿途擠滿了歡呼的人群,一個小時接著一個小時,游行士兵陸續走過,華盛頓從來沒有舉行過規模如此盛大的慶?;顒?。每個游行方隊都有自己的鼓樂隊,都舉著自己的戰旗,一些方隊驕傲地舉著在激戰中撕得七零八落的旗幟。

        Finally, late on the second day, the final group of soldiers passed the White House. The grand parade was over. The battle flags were put away, and the marching bands fell silent. The war was ended. Now, men could look about them and count the cost of the war.

        直到第二天下午,最后一隊士兵從白宮前走過,這次勝利大游行才宣告結束。戰旗被收藏起來,鼓樂聲也安靜下來。戰爭終于結束了?,F在,人們可以來清點一下這場戰爭的代價了。

        VOICE ONE:

        Four years of bloody fighting had saved the Union of states. The northern victory had settled for all time the question of whether states could leave the Union. And it had put to rest the great problem of slavery, which had troubled the nation for so many years.

        四年內戰挽救了美國聯邦,北方的勝利回答了各州是否有權退出聯邦的問題,也讓困擾美國多年的奴隸制度的問題有了最終結論。

        But the costs were great. More than six hundred thousand men of the North and South lost their lives. Hundreds of thousands more were wounded. Many had lost their arms or legs.

        但是與此同時,這場戰爭也帶來了慘重代價。南北雙方共有六十多萬人戰死疆場,還有幾十萬人受傷,很多人落下了殘疾。

        VOICE TWO:

        The war cost the North almost three-and-one-half thousand million dollars. It was almost as costly to the Confederates. Most of the war was fought in the southern states. And most of the war damage was there.

        北方的戰爭開支幾乎多達35億美元,南方損失也相差無幾。由于南北戰爭的主要戰場在南方,所以戰爭造成的傷害也集中在那里。

        Hundreds of cities and towns suffered damage. Some -- like Atlanta -- were completely destroyed by Union forces. The damage outside the populated areas was almost as great. Union armies had marched across the South leaving behind them widespread destruction. Farm houses and buildings had been burned; animals and crops seized or destroyed.

        數以百計的大小城鎮遭受創傷。亞特蘭大等城市還被北方軍徹底摧毀。 人煙稀少的地區同樣受到了戰火的蹂躪。北方軍橫掃南方地區,所到之處,一片狼藉。農舍和房屋被一把火夷為平地,牲口和糧食能拿走的拿走,拿不走的一律燒毀。

        VOICE ONE:

        Transport in the South was especially hard hit. Union soldiers had destroyed most of the railroads. The few Confederate trains that escaped capture were worn out from heavy use. River boats had been destroyed. And roads and bridges were in terrible condition.

        南方的交通系統受到的破壞最為嚴重。北軍士兵摧毀了大部分鐵路。南方為數不多的幾列沒有被繳獲的火車也都使用過度。渡船全部被毀,道路和橋梁也都破爛不堪。

        The South had no money to rebuild. Businessmen and rich landowners had put their money in Confederate bonds, now completely worthless. Confederate war debts would never be paid.

        南方沒有重建的資金。商人和富裕的地主把錢買了南方邦聯的債券,如今已經一文不值,南方的戰爭債務根本無法償還。

        There was also the question of the four million former slaves. They were free now. But few could take care of themselves. They needed jobs and training.

        除此以外,還有四百萬獲得解放的奴隸的問題。他們自由了,但卻無法生活,需要工作機會和技能培訓。

        VOICE TWO:

        The people of the South faced a difficult future. They had been defeated in battle. Their economy was destroyed. In many areas, there was little food and the people were hungry. Farmers could not plant crops, because they had no seed and no animals to break the ground. There was no money for rebuilding.

        南方人面對未來,困難重重。他們打了敗仗,經濟遭到破壞。很多地方沒有吃的,人們饑腸轆轆。農民沒有種子和牲口,無法播種。南方沒有錢用于重建。

        President Andrew Johnson
        President Andrew Johnson

        To add to all these problems, radical Republicans in Washington were demanding severe punishment for the South. Instead of offering aid, they demanded that the government sell the property of southerners to pay Union war debts.

        與此同時,華盛頓的共和黨激進派還要求嚴懲南方,無異于雪上加霜。激進派共和黨人不僅不愿意給南方援助,反而要求政府把南方人的財產賣掉,用來償還北方的戰爭債務。

        VOICE ONE:

        President Andrew Johnson, himself a southerner from Tennessee, opposed the radical plans. He had his own program of reconstruction for the South.

        本來就是南方人的安德魯·約翰遜總統反對這種過激的計劃。在重建南方的問題上,他有自己的計劃。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Leo Scully. Transcripts, podcasts and historical images from our series are at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also comment on our programs. And we invite you to follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #119 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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