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        #113: Sherman Burns Atlanta in March to the Sea

        作者:Frank Beardsley and Christine Johnson 發布日期:6-4-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        In eighteen sixty-four, the battle at Cold Harbor in Virginia ended a month of fighting by the Union Army of the Potomac. The campaign had brought the army almost to the edge of Richmond, the Confederate capital.

        波托馬克軍團發動了長達一個月的攻勢。他們幾乎一直打到南方邦聯首府里士滿的大門口。

        But General Ulysses Grant had paid a terrible price: more than fifty thousand Union dead and wounded. Confederate losses were much lighter -- about twenty thousand.

        不過,北軍將領格蘭特也為此付出了慘重的代價。冷港戰役北軍共有五萬多人傷亡,而南方邦聯的損失只有大約兩萬人。

        Grant was beginning to learn an important lesson of the war. The methods of defense had improved much more than the methods of attack.

        這場戰役給格蘭特將軍上了重要的一課,那就是,防御戰術的改進已經大大超過了進攻戰術的改進。

        This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant continue the story of the American Civil War.

        VOICE ONE:

        By the autumn of eighteen sixty-four, it appeared that the North would defeat the South in the American Civil War. The southern army needed men and supplies. There was little hope of getting enough of either to win.

        到1864年秋天的時候,南北戰爭的形勢日趨明朗。南方軍的兵源和軍備都出現短缺,而得到補充的希望又十分渺茫,北方似乎已經勝券在握。

        The northern army was stronger and better-equipped. But it, too, had suffered. Much of the death and destruction was the result of new military technology.

        與南方相比,北方軍的兵源更為充沛,裝備也更為精良。不過,北軍的傷亡和損失也很慘重,這主要歸咎于一種新型子彈的發明。

        VOICE TWO:

        Example of a minie ball
        Example of a minie ball

        A new kind of bullet had been invented. It was called the minie ball. It made the gun a much more deadly weapon.

        這種被稱為"米尼彈"的子彈極大增加了槍支的殺傷力。

        Before the minie ball, few soldiers could hit a target more than thirty meters away. With the new bullet, they could hit targets more than one hundred fifty meters away. Soldiers with such weapons could be put into position behind stone or earth walls. Then it was almost impossible to defeat them.

        米尼彈出現前,沒人能打中三十米以外的目標;有了米尼彈,一百五十多米以外的目標都不在話下。配備了這種子彈的士兵,躲在石墻或土墻后面向敵人射擊,對方根本不是對手。

        VOICE ONE:

        Most American generals, however, seemed unable to accept this. They continued to use the old methods of attack that had worked before the minie ball was invented.

        Hundreds or thousands of men were put in long lines across the front of the enemy position. A signal was given. The men began to march forward. When they got close, they fired their guns. Then they ran at the enemy and struck with their knives or hands.

        然而,南北戰爭時期的大多數將領似乎無法接受米尼彈。他們繼續延用米尼彈出現以前的進攻方式。那就是,成百成千人在敵人前面一字排開,聽到進攻的信號后,向前推進,到足夠近的地方時,向敵人開槍,然后發起沖鋒,用刀子、或是索性用拳腳跟敵人展開搏斗。

        The idea was to shock the enemy, frighten him, and make him run away.

        這樣做目的是要震撼敵人,嚇倒敵人,讓他們抱頭鼠竄。

        As generals on both sides learned, this method no longer worked. The attackers were shot down before they could get close enough to hurt the defenders.

        不過,南北戰爭雙方將領都逐漸意識到,這種辦法越來越行不通了。進攻部隊還沒靠近,就已經被防守部隊的子彈擊中了。

        VOICE TWO:

        After three and a half years of fighting, hundreds of thousands of Union and Confederate soldiers had been killed or wounded. Still the war continued.

        在三年半的沖突中,南北雙方都有成千上萬人傷亡,但是戰爭還在繼續。

        In the East, Union armies were slowly pushing forward toward their main target. That was the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia. In the West, Union armies were slowly pushing deeper into Confederate territory. The western armies were led by General William Sherman.

        在東部,北方軍越來越逼近南方邦聯首都里士滿。在西部,北方軍也在謝爾曼將軍的率領下逐漸深入南方腹地。

        VOICE ONE:

        General Joe Johnston
        General Joe Johnston

        Sherman had two goals. One was to capture the city of Atlanta, Georgia. Atlanta was one of the few remaining industrial cities of the Confederacy. The other goal was to destroy the Confederate army led by General Joe Johnston.

        謝爾曼的目標有兩個,一是要占領喬治亞首府亞特蘭大,這也是南方剩下的為數不多的工業城市之一,二是要摧毀約翰斯頓統領的南軍。

        Sherman's army was stronger than Johnston's army. But the Confederates usually got into better defensive positions. Sherman refused to attack in such situations. It was easier to march around the Confederates and force them to withdraw. This happened again and again.

        謝爾曼比約翰斯頓人多,但是南方軍往往能占據更有利的防守位置。遇到這種情況,謝爾曼從來不會正面襲擊,而是繞到南軍身后,逼他們撤退。謝爾曼的這種戰術屢試不爽。

        VOICE TWO:

        Confederate President Jefferson Davis began to believe that General Johnston was afraid to fight. He replaced him with another general. Within two days, that general attacked the Union Army. The attack began without enough planning. It was based on false information. It was a disaster.

        南方邦聯總統戴維斯以為是約翰斯頓害怕打仗,于是派另外一名將領取代他。此人新官上任,兩天內就對北方軍發動進攻。但是進攻沒有充分準備,而且情報又是錯的,結果慘敗。

        In eleven days of fighting, one-third of the Confederate Army in Georgia was destroyed. The remaining force was too weak to defend Atlanta. The city fell.

        十一天的戰斗,南方駐守喬治亞的部隊死傷三分之一,剩下的人無力保衛亞特蘭大,亞特蘭大被北軍攻陷。

        VOICE ONE:

        The Battle of Atlanta
        The Battle of Atlanta

        After capturing Atlanta, General Sherman fought a series of small battles with a Confederate force across northern Georgia. Then he decided to march to Savannah, a city on the Atlantic coast.

        攻占亞特蘭大后,謝爾曼又在喬治亞北部地區跟南方軍打了幾場小仗,然后決定向大西洋沿岸的薩凡納進軍。

        Before leaving, his men set fire to the city. Almost all of Atlanta was destroyed. Sherman's army would continue to do this all the way to Savannah, Georgia, three hundred fifty kilometers away. It cut a path of destruction more than one hundred kilometers wide.

        出發前,謝爾曼下令火燒亞特蘭大。亞特蘭大幾乎被夷為平地。謝爾曼的部隊在前往三百五十公里以外的薩凡納的途中,邊走邊燒,開辟出一條一百多公里寬的毀滅之路。

        This campaign would be known as Sherman's March to the Sea.

        這也就是美國歷史上著名的"謝爾曼遠征"。

        VOICE TWO:

        Sherman's march to the sea
        Sherman's march to the sea

        Sherman said he wanted to make the people of Georgia suffer. He said he wanted to show the people of the Confederacy that their government could not protect them.

        謝爾曼說,他要讓喬治亞人受折磨,要讓南方邦聯的人知道,他們的政府保護不了他們。

        Union soldiers stopped at every farm and village. They took food and clothing. They took horses, cows, and other farm animals. What they could not take, or did not want, they destroyed.

        北方軍士兵在每個農場和鄉村停下,搶糧食、搶衣服,搶牲口,帶不走和不想要的,就索性毀掉。

        They set fire to houses and farm buildings. They burned crops. They destroyed stores and factories. They burned bridges and pulled up railroad tracks.

        他們縱火燒民宅、糧倉、牲口棚、糧食,搗毀店鋪和工廠,還放火焚燒橋梁,拆掉鐵軌。

        Day by day, the Union army of General William Sherman cut and burned its way across Georgia.

        日復一日,謝爾曼手下的人在前往薩凡納的途中,活活用火焰燒出了一條通道。

        VOICE ONE:

        The army faced little opposition. Small groups of Confederate horse soldiers struck at the edges of the army. But they did little damage. On December twenty-second, eighteen sixty-four, Sherman reached Savannah. He sent a message to President Abraham Lincoln in Washington. He said: "I beg to present you, as a Christmas holiday gift, the city of Savannah."

        謝爾曼的部隊一路上幾乎沒有遇到抵抗,南方小股騎兵在這支大軍的邊緣騷擾,但是沒有造成什么傷害。1864年12月22號,謝爾曼到達薩凡納,他傳話給首都華盛頓的林肯總統說,請允許我把薩凡納做為圣誕節禮物送給你。

        Sherman's campaign had cut a great wound in the heart of the Confederacy. All that remained were the states of South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia.

        謝爾曼遠征重創了南方邦聯,最后只剩下南卡羅來納、北卡羅來納和維吉尼亞。

        His march to the sea had a great, destructive effect on the spirit of the South.

        謝爾曼遠征給南方士氣帶來了毀滅性的打擊。

        VOICE TWO:

        General William Sherman
        General William Sherman

        Sherman's army rested in Savannah for a month. Then, on February first, eighteen sixty-five, it began to move north. The goal was to join General Ulysses Grant outside the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia.

        謝爾曼在薩凡納休整一個月后,1865年2月1號開始揮師北上,目標是跟南方邦聯首都里士滿城外的格蘭特將軍會合。

        As Sherman's army moved across South Carolina, it destroyed almost everything in sight.

        謝爾曼的部隊途經南卡羅來納,凡是能看到的東西,一律摧毀。

        The soldiers remembered that South Carolina had been the first state to rebel and leave the Union. They remembered that South Carolina had fired the first shots of the war. This time -- against orders -- they destroyed the land they left behind. Confederate forces could not stop them.

        北軍士兵記得,南卡羅來納是第一個退出聯邦的州,是打響南北戰爭第一槍的州,所以這次,他們一路走一路燒,南方軍根本無法阻止。

        VOICE ONE:

        The same thing happened in the Shenandoah River Valley northwest of Richmond.

        里士滿西北面的雪蘭多河谷也發生了同樣的情況。

        In the early years of the war, Confederate forces had moved through the valley to strike northern territory. They had invaded Maryland and Pennsylvania, and had threatened Washington, from there.

        戰爭之初,南方軍就是穿過這條河谷,對北方發動襲擊的,他們從這里入侵馬里蘭和賓夕法尼亞,甚至威脅到了首都華盛頓的安全。

        General Grant decided that the Confederates had used the Shenandoah Valley long enough. He sent some of his men into the valley. He ordered them to destroy everything that might be of use to the enemy. "Eat up Virginia," he said, "clear and clean as far as you can go."

        格蘭特將軍覺得,這條河谷被南方軍霸占得已經夠久了。格蘭特派兵進入雪蘭多河谷,命令他們摧毀所有可能對敵人有用的東西。他告訴手下,"吃光維吉尼亞,凡是能到的地方,清除掉一切。"

        Farms were burned. Crops were destroyed. Farm animals were taken away or killed. Nothing was left that could feed a man or animal. Nothing but blackened earth.

        結果農莊被燒毀,糧食被燒光,牲口被帶走或殺掉,糧食一粒不剩,留下的只有燒焦了的土地。

        VOICE TWO:

        General Philip Sheridan
        General Philip Sheridan

        Then General Grant sent General Philip Sheridan into the Shenandoah Valley. Sheridan's army battled its way through the valley in the autumn of eighteen sixty-four. It gained victory after victory against a smaller, weaker Confederate force.

        格蘭特將軍隨后下令謝里登進軍雪蘭多河谷。1864年秋天,謝里登率兵擊敗弱小的南軍部隊,在雪蘭多河谷一個勝仗接一個勝仗。

        By the end of the year, Union troops had complete control of the valley. The only Confederate power that remained was the army of General Robert E. Lee.

        到1864年年底,整個河谷已經在北軍的控制之下,南方唯一剩下的就是羅伯特·李領導的部隊了。

        VOICE ONE:

        With the Shenandoah Valley closed to the Confederates, food supplies fell very low. There was almost nothing to feed the soldiers in Lee's army. Wagons would go out each day in search of food. They returned almost empty.

        痛失雪蘭多河谷后,南軍失去了糧食來源,南軍士兵幾乎斷了口糧。出去找糧食的大車每天都是空手而歸。

        More and more Confederate soldiers were running away. Some returned to their homes. Others surrendered to Union forces.

        南軍士兵開小差兒的越來越多,有人回了老家,也有人投奔了北方軍。

        Confederate leaders no longer could find soldiers to take the places of those who left. Men would not answer the army's call. There was, however, a huge labor force in the South that the army had not called: slaves.

        南方領袖找不到人來補缺,根本沒人響應入伍的號召。然而,南方還有一支勞動力大軍沒有派上用場,那就是黑奴。

        VOICE TWO:

        A black Union soldier
        A black Union soldier

        Slaves had been used to do non-military work for the army. They had built roads and bridges. They had driven wagons. But they had not served as soldiers. In the North, thousands of free Negroes served in the Union army. But they received less pay than white soldiers.

        在這以前,奴隸只為軍隊做些跟打仗無關的工作,修路、架橋、趕大車,但是沒有人當兵。在北方,數以千計獲得自由的黑人應征入伍,但是報酬不如白人士兵多。

        Confederate lawmakers finally began to discuss the idea of using slaves as soldiers. A bill was proposed that would free any slave who joined the army to fight.

        南方邦聯議會最后沒辦法,開始商量讓奴隸充軍。有人提出議案,建議凡是愿意參軍打仗的奴隸一律可以獲得自由。

        Many southern leaders opposed the bill, even if it would save the Confederacy. Said one: "Do not arm the slaves. The day you make them soldiers is the beginning of the end of the revolution. If slaves make good soldiers, our whole idea of slavery is wrong."

        這項議案遭到了很多南方領袖的反對。就算這樣做可以挽救邦聯,他們也不同意。其中一個人說,"絕對不能武裝奴隸,你讓他們扛槍打仗的那一天,就是這場革命結束的開端。如果奴隸能是優秀的士兵,那就證明,我們關于奴隸制度的整個理念都錯了。"

        VOICE ONE:

        General Robert E. Lee did not agree. He believed slaves could be made into good soldiers if they believed they had an interest in Confederate victory.

        羅伯特·李將軍不同意這種看法。他認為,只要讓奴隸相信,邦聯的勝利對他們有好處,他們就能成為好士兵。

        He proposed giving immediate freedom to any slave who joined the army. The Confederate Congress passed a bill in March of eighteen sixty-five to accept Negroes as soldiers. The bill did not promise to free them. By then, however, it was too late. An army of freed slaves could not be trained in time to save the Confederacy.

        他建議,立即給參軍的奴隸自由。南方邦聯議會1865年3月通過法案,接受黑人入伍,但是沒有保證給他們自由。然而,一切都晚了,由黑人組成的軍隊已經沒有足夠的時間接受訓練,挽救南方邦聯的命運了。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley and Christine Johnson. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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