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        #115: Confederate Capital Falls

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:6-6-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        On March fourth, eighteen sixty-five, Abraham Lincoln was sworn-in as president after winning a second term. The election had taken place in the Union of northern states. The Union still followed the United States Constitution. The Confederacy of southern states had left the Union. The South had its own Constitution.

        1865年3月4號,亞伯拉罕·林肯宣誓就職,開始了他的第二個總統任期。這次總統換屆是在北方舉行的,北方各州遵照的依舊是美國憲法,而退出聯邦的南方各州則制定了自己的憲法。

        On the evening of Inauguration Day, the White House was opened to the public. The party ended near midnight. Thousands of people went to see President Lincoln.

        宣誓就職當天晚上,白宮對公眾開放,數千民眾前來看望總統,慶?;顒又钡轿缫箷r分才結束。

        This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe continue the story of President Lincoln and the American Civil War.

        VOICE ONE:

        Lincoln was glad the celebrations were over. Now he could get back to the urgent problems that faced him. He hoped that during his second four-year term he could end the Civil War. He hoped he could ease the bitterness and hatred the war had brought.

        林肯很高興慶?;顒咏K于結束了,他總算可以集中精力處理當務之急了。他希望在第二個四年任期內結束內戰,緩和戰爭帶來的怨恨和仇視。

        Lincoln hoped for an easy peace. He wanted no hangings or other brutal acts against the losers. He wanted to see Confederate soldiers go back to their homes to become peaceful citizens of a united country.

        林肯希望能輕松過渡到和平,不希望對失敗的一方采取絞刑等殘暴手段,只希望看到南方邦聯士兵返回家園,成為統一國家的和平公民。林肯希望國家能重新團結在一起。

        Lincoln wanted the nation to grow together again.

        VOICE TWO:

        General Robert E. Lee
        General Robert E. Lee

        The war could not last much longer. The South already was defeated. But Confederate leaders refused to accept defeat.

        戰爭不會持續太長時間了。南方戰局大勢已去,但是南方邦聯領袖拒絕承認失敗。

        General Robert E. Lee's army still held the area around Richmond, Virginia. Richmond was the Confederate capital. Lee did not believe, however, that he could hold the city much longer.

        南方邦聯首都里士滿附近地區依舊處于羅伯特·李的控制之中,但是李將軍知道,他也撐不了多久了。

        His once mighty army now had less than fifty thousand men. These men were tired and hungry. And they had to defend a line almost sixty kilometers long, from Richmond to the city of Petersburg.

        羅伯特·李手下原本龐大的隊伍現在只剩下不到五萬人了,這些人全都饑腸轆轆,疲憊不堪,還要守住從里士滿到彼得斯堡一條將近60公里長的防線。

        There just were not enough Confederate soldiers left to fight.

        南方已經沒有足夠的兵力打仗了。

        VOICE ONE:

        Lee decided that his only hope was to give up the two cities. He would march south and join General Joe Johnston's army in North Carolina. Perhaps the two armies could defeat Union forces moving up through the state. Then they could turn to meet the army of General Ulysses Grant.

        羅伯特·李決定,唯一的希望就是放棄這兩座城市,揮師南下,跟北卡羅來納約翰斯頓將軍率領的部隊會合,或許能聯手打敗那里的北方軍,然后再回過頭來對付格蘭特將軍的隊伍。

        This plan had little chance of success. But it would keep the Confederate armies active for a few more weeks or months.

        這項計劃成功的機會微乎其微,但可以讓南方部隊的生命延續幾個星期或是幾個月。

        Lee soon discovered that it would not be easy to break out of the trap that Richmond and Petersburg had become. Grant's army seemed to be everywhere.

        羅伯特·李很快就發現,沖出里士滿和彼得斯堡的包圍圈并不容易,格蘭特的部隊似乎無處不在。

        Lee put eleven thousand of his men into position near Grant's line. They waited for the enemy to attack.

        羅伯特·李在格蘭特戰線附近部署了一萬一千人,等待敵人進攻。

        At first, the Confederates received some help from the weather. Heavy rains fell for more than a day. Many roads and fields were flooded. The Union army could not move forward. When it did, the Confederates were ready. They pushed back the attackers.

        最初,天氣幫了南方的忙,連續一天多的暴雨,淹沒了道路和農田,讓北軍部隊無法前進。等他們終于可以行動的時候,南方部隊已經做好了準備,擊退了北軍的進攻。

        VOICE TWO:

        The Battle of Petersburg
        The Battle of Petersburg

        The victory did not last long. There were five times more Union soldiers than Confederate soldiers. The Confederates fought hard, but could not stop them. They were forced to withdraw.

        然而,勝利沒有持續多久。北軍的兵力是南方的五倍,南軍士兵雖然拼死搏殺,還是擋不住來勢兇猛的北軍,只好撤退。

        The Confederates moved slowly, then more quickly as Union troops chased them. They began to flee wildly. About half of them were captured.

        撤退剛開始的時候還有條不紊,但是北軍緊追不舍,南軍最后潰不成軍,大約一半人當了俘虜。

        Grant ordered an immediate attack all along Lee's line. He was sure the line was weak. He was sure he could break it.

        格蘭特下令,立即全線進攻羅伯特·李的部隊。他確信,對方陣線不堪一擊,輕而易舉就能攻破。

        A Union army doctor watched the battle from a distance. He said he could see the flash of light from Confederate guns along a line a kilometer long.

        北方一位軍醫從遠處觀戰。他說,可以看到南軍士兵開槍的硝煙和火光,綿延一公里。

        After a while, part of the line went dark. Then another part. And another. Flashes of gunfire became fewer. Finally, all of the line was dark. The doctor said he knew then that the Confederate line had fallen.

        但是沒過多久,這條陣線的一部分就沒有了火光,接下來,另外一部分的火光也消失了,最后整條戰線都暗淡下去,再也沒有了亮光。這位軍醫說,他知道,南方陣線徹底崩潰了。

        VOICE ONE:

        General Grant had been trying to break General Lee's line for almost a year. Now he had done it.

        將近一年來,格蘭特一直在設法攻破羅伯特.李的防線,如今,他終于做到了。

        His troops raced forward to seize the railroad. Lee no longer had a way to supply his troops in Petersburg. He no longer had a quick way to move his army south. He would have to move west first, then turn south. This meant he would have to give up Richmond.

        格蘭特的部隊立即搶占鐵路,切斷了通往彼得斯堡的供給線。羅伯特·李也無法率軍迅速南下,而要先向西,再往南,這就意味著他必須放棄里士滿。

        The government of the Confederacy would have to go with him or be captured. Confederate President Jefferson Davis gave the order to go.

        南方邦聯政府要么跟他一起撤,要么勢必淪陷,邦聯總統戴維斯下令撤退。

        VOICE TWO:

        The fall of Richmond
        The fall of Richmond

        Southern soldiers began to burn military supplies they could not take from Richmond. Huge amounts of shells and gunpowder were exploded. The fires got out of control. Many buildings burned to the ground. The streets were filled with refugees trying to escape the burning city. Mobs broke into stores looking for food.

        南方士兵把帶不走的軍事裝備全部燒毀,里士滿附近的槍彈爆炸聲不絕于耳,以至于火勢失控,很多建筑被夷為平地。里士滿的街頭巷尾擠滿了人,大家都想從這座火城逃走,很多暴徒闖進店鋪,劫掠食物。

        Union troops quickly moved into Richmond. Then they raised the United States flag over the once proud capital of the Confederacy.

        北方部隊迅速進駐里士滿,在這個一度曾是南方邦聯首都的城市上空懸掛起聯邦旗幟。

        VOICE ONE:

        President Lincoln visited Richmond on April fourth. He visited the Confederate state house where the rebel Congress had met. He had lunch in the Confederate White House where Confederate President Jefferson Davis had lived.

        林肯總統4月4號視察里士滿,來到邦聯議會開會的議事大廳,在邦聯總統戴維斯曾經居住過的南方邦聯總統府用午餐。

        Richmond in ruins
        Richmond in ruins

        Everywhere Lincoln went, hundreds of people crowded around him. Blacks, especially, wanted to get near him. They wanted to touch the man who had made them free. At no time was any kind of hostile act made against the president.

        林肯所到之處,都有數百人把他團團圍住,特別是黑人,他們都想靠近他,摸一摸這個給他們自由的人,沒有人對林肯采取任何帶有敵意的行動。

        VOICE TWO:

        In the next few days, Lincoln followed carefully Grant's campaign against Lee's withdrawing army. By telegraph and messenger, he was informed of every move.

        在接下來的幾天里,林肯密切關注格蘭特對羅伯特·李撤軍的圍追堵截的戰局,通過電報和信使,了解戰爭的每一個最新動態。

        Lee's men marched without food. They did not have time to search for it. They could not stop. The Union army was only a day behind them.

        羅伯特·李的部下餓著肚子趕路,他們沒有時間尋找食物,也不能停下腳步,因為北軍部隊一天就能趕上他們。

        On and on they marched. Many of them -- weak from hunger and tired beyond belief -- could go no farther. They left the road to sleep. Most never got back. Others continued to March. But many threw down their guns and equipment.

        他們馬不停蹄地行軍,很多人因為饑餓和疲憊超越極限,再也走不動了。他們跑到路邊睡覺,大多數人沒有再回來。其他人繼續行軍,但是很多人都丟掉了槍支和裝備。

        Union forces attacked the moving line when they could. There were battles at such places as Amelia Court House, Sayler's Creek, High Bridge and Farmville. Lee's army fought off each attack. But it was slowly bleeding and starving to death.

        北方部隊不斷尋找機會進攻正在后撤的南軍,雙方多次發生戰斗。羅伯特·李的手下每次都擊退了北軍的進攻,但傷亡和饑餓使南軍逐漸喪失了戰斗力。

        VOICE ONE:

        Lee asked one of his officers to report on the situation. "There is no situation," the officer said. "Nothing remains, General Lee, but to put your poor soldiers on their poor horses and send them home in time to plant the spring crops."

        羅伯特·李讓手下一名軍官匯報戰況。這位軍官說:"沒什么戰況好匯報的。沒剩下什么了,李將軍,還是讓你那些可憐的士兵騎上他們可憐的馬回家去吧,還能趕上春播。"

        Lee answered: "What would the country think of me, if I did that."

        羅伯特·李回答說,"如果我這樣做,國家會怎么看待我呢?"

        "Country." the officer cried. "There is no country. You are the country to these men. They have fought for you. Without pay or food. There are still thousands of us who will die for you."

        那位軍官大喊道:"國家。哪有什么國家!對這些人來說,你就是國家。他們為你而戰,不要軍餉或口糧。即使這樣,還是有數以千計像我們這樣的人愿意為你去死。"

        VOICE TWO:

        General Lee is defeated at Appomattox Station
        General Lee is defeated at Appomattox Station

        On April seventh, General Grant sent a message to General Lee. He said it was hopeless to continue the struggle. He asked for the surrender of Lee's army.

        4月17號,格蘭特將軍傳信給羅伯特·李,信中說,繼續掙扎下去已毫無希望,不如投降。

        Lee did not agree that the situation was hopeless. He believed there was still one small chance to escape. He wanted to reach a place called Appomattox Station. There his men could get food. Then they could march to Lynchburg where a railroad would carry them south to safety.

        羅伯特·李并不認為大勢已去。他相信還有一線機會可以逃脫,他希望帶部隊到一個叫阿普馬托克斯站的地方,到那兒就能有食物。然后他們再向林奇伯格前進,那里有鐵路,可以把他們帶到南方安全的地方。

        But the Union Army reached Appomattox Station first. Lee and his officers decided to make a final effort to break out of the circle of Union forces. If their plan failed, Lee would have no other choice. He would have to surrender.

        然而,北軍捷足先登,趕在南軍前面抵達阿普馬托克斯站,羅伯特·李和他手下的軍官決定做最后努力,設法沖出北軍的重重包圍。如果計劃失敗,羅伯特·李就只好投降了。

        VOICE ONE:

        Lee rose early on the appointed day. He put on a new gray coat and a bright red sash. He looked as if he were going to a parade. His officers wondered. Then Lee explained: "I probably will be General Grant's prisoner. I thought I should look my best."

        行動當天,羅伯特·李早早起身,穿上一件新的灰色大衣,戴上一條鮮紅的腰帶,看上去象是要去參加游行。他的部下大惑不解。羅伯特·李解釋說:"我很可能成為格蘭特的戰俘,所以我覺得,應該把自己打扮得最像樣子。"

        At sunrise, Lee arrived on a hill outside the town of Appomattox Court House. He looked down on what was to be his final battlefield.

        日出時分,羅伯特·李來到阿普馬托克斯站城外的一個山坡上,俯視他的最后一片戰場。

        His men fought hard and well. But they could not break through the Union line. Finally, Lee said: "There is nothing left me but to go see General Grant. And I would rather die a thousand deaths."

        他的手下奮勇作戰,但還是無法沖破北軍防線。羅伯特·李最后說:"除了去見格蘭特,我無法選擇,可我寧可死一千次也不愿意投降。"

        Lee was sure Grant would not demand unconditional surrender. He said: "Grant will give us good terms -- as good as we have the right to demand. I can surrender this army on the condition that its members will never fight again."

        羅伯特·李堅信,格蘭特不會要求南軍無條件投降。他說:"格蘭特一定會給我們優惠的條件,我們有權提出要求,我可以同意投降,答應他們,所有士兵都不再參加戰斗。"

        Lee turned his horse toward the enemy lines behind his army. He sent a message to General Grant. It said: "I now request to meet with you at such time and place as you may name to discuss the terms of the surrender of this army."

        羅伯特·李扭轉馬頭,對著敵人的防線。他傳信給格蘭特將軍說,"我現在要求在你指定的時間和地點跟你見面,討論這支部隊投降的條件。"

        VOICE TWO:

        The place would be a home in a town called Appomattox Court House. That will be our story next week.

        談判定在一個叫阿普馬托克斯法院的小鎮里的一座房子里舉行。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. You can find transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs along with historical images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #115 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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