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        #114: Lincoln Defeats McClellan in 1864 Election

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:6-5-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        In eighteen sixty-four the Union of northern states and the Confederacy of southern states were still fighting. The Civil War began in eighteen sixty-one.

        Each side had its own constitution. Under the Union constitution, Americans were supposed to elect a president every four years. Eighteen sixty-four was such a year. And even though a great civil war was being fought, citizens of the North prepared to choose a leader.

        This week in our series, Shep O'Neal and Maurice Joyce tell the story of the election of eighteen sixty-four.

        VOICE ONE:

        Abraham Lincoln
        Abraham Lincoln

        Abraham Lincoln was completing his first term as president. He hoped to lead the nation for another four years. He wanted to win the war between the states. He wanted to re-build the Union.

        1864年,內戰進行的同時,美國總統林肯也在為參選連任做準備。他希望打贏南北戰爭,重建聯邦。

        Lincoln's Republican Party was divided. Moderate Republicans wanted to re-build the Union as soon as the war ended. They believed southern states should be welcomed back with full rights. Radical Republicans disagreed strongly. They demanded severe punishment for the southern rebels.

        林肯所在的共和黨出現了分裂。溫和派共和黨人希望戰爭一結束立即著手重建,他們認為,應該張開雙臂,歡迎南方各州的歸來,讓他們享受所有權利。但是激進派共和黨人強烈反對。他們要求對南方反叛者進行嚴厲懲罰。

        VOICE TWO:

        For many months, President Lincoln worked to build a political majority. He formed a new group called the National Union Party. It included moderate Republicans and some Democrats.

        林肯花了好幾個月的時間,設法組建一個叫"國家統一黨"的政治多數派,其中包括溫和派共和黨人和一些民主黨人。

        Lincoln succeeded in gaining the support of state and local political leaders. It soon became clear that Lincoln would be the party's presidential candidate in the election.

        林肯得到了一些州和地方領導人的支持。形勢很快就明朗化了,林肯將作為這個黨的候選人參加選舉。

        VOICE ONE:

        A political banner for the Radical Democracy party candidates John Freemont, right, and John Cochrane
        A political banner for the Radical Democracy party candidates John Freemont, right, and John Cochrane

        Several hundred radical Republicans held their own convention in Cleveland, Ohio. They formed a new political party called the Radical Democracy. They nominated explorer John Fremont as their candidate for the national election. Fremont had been the Republican presidential candidate eight years earlier.

        幾百名激進派共和黨人在俄亥俄的克利夫蘭召開了自己的代表大會,成立了一個叫激進民主的新政黨。與會代表提名探險家約翰·弗里蒙特代表該黨參加大選。弗里蒙特八年前曾經是共和黨的總統候選人。

        Most of the radical Republicans in Congress did not take part in the convention in Cleveland. They refused to support Fremont. They felt he had no chance to win the election.

        美國國會大多數激進派共和黨并沒有參加在克利夫蘭召開的代表大會,他們拒絕支持弗里蒙特,覺得他根本沒有勝選的機會。

        VOICE TWO:

        President Lincoln's new National Union Party held its convention in Baltimore, Maryland. Convention delegates quickly approved a party statement. The statement supported the Union and the war. It opposed slavery.

        與此同時,林肯新組建的國家統一黨在馬里蘭的巴爾的摩召開代表大會。與會代表迅速批準了政黨聲明,支持聯邦統一和戰爭,反對奴隸制度。

        Delegates then were ready to nominate their candidates for president and vice president. On the first ballot, they chose Lincoln to run again. And they chose Democrat Andrew Johnson of Tennessee to run as vice president.

        隨后,代表們開始推舉總統和副總統候選人。第一次投票,林肯就被提名為總統候選人,副總統候選人是田納西的民主黨人安德魯·約翰遜。

        VOICE ONE:

        During the campaign, Lincoln was advised to begin peace talks with the South. End the war, he was told. Bring southern states back into the Union. Settle the question of slavery later.

        競選過程中,林肯的助手們建議他開始跟南方講和,結束戰爭,讓南方各州重返聯邦,奴隸制度的問題以后再說。

        Lincoln, however, believed his policies were right for the nation. He would not surrender them, even if they meant his defeat in the election.

        然而,林肯堅信自己的政策是對的,就算是落選,也不言放棄。

        Lincoln hated the war. But he would not end it until military victory ended slavery and guaranteed political union.

        林肯痛恨這場戰爭,但是除非是通過軍事勝利結束奴隸制度,保證國家統一,否則他絕不停戰。

        VOICE TWO:

        In August, eighteen sixty-four, Lincoln wrote:

        "For some days past, it seems that this administration probably will not be re-elected. Then it will be my duty to cooperate with the president-elect to save the Union. We must do this between election day and inauguration day. For he will have been elected on such ground that he cannot possibly save the Union afterwards."

        1864年8月,林肯寫道:"從最近這些日子看來,現任政府似乎不會再度當選。如果真是那樣的話,我有職責協助當選總統,共同挽救聯邦統一。我們一定要在總統大選日和總統就職日期間完成這項工作,因為新總統當選所基于的理由,使他不可能在就職后再去做這件事情。"

        VOICE ONE:

        The Democratic Party held its nominating convention in Chicago, Illinois. Peace Democrats were in firm control.

        民主黨在伊利諾伊的芝加哥舉行總統提名大會。和平民主黨人牢牢掌控局勢。

        Peace Democrats demanded an immediate end to the Civil War. They did not care if the North and South remained apart permanently.

        他們要求立即結束內戰,不在乎南北方是否永遠分裂下去。

        The party's statement contained these words: "After four years of failure to restore the Union by war...justice, humanity, liberty, and the public welfare demand that immediate efforts be made to end the fighting. Let us look to a convention of states -- or other peaceable means -- to restore the Union."

        民主黨的聲明中說,"四年來,戰爭未能恢復聯邦統一。公正、人道、自由和公眾福祉要求立即努力,設法結束沖突。讓我們試試通過召開各州大會等和平手段,來恢復聯邦的統一。"

        VOICE TWO:

        General George McClellan
        General George McClellan

        The democratic statement did not discuss slavery. It did say, however, that any state wishing to return to the Union could do so without losing any of its constitutional rights. This was believed to include the right to own slaves.

        民主黨的聲明中沒有提到奴隸制度的問題,但表示,凡是愿意重返聯邦的州都不會損失任何憲法賦予的權利。人們相信,這當然也包括擁有奴隸的權利。

        Convention delegates approved the statement. Then they nominated General George McClellan as their candidate for president.

        大會代表批準了聲明,并提名喬治·麥克萊倫作為他們的總統候選人。

        VOICE ONE:

        Three days after the Democratic Party convention closed, the Union won an important military victory. Union troops captured Atlanta, Georgia. Atlanta was one of the last remaining industrial cities of the South. Its loss seriously hurt the Confederacy.

        民主黨大會結束三天后,北方軍贏得了一場重大勝利,攻占了喬治亞的亞特蘭大。亞特蘭大是南方僅存的工業城市之一,亞特蘭大的陷落是對南方邦聯的沉重打擊。

        A political banner for President Lincoln and Andrew Johnson
        A political banner for President Lincoln and Andrew Johnson

        Now the people of the North could understand their side was winning the war. Public opinion began to change. The Peace Democrats lost popular support. President Lincoln and his National Union Party gained popular support. Even some supporters of Radical Republican candidate John Fremont turned to Lincoln. Fremont withdrew from the race.

        北方人清楚地看到,勝利的曙光就在前面,公眾輿論因此開始轉變。主張和平的民主黨人開始失去民眾支持。林肯總統和他的國家統一黨得到越來越多的支持,就連激進派共和黨人弗里蒙特的一些支持者也開始轉而支持林肯,弗里蒙特宣布退出競選。

        VOICE TWO:

        When the people voted in November, their choice was between Abraham Lincoln and George McClellan.

        11月的總統大選,是林肯跟麥克萊倫之間的較量。

        A vote for Lincoln meant a vote for continuing the Civil War until it was won. Until the Union was saved. A vote for McClellan meant a vote for stopping the war. Stopping short of victory.

        投林肯的票就是主張把內戰繼續下去,直到勝利的那一天。投麥克萊倫的票就是支持在取得勝利前停止戰爭。

        By midnight of election day, it was clear that Lincoln had won. He got only about a half-million more popular votes than McClellan. But when electoral votes were counted, he got two hundred twelve to McClellan's twenty-one.

        總統大選日當晚午夜前,情況已經很明朗,林肯勝選了。雖然林肯贏得的選民票只比麥克萊倫多出大約50萬張,但是如果按照選舉人票計算的話,林肯得212票,麥克萊倫只得21票。

        VOICE ONE:

        Before Lincoln's second inaugural, he agreed to hold peace talks with representatives of the Confederacy. The talks would be held at a Union fort on the Chesapeake Bay.

        林肯宣誓就職前,同意跟南方代表舉行和平會談。和談在北方位于切薩皮克灣的一個城堡舉行。

        Lincoln was very firm in one demand. The talks, he said, must discuss peace for "our one common country." There could be no talk, he said, of Confederate independence.

        林肯在一個問題上態度十分堅決。他說:"和談必須在一個國家的前提下進行,如果要談邦聯獨立,那就沒什么好說的了。"

        The Confederate representatives said they could not accept those terms. The peace talks ended in failure.

        邦聯代表拒絕接受這個條件,和談最后以失敗告終。

        VOICE TWO:

        Lincoln returned to Washington. He prepared a message that he wished to send to Congress. It contained a program he felt could end the war within a few weeks.

        林肯返回華盛頓,為在國會講話做準備,講話中包括一項計劃,林肯覺得這項計劃能夠在幾周內結束戰爭。

        Lincoln proposed four hundred million dollars in economic aid to the southern states. The money could be used to pay slave owners for freeing their slaves.

        林肯建議,向南方各州提供四億美元的經濟援助,這筆錢可以用來付給奴隸主,做為他們釋放奴隸的報酬。

        Half the money would be paid if the southern states gave up their struggle by April first. The other half would be paid if they approved -- by July first -- a constitutional amendment ending slavery.

        如果南方各州同意在4月1號前放棄戰爭,就可以先拿到一半的錢,剩下一半要等他們在7月1號之前批準結束奴隸制度的憲法修正案后,再行支付。

        As part of the program, Lincoln would pardon all political crimes resulting from the southern rebellion. He also would return all property seized by Union forces.

        根據計劃,林肯還會特赦一切由南方反叛引起的政治罪,并歸還北方軍沒收的所有財產。

        VOICE ONE:

        Lincoln's cabinet officers rejected the program. They urged him not to send it to Congress. They said it would be seen as a sign of weakness.

        林肯的內閣成員反對這項計劃,敦促林肯不要遞交國會。他們認為,這是軟弱的表現。

        Lincoln was surprised by the reaction. He thought his cabinet would gladly end the war...a war that was costing the government three million dollars a day and the lives of the nation's young men. But he accepted the cabinet's advice. He did not send his message to Congress.

        內閣的這種反應讓林肯感到十分驚訝。林肯原以為,能結束這場每天耗資三百萬美元、并造成眾多年輕人傷亡的戰爭,應該是內閣十分高興看到的。但他還是接受了內閣的建議,沒有將講話提交國會。

        VOICE TWO:

        On March fourth, eighteen sixty-five, Abraham Lincoln was sworn-in as president for a second term. This is part of what he said:

        1865年3月4號,林肯宣誓就職,開始第二個總統任期。他在就職講話中說道:

        Abraham Lincoln's inauguration in 1864
        Abraham Lincoln's inauguration in 1864

        "On this occasion four years ago, all thoughts were directed to a coming Civil War. All feared it. All tried to prevent it. Both parties opposed war. But one of them would make war rather than let the nation live. And the other would accept war, rather than let it die. And the war came.

        "四年前的這個時候,所有人都在關心即將爆發的內戰。所有人都害怕內戰,所有人都希望避免內戰。爭議雙方都反對戰爭。其中一方寧可挑起戰爭,也不愿讓國家存活,另一方寧可接受戰爭,也不愿看到國家滅亡。結果戰爭爆發了。

        "We hope -- and we pray -- that this terrible war may pass away quickly. But God may wish it otherwise. He may have it continue until the riches earned from two hundred fifty years of slavery are gone. It may continue until every drop of blood made by the slaveowner's whip is paid for by another made by the soldier's sword.

        我們希望,我們祈禱,這場可怕的戰爭能迅速過去。但是上帝可能另有安排。上帝可能會一直讓戰爭延續下去,直到250年奴隸制度創造的財富全部耗盡為止。這場戰爭可能會繼續到奴隸主的皮鞭抽出的每一滴鮮血都被士兵刀劍劃出的鮮血抵銷為止。

        "With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right -- as God gives us to see the right -- let us strive on to finish the work we are in. Let us heal the nation's wounds. Let us do all possible to get and keep a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations."

        讓我們按照上帝指引的正確方向,不帶對任何人的惡意、帶著對所有人的善心,秉持對正義的堅定,努力完成眼前的工作。讓我們治愈國家的傷口。讓我們竭盡全力,在我們中間和所有國家間實現并保持公正、持久的和平。"

        VOICE ONE:

        That night, the White House was open to the public. Thousands of people went to see the President. Poet Walt Whitman gave this description:

        那天晚上,白宮對外開放,數以千計的人來看總統。詩人惠特曼描述說:

        "I saw Mr. Lincoln, dressed all in black. He was shaking hands...looking very sad...as if he would give anything to be somewhere else."

        "我看到林肯先生,身穿黑衣。他跟大家握手,顯得十分悲傷,好像只要能離開這里,他愿意拿一切來交換似的。"

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Shep O'Neal and Maurice Joyce. You can find transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs along with historical images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #114 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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        作者:鄭烈波
        1-14-2014 11:12:53
        peace is right and war is going.
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