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        #109: South Sees Protests in North as an Opening

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-31-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        America's civil war in the eighteen sixties did not have the full support of the people. Many said they did not care who won -- North or South. They just wanted to be left alone.

        十九世紀六十年代的美國南北戰爭沒有得到人民的普遍支持。很多人表示,他們不關心誰輸誰贏,只希望自己不要受到戰火的波及。

        General Robert E. Lee
        General Robert E. Lee

        In the North, many young men refused to be drafted into the Union army. Some of their protests turned violent.

        在北方,很多年輕人拒絕應征入伍,并為此舉行抗議示威,有些示威活動還發展成為暴力沖突。

        Southern leaders were pleased with the anti-war movement in the North. Confederate General Robert E. Lee saw it as a sign of weakness in the northern war effort. He also saw it as an opening for a military victory. Lee hoped for a final, decisive blow that would bring the war to an end.

        北方的反戰運動正中南方領導人下懷。南方邦聯部隊最高指揮官羅伯特·李將軍覺得,種種跡象顯示,北方斗志日益削弱,為南方的軍事勝利提供了突破口。羅伯特·李將軍希望借此良機,一舉打敗北方,結束這場內戰。

        This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe talk about General Lee's campaign north to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

        這就是美國歷史上著名的葛底斯堡戰役。

        VOICE ONE:

        Gettysburg was a small town. Many roads came together there. Robert E. Lee needed those roads to pull his army together quickly. He had seventy thousand men in all. But they were spread over a wide area of southern Pennsylvania.

        葛底斯堡是一個小城鎮,地處交通要道。羅伯特·李將軍手下一共有七萬人馬,分散在賓夕法尼亞南部的廣大地區,因此需要一個象葛底斯堡這樣的交通要道,便于部隊迅速集結。

        Some were at York, to the east. Some were at Carlisle, to the north. And most were at Chambersburg, to the west. All of them were ordered to move against the Union force at Gettysburg.

        當時,南軍人馬一些在東面的約克,一些在北面的卡萊爾,大多數在西面的錢伯斯堡。所有部隊都得到命令,趕往葛底斯堡對付北方軍。

        General Robert E. Lee had not planned to go to Gettysburg. He had planned to capture Harrisburg, the state capital, and then Philadelphia. If successful, he would turn south to seize Baltimore and Washington.

        葛底斯堡本來并不是羅伯特·李的目標,他原計劃打下賓夕法尼亞首府哈里斯堡,然后攻占費城。如果成功,再向南奪取巴爾的摩和華盛頓。

        Lee had not worried about the large Union Army of the Potomac. He believed it was far behind him, in Virginia. But Lee was wrong. The Union Army had followed him. And it had reached Gettysburg first.

        羅伯特·李將軍并不擔心北方龐大的波托馬克軍團。他以為,波托馬克軍團還在維吉尼亞離他很遠的敵方,但是他錯了,波托馬克軍團一直尾隨其后,而且首先抵達了葛底斯堡。

        VOICE TWO:

        The first group of northern soldiers formed a thin line of defense outside Gettysburg. The first group of southern soldiers attacked this line. It was the morning of July first, eighteen sixty-three.

        第一批抵達葛底斯堡的北軍士兵在城外建了一道薄弱防線。1863年7月1號,南軍對北軍防線發動進攻。

        When the guns began to roar, both sides hurried more men to the front.

        戰斗打響后,雙方紛紛派兵增援。

        After hours of fighting, the Confederates had pushed the Union soldiers back through the town. The Union soldiers formed a new line along a place called Cemetery Hill.

        經過幾小時的激戰,南軍迫使北軍后撤,在一個叫墓園嶺的地方建立起一道新防線。

        General Robert E. Lee decided not to attack the hill immediately. He would wait for more men. But as he waited, more and more Union soldiers arrived. By sunrise the next day, Lee's seventy thousand men faced a Union army of ninety thousand men.

        羅伯特·李將軍決定暫時按兵不動,等待援兵。然而,與此同時,北軍的增援力量也陸續抵達。到第二天日出的時候,羅伯特·李將軍率領的七萬人馬,面對的已經是九萬人的北方大軍了。

        VOICE ONE:

        General George Meade
        General George Meade

        The Confederates attacked both sides of the Union line. They moved the Union soldiers a little. But then the Union soldiers came back again. The Confederates could not hold the line.

        南軍對北軍防線兩端發動進攻,迫使北軍少許后撤,但是南軍無法守住陣地,北軍不久又反撲回來。

        The fighting stopped at sunset. Union commander George Meade met with his generals. He said he was sure General Lee would attack again the next day. The next attack, Meade said, would be against the center of the Union line.

        日落時戰斗結束。北軍指揮官喬治·米德召集手下將領開會。米德說,他敢肯定,羅伯特·李次日一定會發動進攻,進攻目標一定是北軍防線的中段。

        Meade was right. Lee planned to send fifteen thousand men against the Union center. They would be under the command of General George Pickett.

        果不其然,羅伯特·李計劃派遣喬治·皮克特將軍率領一萬五千人,攻打北軍中段防線。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        The Battle of Gettysburg
        The Battle of Gettysburg

        When the sun rose on July third, the Union troops were ready. They watched as the Confederate troops set up their cannon. More than one hundred thirty of these big guns were aimed at the center of the Union line.

        7月3號早上,北軍做好了戰斗準備。從他們所在的位置,可以看到南軍部隊架設火炮,一百三十多門火炮全部指向北軍中段防線。

        The morning passed. The day grew hotter. A little past one o'clock in the afternoon, a Confederate gun fired, once. Then again. That was the signal to attack.

        上午過去了,天氣越來越熱。下午一點鐘剛過,南軍大炮打響了,一下,又是一下,這是行動的信號。

        All at once, the Confederate artillery thundered with a deafening roar. The cannon sent iron and smoke into the Union soldiers on Cemetery Hill. Within minutes, hundreds lay dead or dying.

        突然之間,南方大炮震耳欲聾,在墓園嶺北軍陣線附近爆炸,到處都是彈片和濃煙,短短幾分鐘內,就有數以百計的北軍士兵被炸死炸傷。

        Union artillery on the hill answered the Confederate cannon. Men lay flat on the ground. They prayed for the shelling to stop. Finally, it did. And the smoke of battle began to clear.

        山上北軍的炮火立即發動反擊。南軍陣地也是尸橫遍野。最后,炮聲停了,煙霧開始消散。

        VOICE ONE:

        Now the Union soldiers could see across the valley. They watched as the Confederate soldiers formed a long line. It was a sight to take your breath away.

        北軍戰士從山上望下去,不禁倒吸一口冷氣。

        Facing Cemetery Hill, the Confederates stood shoulder to shoulder in a line almost two kilometers long. Sunlight shone from their guns. Their battle flags waved. Slowly, the line began to move. It seemed more like a parade than an attack.

        山腳下,南軍士兵肩并肩一字排開,排成了一條幾乎兩公里長的陣線。陽光照在他們的槍上,格外晃眼。他們揮舞著戰旗,開始前進,不像是在進攻,反而更象是在游行。

        Shouts went up and down the Union line. "Here they come! Here come the rebels!"

        山上的北軍大喊,“他們來了!叛匪沖上來了?!?/p>

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Action at the Battle of Gettysburg
        Action at the Battle of Gettysburg

        Thousands of Confederate soldiers moved across the valley outside Gettysburg. Union artillery opened fire. The guns tore open big holes in the Confederate battle line. But the southerners kept moving forward up the hill.

        北軍開炮,把南軍陣線打得七零八散,但是南軍還是繼續向山上推進。

        Union soldiers rose up from behind stone walls and fallen trees. They poured even more gunfire into the Confederate line. More and more bodies fell to the ground. Still, the line moved forward.

        北軍士兵從藏身的石墻和大樹后面站出來,拼命向南軍陣線射擊,很多人應聲倒下,但是南軍還是繼續前進。

        A few Confederates reached the Union line, but not enough to seize it. They were shot down. Suddenly, the Confederates began racing down the hill. Many raised their hands in surrender. Fifteen thousand began the attack. Only half returned.

        少數南軍士兵沖上山來,但是因為人數太少,無法奪取陣地,紛紛被北軍打死。頃刻之間,南軍開始往山下撤退,很多人舉手投降。開始參加進攻的一萬五千人,最后回來的只有一半人。

        The battle of Gettysburg was over.

        葛底斯堡戰役結束了。

        The Union commander, General Meade, was told that the Confederate attack had been broken. He said, simply: "Thank God." The Confederate commander, General Lee, said: "This has been a sad day for us, a sad day."

        聯邦指揮官米德將軍聽說南軍被打退的消息后,只是簡單地說了一句,“感謝上帝”。南軍指揮官羅伯特·李說,“對我們來說,這是難過的一天,難過的一天?!?/p>

        VOICE ONE:

        Lee's invasion of the North had failed. There was only one thing he could do now: retreat. He must get his army back to Virginia. He could only hope that the Union Army was hurt too badly to chase him.

        羅伯特·李進攻北方的計劃失敗了,他只剩下一條路可走:那就是撤退。他必須率領部下返回維吉尼亞。他只能寄希望于,北軍也受到了沉重打擊,無法乘勝追擊。

        The line of wagons carrying wounded soldiers was twenty-five kilometers long. Many of the wounded needed treatment. But the wagons were not permitted to stop for any reason.

        南軍運載傷員的馬車綿延25公里,很多傷員尚未接受治療,但是羅伯特·李下令,無論出于什么原因,車輛一律不許停下。

        Suffering was terrible. An officer who led the wagon train said he learned more about the horrors of war on that one trip than he had learned in all of his battles.

        傷員們痛苦不堪。一位負責運送傷員的指揮官說,他這一路體會到的戰爭的可怕,比已往任何一次戰役都要深刻。

        Twenty thousand Confederate soldiers were killed, wounded, or listed as missing in the battle of Gettysburg. Twenty-three thousand Union soldiers were killed, wounded or missing.

        葛底斯堡一戰,南軍共有兩萬人傷亡,或是下落不明。北軍損失也有兩萬三千人。

        VOICE TWO:

        General Meade lost so many men that he was in no hurry to chase General Lee. He believed it might be best to let Lee escape than to take a chance on losing what remained of the Army of the Potomac.

        米德將軍決定不急著追剿南軍。他覺得,與其冒險讓波托馬克軍團的余部進一步受挫,不如放南軍撤退。

        Meade waited for a week until his army was stronger. But by then, Lee and his men had crossed safely back into Virginia.

        米德用了一個星期,讓波托馬克軍團恢復元氣。與此同時,羅伯特·李已經率部返回維吉尼亞。

        President Abraham Lincoln was angry. He had told General Meade that driving the Confederates out of the North was not enough. The southern army must be destroyed.

        林肯總統火冒三丈。他早就告訴過米德,光把南軍趕出北方是不夠的,要將南軍全部消滅。

        "We had them," Lincoln said. "We had only to stretch out our hands and take them. And nothing I could do or say could make the army move."

        林肯說,“本來已經是唾手可得了,我們只要再加把勁,就能消滅他們。但是不管我說什么,做什么,部隊就是不動?!?/p>

        VOICE ONE:

        President Lincoln believed that General Meade had made a mistake. But he felt that the general had ability. Lincoln was thankful for what Meade had done at Gettysburg. He said Meade would continue to command the Army of the Potomac.

        林肯認為,這是米德將軍的失策,但他同時又覺得,米德很有能力。他對米德在葛底斯堡的戰果十分滿意,所以宣布,由米德繼續擔任波托馬克軍團的總指揮。

        In November of eighteen sixty-three, President Lincoln went to Gettysburg. He attended the opening of a new burial place for the Union soldiers who had died in the great battle there.

        1863年11月,林肯前往葛底斯堡,參加葛底斯堡陣亡將士墓地的落成。

        VOICE TWO:

        The governor of Pennsylvania had asked the president to say a few words at the ceremony. Lincoln agreed. He felt it was his duty to go to honor the brave men who lost their lives to save the Union. Lincoln hoped his words might help lift the spirit of the nation.

        賓夕法尼亞州長請林肯在落成儀式上講話,林肯欣然接受。他覺得,自己有義務向保衛聯邦獻出生命的勇士們表達敬意,也希望自己的講話能重振北方的士氣。

        Lincoln did not have much time to prepare his speech. He wrote it down the night before the ceremony. Lincoln was sure the speech was not a good one. But it came to be one of the most famous speeches in American history.

        林肯沒有多少時間準備,趕在儀式頭一天晚上寫完了發言稿。他覺得,這篇講話寫得不好,但結果,葛底斯堡講話卻成了美國歷史上最著名的演講之一。

        We will tell the story of Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address next week.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. And you can follow our weekly programs on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #109 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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