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        #110: Lincoln's Gettysburg Address

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:6-1-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        In November of eighteen sixty-three, President Abraham Lincoln traveled to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. He went there to make a speech at a ceremony establishing a military burial ground.

        1863年11月,林肯總統前往賓夕法尼亞的葛底斯堡,準備在葛底斯堡陣亡將士公墓的落成典禮上講話。

        Five months earlier, Confederate General Robert E. Lee had marched his army up from Virginia to invade the North. The Union Army of the Potomac went after him. They met at Gettysburg in the bloodiest battle of the Civil War.

        五個月前,南方邦聯指揮官羅伯特·李率軍從維吉尼亞出發,大舉北上。北方聯邦的波托馬克軍團尾隨其后,在葛底斯堡爆發了美國南北戰爭中最慘烈的葛底斯堡戰役。

        This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Frank Oliver tell the story of Abraham Lincoln's speech -- the Gettysburg Address.

        VOICE ONE:

        The battle of Gettysburg lasted three days. General Lee threw his men against the Union Army. The northern soldiers refused to break. Lee, at last, had to stop fighting. Badly hurt, his army went back to Virginia.

        葛底斯堡戰役持續三天,羅伯特·李的部隊全力出擊,但是北方部隊堅守陣地,絕不后撤。最后,羅伯特·李只好停戰。南軍部隊在這次戰役中遭受重大人員傷亡,只好返回維吉尼亞。

        Union dead at Gettysburg
        Union dead at Gettysburg

        Lee left behind a battlefield covered with Confederate dead. More than three thousand Confederate soldiers had been killed. Union losses were almost as heavy. Two thousand five hundred Union soldiers had been killed.

        南軍撤退后,戰場上尸橫遍野,共有三萬多名南軍士兵在這場戰役中被打死。北方損失同樣慘重,兩萬五千人戰死疆場。

        The terrible job of clearing the battlefield fell to the Union soldiers who had won the battle. Many thousands on both sides had been wounded. The wounded were moved to medical centers for treatment. The dead were buried.

        清理戰場的任務由勝利一方--北軍--承擔。雙方都有成千上萬的傷員。傷員被送往醫務中心治療,死者就地掩埋。

        Most of the bodies were buried where they fell. The Confederate dead generally were buried together in large, shallow graves. Union troops who fell were buried in separate graves all over the battlefield.

        南軍士兵大多被埋在挖得不深的集體墓穴里,北軍士兵則被分散埋在戰場的各個角落。

        VOICE TWO:

        A few weeks after the battle, the governor of Pennsylvania visited Gettysburg. As he walked over the battlefield, he saw where rains had washed away the earth covering many of the fallen soldiers.

        戰役結束幾周后,賓夕法尼亞州州長前來視察。當時,雨水已經將很多掩蓋墓穴的泥土沖走了。

        He said men who died so bravely should have a better resting place than that. The governor said a new cemetery should be built for the bodies of the Union soldiers. He asked the governors of other northern states to help raise money for the cemetery.

        賓夕法尼亞州州長看到這種情況后說,勇敢為國捐軀的陣亡將士應該有一個更好的地方安息,并宣布要為北方陣亡將士建立一個新的公墓。他聯絡北方其它州的州長,一起為公墓集資。

        Within a month, there was money enough to buy a large area of the battlefield for a military cemetery. Work began almost immediately. The human remains were moved from other places on the battlefield and put into graves in the new cemetery.

        短短一個月內,他就籌集到足夠資金,購買了戰場上很大一塊地方修建公墓,并立即動工。陣亡將士的遺骨被陸續遷移到公墓里。

        VOICE ONE:

        Edward Everett
        Edward Everett

        The governor planned a ceremony in November, eighteen sixty-three, to dedicate the Gettysburg cemetery. He invited governors and congressmen from each state in the Union.

        賓夕法尼亞州州長計劃1863年11月為公墓舉行落成典禮,邀請聯邦各州的州長和國會議員參加。

        He asked a former senator and governor of Massachusetts, Edward Everett, to give the dedication speech. An invitation was sent to the White House, too. The governor asked President Lincoln to come to the ceremony. He asked Lincoln to say a few words.

        他邀請國會前參議員和麻薩諸塞州州長愛德華·埃弗里特致悼詞,同時致函白宮,邀請林肯總統參加公墓的落成典禮,講幾句話。

        Lincoln agreed to do so. He felt it was his duty to go. He wanted to honor the brave men who had died at Gettysburg. Lincoln hoped his words might ease the sorrow over the loss of these men and lift the spirit of the nation.

        林肯欣然接受。他覺得,自己有責任向葛底斯堡的陣亡將士致敬。林肯同時希望,自己的話能撫平將士陣亡帶來的傷痛,鼓舞北方的戰斗士氣。

        VOICE TWO:

        Lincoln was advised to talk about democracy. He recently had received a letter from a man in Massachusetts. The man had just returned from a visit to Europe.

        有人建議林肯談民主。他最近收到麻薩諸塞州一位選民的來信,此人剛從歐洲回來。

        The man told Lincoln that Europeans saw the war more clearly than Americans, who were in the middle of it. He said they saw it as a war between the people and an aristocracy. The South, he said, was ruled by a small group of aristocrats. He said once the people understood that it was a war for democracy, they would win it quickly.

        他在信中告訴林肯說,歐洲人看這場戰爭,比身在其中的美國人自己看得還要清楚。他說,歐洲人認為,這是人民跟貴族之間的戰爭,因為南方由一小群貴族統治。一旦大家明白,他們是在為民主而戰,戰爭就會馬上勝利。

        The man urged Lincoln to explain to the common people that the war was not the North against the South, but democracy against the enemies of democracy.

        他敦促林肯向普通民眾解釋,這場戰爭不是北方針對南方,而是民主針對民主的敵人。

        VOICE ONE:

        Lincoln was busy during the two weeks before the ceremony at Gettysburg. He did not have much time to work on his speech. He decided what to say. But he did not choose the exact words he would use.

        葛底斯堡公墓落成典禮前兩周,林肯公務十分繁忙,沒有多少時間準備講話。他已經決定了演講的內容,但是沒有具體選擇用詞。

        Lincoln left Washington November eighteenth for the train ride to Gettysburg. The train stopped in Baltimore. A crowd waited to see him.

        11月18號,林肯啟程,坐火車前往葛底斯堡?;疖囍型驹诎蜖柕哪νO?,很多群眾在那里迎接他。

        An old man came up and shook Lincoln's hand. He told the president that he had lost a son in the fighting at Gettysburg. Lincoln said he understood the man's sorrow.

        一位老人走上前來,握住林肯的手,說自己的兒子死在了葛底斯堡。林肯告訴老人,他理解他的痛苦。

        Lincoln said to the old man: "When I think of the sacrifices of life still to be offered, and the hearts and homes to be made lonely before this terrible war is over, my heart is like lead. I feel at times like hiding in a deep darkness."

        林肯說:“每當想到這場可怕的戰爭結束前,我們還要付出的生命的代價,以及由此造成的家庭破碎,和心靈的孤獨,我的心就像灌了鉛一樣沉重。我有時真想躲到黑暗中去?!?/p>

        VOICE TWO:

        Lincoln arrived at Gettysburg at sundown. He had dinner. Then he went to his room to complete the speech he would give the next day. He worked for several hours. Finally, it was done.

        11月18號傍晚,林肯抵達葛底斯堡,吃完晚飯,林肯就一頭鉆進房間,準備第二天的演講稿。幾個小時后,講稿終于寫好了。

        The next morning, Lincoln -- on horseback -- led a slow parade to the new cemetery. A huge crowd waited before the place where Lincoln and the other important visitors would sit. Military bands played. Soldiers saluted.

        第二天早上,林肯騎馬帶著游行隊伍,緩緩前往公墓,那里已經有很多人等候林肯和其他重要賓客落座。軍樂隊開始演奏,士兵行軍禮致敬。

        VOICE ONE:

        The ceremonies began with a prayer. Then Edward Everett rose to speak.

        禱告過后,前國會參議員埃弗里特起身發言。

        Everett stood silent for a moment. He looked out across the battlefield and the crowds that now covered it. He began to talk about the Civil War and what had caused it. He spoke about Lee's invasion of the North. He told how northern cities would have fallen had Lee not been stopped at Gettysburg. He praised the men who had given their lives in the great battle.

        他沉默片刻,環視戰場上站滿的人,然后從內戰和內戰的起因講起。他談到了羅伯特·李將軍攻打北方,談到了如果南軍沒有被攔在葛底斯堡,會有多少北方城市淪陷,他高度贊揚在這場重大戰役中英勇獻身的陣亡將士。

        Everett spoke for almost two hours. He closed his speech with the hope that the nation would come out of the war with greater unity than ever before.

        埃弗里特講了將近兩小時。他在結束前表示,希望美國走出這場戰爭后,能夠比已往任何時候都更加團結。

        Then Lincoln stood up. He looked out over the valley, then down at the papers in his hand. He began to read:

        隨后,林肯總統站起身來,他眺望峽谷后,目光回到手中的演講稿上,開始宣讀。

        VOICE THREE:

        The only known photograph of President Lincoln, center, at the Civil War cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
        The only known photograph of President Lincoln, center, at the Civil War cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

        "Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

        “八十七年前,我們的祖先在這大陸上建立了一個新的國家,它孕育于自由,并且獻身給一種理念,即所有人都是生來平等的。

        "Now we are engaged in a great civil war testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

        當前,我們正在從事一次偉大的內戰,我們在考驗,究竟這個國家,或任何一個有這種主張和這種信仰的國家,是否能長久存在。我們在那次戰爭的一個偉大的戰場上集合。我們來到這里,奉獻那個戰場上的一部分土地,作為在此地為那個國家的生存而犧牲了自己生命的人永久眠息之所。我們這樣做,是十分合情合理的。

        "But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate -- we cannot consecrate -- we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract.

        可是,就更深一層意義而言,我們是無從奉獻這片土地的--無從使它成為圣地--也不可能把它變為人們景仰之所。那些在這里戰斗的勇士,活著的和死去的,已使這塊土地神圣化了,遠非我們的菲薄能力所能左右。

        "The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work for which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.

        “世人會不大注意,更不會長久記得我們在此地所說的話,然而他們將永遠忘不了這些人在這里所做的事。相反,我們活著的人應該獻身于那些曾在此作戰的人們所英勇推動而尚未完成的工作。

        It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion - that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom - and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."

        我們應該在此獻身于我們面前所留存的偉大工作--由于他們的光榮犧牲,我們要更堅定地致力于他們曾作最后全部貢獻的那個事業---我們在此立志誓愿,不能讓他們白白死去--要使這個國家在上帝庇佑之下,得到新生的自由--要使那民有、民治、民享的政府不致從地球上消失?!?/p>

        VOICE TWO:

        The crowd applauded for several minutes. Then the people began to leave.

        林肯講話結束后,聽眾熱烈的掌聲經久不息,然后人群開始慢慢散去。

        Lincoln turned to a friend. He said he feared his speech had been a failure. He said he should have prepared it more carefully.

        林肯轉身告訴朋友說,他擔心講話失敗了,他本應準備得更充分才對。

        Edward Everett did not agree with Lincoln. He said the president's speech was perfect. He said the president had said more in two minutes than he, Everett, had said in two hours.

        但是埃弗里特不這么看。他說,林肯的講話非常完美,林肯在兩分鐘里講的內容,比他在兩小時里說的還要多。

        Newspapers and other publications praised Lincoln's Gettysburg address. Said one: "The few words of the president were from the heart, to the heart. They cannot be read without emotion."

        各大報刊也對林肯的葛底斯堡講話贊譽有加。其中一份報紙說,“總統幾句肺腑之言,觸動人心,讀起來不可能不被打動?!?/p>

        Abraham Lincoln went back to Washington that night. He was very tired. Within a week, his secretary announced that the president was sick. He was suffering from smallpox.

        林肯總統當晚返回華盛頓。他疲憊不堪。不到一周后,林肯的秘書宣布,總統得了天花。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Frank Oliver. You can find transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also comment on our programs and read what other people are saying. And you can follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #110 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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        12-27-2013 10:54:7
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