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        #112: The Battle of Cold Harbor

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:6-3-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        On July fourth, eighteen sixty-three, a huge Confederate army surrendered at Vicksburg, Mississippi. Union forces had surrounded the city for forty-seven days. Food was gone. The situation was hopeless. The Confederate commander gave up.

        1863年7月4號,南方一支龐大的部隊在密西西比的維克斯堡投降。當時,北方軍圍城整整四十七天,城里的食物已經全部吃光,南軍指揮官看到毫無希望,只好宣布投降。

        The terms of surrender were simple. The Confederate soldiers promised not to fight anymore. In return for this promise, they were released on parole and sent home to their families.

        投降的條件很簡單。南軍被俘將士保證不再參加任何戰斗,作為交換條件,北方軍同意讓他們假釋回家。

        Never had Union forces won such a victory. Thirty thousand Confederate soldiers were now out of the war. Sixty thousand guns and one hundred seventy cannon were now in Union hands. The Mississippi River was now under Union control.

        這是北方軍自南北戰爭開始以來獲得的最大一場勝利。他們不僅讓三萬名南軍士兵退出了戰場,而且還繳獲了六萬條槍、170門大炮,同時將密西西比河流域牢牢地控制在自己手中。

        This week in our series, Larry West and Maurice Joyce continue our story of the American Civil War.

        VOICE ONE:

        General Ulysses Grant
        General Ulysses Grant

        The victory at Vicksburg went to General Ulysses Grant. He was named commander of all Union armies in the west. Then he was sent to Chattanooga, Tennessee.

        格蘭特將軍是維克斯堡勝利的功臣,晉升北方軍西部戰區總指揮,并被派往田納西的查塔努加。

        The Union army there had just been defeated in a battle along a little river called the Chickamauga. Now the Union soldiers were resting and re-organizing in Chattanooga. The Confederate line stretched halfway around the city.

        那里的北方軍在奇克莫加河沿岸打了敗仗,在查塔努加休整,南方軍在城外呈半圓形拉開。

        The Confederates had artillery on Lookout Mountain. They controlled every road into the city except a rough one through the mountains. They had blocked the Tennessee River above and below the city. And they had cut the railroad. The Confederate general said he would let hunger force the Union Army to surrender.

        南方軍在盧考特山部署了炮火,除了一條崎嶇山路外,進城的所有道路都被南方軍控制。南方軍還封鎖了查塔努加周圍的田納西河水路,切斷了鐵路線。南方軍將領說,他們打算讓饑餓逼迫北方軍投降。

        VOICE TWO:

        Grant arrived in Chattanooga late in October. The city was full of hungry Union soldiers. They had been without supplies for almost a month.

        格蘭特將軍10月下旬抵達查塔努加時,城里到處都是饑腸轆轆的北軍士兵,他們的供給已經中斷快一個月了。

        Grant wasted no time. He quickly sent troops to fight the Confederate force blocking the Tennessee River. He sent others to fight the Confederates blocking the road to the nearest Union supply center. Within one week, supply wagons were rolling into Chattanooga. Within a few weeks, the defeated Union army was ready to fight again.

        格蘭特沒有浪費時間,立即派兵向封鎖田納西河的南方軍發動進攻;同時派兵進攻封鎖連通北軍供給中心道路的南方軍。不到一個星期,供給車輛就源源不斷地駛往查塔努加了。幾個星期后,被擊敗的北方軍做好了重新戰斗的準備。

        VOICE ONE:

        Fighting on Lookout Mountain in Tennessee
        Fighting on Lookout Mountain in Tennessee

        General Grant sent his men against the middle and ends of the Confederate line at the same time.

        格蘭特將軍派兵對南軍戰線的中間和兩翼同時發動進攻。

        There were few Confederate soldiers at Lookout Mountain. That end of the line fell easily. The center of the line was along a low hill called Missionary Ridge. It held for a while. Then Union soldiers -- acting without orders -- forced their way to the top of the hill. The Confederate line broke. Southern soldiers threw down their guns and ran for their lives.

        盧考特山上的南軍人數很少,輕而易舉就被北方軍攻陷。南軍戰線中段沿著一條名叫傳教士嶺的低矮山嶺部署,久攻不下,最后北軍士兵擅自決定搶占山頭,結果終于攻破了南軍陣線。

        The Confederate army withdrew south into the state of Georgia. Tennessee was completely in Union hands. The way was now open for the armies of the North to march into the heart of the Confederacy.

        南軍士兵棄槍逃命。南方軍撤退進入喬治亞州。田納西徹底落入北方軍的手中,北方軍也由此打開了通往南方邦聯心臟的大門。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        It was clear that the South could not win the war. Too many Confederate soldiers had fallen in battle. None were left to take their place. Supplies were very low. There was not enough food to eat, no shoes to wear, and little left to fight with.

        南方顯然已無力贏得這場戰爭的勝利。南方軍傷亡慘重,卻沒有兵源補充,軍備物資也出現短缺,沒有糧食吃,沒有鞋穿,沒有武器打仗。

        No one held any hope of getting supplies from outside the Confederacy. The South was circled by Union troops and warships. All seemed lost.

        人們對得到供給不抱希望,南方已經被北軍的部隊和戰艦團團包圍,似乎一切都完了。

        Yet Confederate soldiers refused to stop fighting. They would not surrender. The war would not end until the Confederate armies were defeated by military force.

        然而,南軍士兵還是拒絕放棄,拒絕投降,除非南方軍被徹底打敗,否則戰爭不會結束。

        VOICE ONE:

        There was no question that the North had the military strength. Supplies were no problem. Factories were producing more than ever before. Manpower was no problem. Men continued to join the Union army. Fewer than before, but still enough to make it a powerful force.

        毫無疑問,北方的軍事實力要比南方強大,不僅軍備物資源源不斷,而且兵源也十分充足。

        The problem with the Union army was its generals. Some were too careful. Some were unwilling to fight. Some did not know how to fight.

        北方軍的問題在于,他們的軍事將領要么是過于謹小慎微、要么是不愿意打仗,還有些人根本不會打仗。

        The only general who seemed able to win victories was Ulysses Grant. That is why President Abraham Lincoln named Grant commander of all Union armies. Lincoln depended on him to end the Civil War.

        唯一能征善戰的北軍將領就是格蘭特,這也就是為什么林肯總統任命格蘭特擔任北軍總指揮,林肯希望格蘭特能結束這場內戰。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Grant went east in March eighteen sixty-four, five months after the battle at Chattanooga. He decided to make his headquarters in the field with the Army of the Potomac. He said he would not command from an office in Washington. But he went to the city to explain his plans to President Lincoln.

        1864年3月,查塔努加戰役結束五個月后,格蘭特向東進發。他決定把總部設在波托馬克軍團的戰場上,而不是在華盛頓的辦公室里。格蘭特前往華盛頓向林肯解釋自己的計劃。

        Grant noted that, in the past, the separate Union armies had moved and fought independently. He said they were like a poorly trained team of horses. No two of them ever pulled at the same time in the same direction.

        格蘭特說,北軍各部以前都是單打獨斗,就像缺乏訓練的馬匹,從來不會同時向一個方向拉。

        Under his command, Grant said, the Union armies would pull together. They would hit the Confederates with so much strength in so many places that the rebels could not stop them.

        Grant said all the armies would attack at the same time.

        格蘭特說,他要領導北軍部隊協同作戰,在不同地點同時對南軍發起攻擊,讓他們沒有還手之力。

        VOICE ONE:

        Grant spent the month of April preparing for the big campaign. The main target, once again, was the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia.

        4月整整一個月,格蘭特埋頭制定作戰方案。這次戰役的目標依舊是南方邦聯首都里士滿。

        The Army of the Potomac had one hundred twenty thousand men. It would move against Richmond from the north. General Ben Butler had fifty thousand men. He would move against Richmond from the east. General Franz Sigel would bring thousands more through the Shenandoah Valley to the northwest.

        波托馬克軍團12萬人從北面直逼里士滿,巴特勒將軍率領5萬人從東面進攻,西格爾將軍也率領數以千計的人馬從雪蘭多山谷出發,向西北進發。

        These forces were three times the size of Robert E. Lee's army near Richmond.

        這些部隊的人數是里士滿附近羅伯特·李將軍率領的南軍人數的三倍。

        In the west, William Sherman had three armies with more than one hundred thousand men. His opponent, Joe Johnston, had just sixty thousand.

        在西面,北軍將領威廉·謝爾曼手下的三股人馬共有10萬多人,他的對手、南軍將領約翰斯頓只有6萬人。

        VOICE TWO:

        General Grant kept details of the campaign as secret as possible. Reporters asked President Lincoln when Grant would move.

        The president answered, "Ask General Grant."

        格蘭特對行動計劃嚴格保密。有記者問林肯,格蘭特打算什么時候出發,林肯回答說,這你要去問格蘭特將軍本人。

        "General Grant will not tell us," said the reporters. Said Lincoln, "He will not tell me, either."

        記者說,可是格蘭特不告訴我們。林肯回答說,"他也不告訴我。"

        The final Union campaign of the Civil War began on May third, eighteen sixty-four.

        1864年5月3號,美國南北戰爭北方軍的最后一場戰役開始了。

        After two days of marching, the Army of the Potomac reached the wilderness. It was a thickly wooded area west of Fredericksburg, Virginia. That was where the Union army had lost a battle to the Confederates one year before. That was where the two armies would fight again.

        波托馬克軍團行軍兩天,來到維吉尼亞弗雷德里克斯堡以西一處樹木叢生的荒蕪地帶。北方軍一年前曾在那里打過一場敗仗,如今,南北雙方又要在這里決一雌雄。

        VOICE ONE:

        The battle quickly became a blind struggle. The woods were thick. The smoke was heavy. The soldiers could not see each other until they were very close. Shells set the trees on fire. The wounded could not escape the flames. Their screams filled the air.

        這場戰斗很快就變成了一場混戰。茂密的叢林煙霧彌漫。交戰雙方要到很近的地方才能看見對方,彈藥引起樹林起火,傷兵無法逃身,困在火焰之中,他們的哀號聲響徹天空。

        After two days, General Grant decided that the wilderness was not the place to fight Robert E. Lee. He wanted to get around the end of Lee's army. He wanted to fight in the open, where he could use his artillery. So he began to march his men toward a place called Spotsylvania Court House.

        經過兩天戰斗,格蘭特將軍意識到,這里不是跟羅伯特·李交戰的理想地點,他想繞到羅伯特·李的身后,在開闊地帶交手,好讓他的炮火派上用場,因此下令向一個叫作斯波特斯凡尼亞法院的地方前進。

        VOICE TWO:

        General Grant at his headquarters in Cold Harbor
        General Grant at his headquarters in Cold Harbor

        Lee moved his men as fast as Grant. When the Union army got to Spotsylvania, the Confederates were waiting behind walls of earth and stone.

        羅伯特·李的行動速度同樣迅速。北軍士兵抵達斯波特斯凡尼亞的時候,南軍已經在泥石墻后面等著了。

        For several more days, the two armies fought. At times, they were so close they had no time to load and fire their guns. So they used their guns to hit each other.

        雙方激戰數日,有時彼此距離太近,根本來不及上子彈,只好近身肉搏。

        The Confederate line bent. But it never broke. Once again, Lee had stopped the Union army.

        南軍防線受挫,但始終沒有被攻破,羅伯特·李再一次成功擋住了北軍的攻勢。

        Grant refused to accept defeat. He said he would fight to the finish, if it took all summer. Once again, he ordered his men to march around the end of Lee's line. Lee quickly pulled his men back to a place called Cold Harbor, not far from Richmond. There they waited.

        格蘭特不肯罷休。他發誓說,即使要花整整一夏天,他也要打下去。他再次下令部隊繞到敵軍身后。羅伯特·李將軍則迅速把人馬調集到距離里士滿不遠處一個叫冷港的地方,在那里守候。

        VOICE ONE:

        The Battle of Cold Harbor
        The Battle of Cold Harbor

        As he had done in the wilderness and at Spotsylvania, Grant ordered his men to attack hard. It was a slaughter. In less than an hour, seven thousand Union soldiers fell dead or wounded.

        格蘭特再次下令發動最猛烈的攻擊。這簡直就是一場屠殺,不到一個小時的時間內,北軍就死傷七千人。

        Grant finally stopped the attack. The Union soldiers returned to their lines. They left behind hundreds of wounded men.

        格蘭特最后只好下令?;?,北軍士兵撤回防線,將數千名傷員留在了戰場上。

        For four days, the wounded lay on the battlefield crying for help, for water. Men who tried to rescue them were shot down. Finally, Grant and Lee agreed on a ceasefire to take care of the wounded and bury the dead. It was too late for most of the wounded. They had died.

        整整四天,戰場上的傷員哭喊著尋求幫助,要水喝。但是,任何試圖去營救他們的人都被射殺。格蘭特和羅伯特·李最后同意?;?,救治傷員,掩埋死者,但是對于大多數傷員來說,已經太晚了,他們已經命喪黃泉。

        VOICE TWO:

        The battle at Cold Harbor ended one month of fighting for the Army of the Potomac. The campaign had brought it almost to the edge of Richmond, the Confederate capital. But Grant had paid a terrible price: more than fifty thousand dead and wounded.

        Confederate losses were much lighter: about twenty thousand.

        冷港戰役結束了波托馬克軍團長達一個月的攻勢,他們幾乎打到了邦聯首都里士滿的邊緣,但是格蘭特將軍也為此付出了慘重的代價,共有5萬多人傷亡,而南方邦聯損失只有大約兩萬人。

        General Grant was beginning to learn an important lesson of the war. The methods of defense had improved much more than the methods of attack.

        這場戰役也給格蘭特將軍上了重要的一課,那就是,防御戰術的改進大大超過了進攻戰術的改進。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Maurice Joyce. You can find transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. And you can follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #112 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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