<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #105: Lincoln Declares Slaves Free in Rebel States

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-27-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        The Civil War began in eighteen sixty-one as a struggle over the right of states to leave the Union. President Abraham Lincoln firmly believed that a state did not have that right. And he declared war on the southern states that tried to leave.

        1861年爆發的美國南北戰爭是一場關于各州是否有權退出聯邦的斗爭。當時的美國總統亞伯拉罕·林肯堅信,各州沒有這樣的權利,并因此向試圖退出聯邦的南方各州宣戰。

        Lincoln had only one reason to fight: to save the Union. In time, however, there was another reason to fight: to free the black people held as slaves in the South.

        林肯對南方宣戰時的唯一原因是要捍衛聯邦的統一。然而,隨著時間的推移,解放南方黑奴也成了南北戰爭的一個重要內容。

        Today, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe continue the story of how President Lincoln dealt with this issue.

        VOICE ONE:

        Abraham Lincoln
        Abraham Lincoln

        Lincoln had tried to keep the issue of slavery out of the war. He feared it would weaken the northern war effort. Many men throughout the North would fight to save the Union. They would not fight to free the slaves.

        林肯本想將奴隸問題置于戰爭之外。他擔心,奴隸問題的介入會削弱北方斗志,因為很多北方人愿意為聯邦統一而戰,但不愿為解放奴隸而戰。

        Lincoln also needed the support of the four slave states that had not left the Union: Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland and Missouri. He could not be sure of their support if he declared that the purpose of the war was to free the slaves.

        此外,林肯還需要保住尚未退出聯邦的四個奴隸州的支持,它們是:德拉瓦、肯塔基、馬里蘭和密蘇里。林肯不敢擔保,如果宣布戰爭的目的是要解放奴隸,是否會失去這四個州的支持。

        Lincoln was able to follow this policy, at first. But the war to save the Union was going badly. The North had not won a decisive victory in Virginia, the heart of the Confederacy.

        起初,林肯尚能執行這一政策。但是,為捍衛聯邦統一而進行的戰斗很不順利,在南方邦聯腹地維吉尼亞,北方沒打贏過任何一場重大戰役。

        To guarantee continued support for the war, Lincoln was forced to recognize that the issue of slavery was, in fact, a major issue. And on September twenty-second, eighteen sixty-two, he announced a new policy on slavery in the rebel southern states. His announcement became known as the Emancipation Proclamation.

        為保證戰爭能繼續得到支持,林肯被迫承認,奴隸問題確實是一個重大問題。1862年9月22日,林肯宣布了有關南方反叛州奴隸命運的著名的解放奴隸宣言,并在各大報紙上刊登。宣言說,

        VOICE TWO:

        A printed version of the Emancipation Proclamation
        A printed version of the Emancipation Proclamation

        American newspapers printed the proclamation. This is what it said:

        I, Abraham Lincoln, president of the United States and commander in chief of the Army and Navy, do hereby declare that on the first day of January, eighteen sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any state then in rebellion against the United States, shall then become and be forever free.

        The government of the United States, including the military and naval forces, will recognize and protect the freedom of such persons, and will interfere in no way with any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.

        “我,亞伯拉罕·林肯,美國總統和陸海軍總司令,在此宣布,1863年1月1日起,所有背叛美國聯邦的各州境內的奴隸,一律成為、并永遠成為自由人。美國政府,包括陸軍和海軍,都將承認并保護這些人的自由,不會對他們為取得真正自由做出的努力進行任何形式的干涉”。

        For political reasons, the proclamation did not free slaves in the states that supported the Union. Nor did it free slaves in the areas around Norfolk, Virginia, and New Orleans, Louisiana.

        基于政治原因,宣言不適用于依舊忠實于聯邦的各州的奴隸,也不適用于維吉尼亞的諾??撕吐芬姿拱材堑男聤W爾良附近地區的奴隸。

        VOICE ONE:

        Most anti-slavery leaders praised the Emancipation Proclamation. They had waited a long time for such a document.

        大多數反對蓄奴的領袖都對這份宣言拍手稱快,他們等待這份文件已經很長時間了。

        But some did not like it. They said it did not go far enough. It did not free all of the slaves in the United States, only those held by the rebels.

        不過,也有一些人感到不滿,覺得宣言不夠徹底,只解放了叛州的奴隸,沒有解放所有奴隸。

        Lincoln answered that the Emancipation Proclamation was a military measure. He said he made it under his wartime powers as commander in chief. As such, it was legal only in enemy territory.

        林肯解釋說,解放奴隸宣言是戰爭之舉,他行使的是戰時統帥的權力,因此只對敵方領地有效。

        Lincoln agreed that all slaves should be freed. It was his personal opinion. But he did not believe that the Constitution gave him the power to free all the slaves. He hoped that could be done slowly, during peacetime.

        林肯承認,他個人相信,奴隸應該一律得到自由,但他認為,憲法沒有賦予他解放所有奴隸的權力,他希望能在和平時期逐步加以解決。

        VOICE TWO:

        Lincoln's new policy on slavery was welcomed warmly by the people of Europe. It won special praise in Britain.

        林肯解放奴隸的政策受到了歐洲、特別是英國的贊賞。

        The British people were deeply concerned about the Civil War in America. The United States navy had blocked southern exports of cotton. The British textile industry -- which depended on this cotton -- was almost dead. Factories were closed. Hundreds of thousands of people were out of work.

        英國對美國的南北戰爭格外關注,因為北方海軍封鎖港口,切斷了南方的棉花出口。英國紡織業從而失去了原材料,很多工廠被迫關門,數以萬計的工人失去了工作。

        The British government watched and worried as the war continued month after month. Finally, late in the summer of eighteen sixty-two, British leaders said the time had come for them to intervene. They would try to help settle the American dispute.

        對美國內戰一直采取觀望態度的英國政府對這場戰爭越來越感到擔心。最后,1862年夏天快要過去的時候,英國領導人表示,出面干預的時機已到,他們打算幫助調解美國的這場內部爭端。

        Britain would propose a peace agreement based on northern recognition of southern rights. If the North rejected the agreement, Britain would recognize the Confederacy.

        英國打算提出一份和平協議,讓北方承認南方的權利,如果北方拒絕的話,英國就準備承認南方邦聯的獨立性。

        VOICE ONE:

        Then came the news that President Lincoln was freeing the slaves of the South. Suddenly, the Civil War was a different war.

        然而,就在這個時候,有消息傳來,說林肯要宣布解放南方的奴隸。突然之間,美國內戰的性質就發生了翻天覆地的變化。

        No longer was it a struggle over southern rights. Now it was a struggle for human freedom.

        這場戰爭不再是一場關于南方權利的斗爭,而變成了一場涉及人類自由的斗爭。

        The British people strongly opposed slavery. When they heard that the slaves would be freed, they gave their support immediately to President Lincoln and the North. Britain's peace proposals were never offered.

        英國人堅決反對奴隸制度。一聽說林肯宣布解放奴隸,他們立即轉而支持林肯和北方聯邦。原本打算提出的和平協議也胎死腹中。

        The Emancipation Proclamation had cost the South the recognition of Britain and France.

        林肯的解放奴隸宣言讓南方失去了英、法兩國的承認。

        VOICE TWO:

        The South was furious over the proclamation. Southern newspapers attacked Lincoln. They accused him of trying to create a slave rebellion in states he could not occupy with troops. They also said the proclamation was an invitation for Negroes to murder whites.

        南方各大報紙紛紛對林肯發起攻擊,指責他企圖在無法武力占領的各州掀起一場奴隸起義,還說解放奴隸宣言是鼓動奴隸去謀殺白人。

        The Confederate Congress debated several resolutions to fight Lincoln's proclamation.

        針對林肯發表的解放奴隸宣言,南方邦聯議會提出了好幾項決議案。

        One resolution would make slaves of all Negro soldiers captured from the Union army. Another called for the execution of white officers who led black troops. Some southern lawmakers even proposed the death sentence for anyone who spoke against slavery.

        其中一項決議提出,把所有從北軍抓獲的黑人士兵都變成奴隸;另外一項決議提出,把率領黑人士兵的白人指揮官一律處決。甚至有些南方議員提議,凡是發表反對奴隸制度言論者,一律判處死刑。

        VOICE ONE:

        In the North, most people cheered the new policy on slaves. Some, however, opposed it. They said the policy would cause the slave states of the Union to secede. Those states would join the Confederacy. Or, they said, it would cause freed slaves to move north and take away jobs from whites.

        北方大多數人都對解放奴隸的新政策拍手稱快,但是也有人反對。他們認為,這樣做會導致更多的奴隸州退出聯邦。這些州會轉而加入南方邦聯,另外,那些獲得自由的奴隸遷往北方,會搶走白人的工作。

        There also was another reason. Eighteen sixty-two was a congressional election year. The Democratic Party was the opposition party at that time. Party leaders believed their candidates would have a better chance of winning if they opposed the policy.

        此外還有一個原因。1862年是國會選舉年。當時,民主黨是反對黨,民主黨領袖認為,反對解放奴隸的新政策,可以增加民主黨候選人勝選的機會。

        Democrats said the policy was proof that anti-slavery extremists were in control of the government.

        民主黨人說,這一政策恰恰證明,政府掌握在反對奴隸制度的極端分子的手中。

        VOICE TWO:

        As we said, Abraham Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation on September twenty-second, eighteen sixty-two. But Lincoln said he would not sign the proclamation until the first day of eighteen-sixty-three.

        林肯雖然1862年9月22號就發表了解放奴隸宣言,但他說,要等到1863年元旦才會簽署生效。

        That gave the southern states one hundred days to end their rebellion, or face the destruction of slavery.

        這就給了南方各州100天的時間,要么結束反叛,要么面對奴隸制度的廢除。

        VOICE ONE:

        Some people thought Lincoln would withdraw the proclamation at the last minute. They did not believe he would sign a measure that was so extreme. They said the new policy would only make the South fight harder. And, as a result, the Civil War would last longer.

        有些人以為林肯會在最后一刻撤回解放奴隸宣言,他們不相信林肯會在如此極端的法案上簽字。他們指出,新政策只會增加南方的斗志,讓內戰持續更長時間。

        Others charged that the proclamation was illegal. They said the Constitution did not give the president the power to violate the property rights of citizens.

        另外一些人指責說,解放奴隸宣言根本不合法。他們提出,美國憲法沒有賦予總統侵犯公民私有財產的權力。

        VOICE TWO:

        Lincoln answered the charges. He said:

        I think the Constitution gives the commander in chief special powers under the laws of war. The most that can be said -- if so much -- is that slaves are property. Is there any question that, by the laws of war, property -- both of enemies and friends -- may be taken when needed.

        林肯就此做出回答。他說:“我認為,憲法賦予了戰時統帥特殊的權力。你最多只能說奴隸是財產。根據戰時法令,任何財產--不論是敵方還是友方,在需要時都可以拿走。”

        VOICE ONE:

        Just before the first of the year, a congressman asked the president if he still planned to sign the Emancipation Proclamation.

        1863年元旦前夕,一位國會議員問林肯,是否仍計劃簽署解放奴隸宣言。

        VOICE TWO:

        "My mind is made up," Lincoln answered. "It must be done. I am driven to it. There is no other way out of our troubles. But although my duty is clear, it is in some way painful. I hope that the people will understand that I act not in anger, but in expectation of a greater good."

        林肯回答說,“我已經拿定主意。一定要簽,我決心已定。我們要擺脫困境,別無選擇。不過,雖然我職責明確,但我還是感到有些難過。我希望人們能理解,我這樣做不是出于憤怒,而是為了更高的利益。”

        VOICE ONE:

        The morning of New Year's Day was a busy time for Lincoln. It was a tradition to open the White House on that day so the president could wish visitors a happy new year.

        元旦早上,林肯十分繁忙。根據傳統,總統在元旦這一天要開放白宮,祝參觀者新年快樂。

        After the last visitor had gone, Lincoln went to his office. He started to sign the Emancipation Proclamation. Then he stopped. He said:

        最后一個來訪者離開后,林肯回到辦公室。他提筆簽署解放奴隸宣言前停頓了一下,說,

        VOICE TWO:

        Lincoln signing the Emancipation Proclamation
        Lincoln signing the Emancipation Proclamation

        "I never, in all my life, felt more sure that I was doing right than I do in signing this paper. But I have been shaking hands all day, until my arm is tired. When people examine this document, they will say, 'He was not sure about that.' But anyway, it is going to be done."

        “我這輩子都沒有象簽署這份文件時如此肯定自己是正確的。我一整天都在跟人握手,胳膊都酸了。別人看到這份文件的時候一定會說,‘他肯定很猶豫。’但不管怎樣,這個字還是要簽。”

        VOICE ONE:

        With those words, he wrote his name at the bottom of the paper. He had issued one of the greatest documents in American history. We will continue our story of the Civil War next week.

        說完這番話,林肯揮筆在文件下端簽上了自己的名字,發布了美國歷史上最偉大的文件之一。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe.

        THE MAKING OF A NATION is a radio series written with English learners in mind. Each weekly program is fifteen minutes long. The series was first broadcast in nineteen sixty-nine. People who grew up listening to it are now old enough to listen with their own children, or even their grandchildren.

        These days, people can download MAKING OF A NATION transcripts, MP3s and podcasts at www.squishedblueberries.com. They can also follow the weekly series on Twitter at VOA Learning English.

        There are more than two hundred programs in the complete series, which starts over again every five years. New programs with recent history are added at the end of each cycle.

        Most of the shows, however, were originally produced years ago. In fact, some of the narrators are not even alive anymore. But we know from our audience that THE MAKING OF A NATION is the most popular of the feature programs in VOA Special English.

        Special English is a radio, TV and Internet service of the Voice of America. Programs are written with a limited vocabulary and are read at a slower speed. The purpose is to help people improve their American English as they learn about news and other subjects.

        Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #105 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:Alumni
        10-8-2013 21:8:45
        Abraham Lincoln's story continues. the war was continuing when Lincoln announced the famous Emancipation Proclamation. this Proclamation was supported by Europe especially by the Britain.the southern Confederacy lost the support of the Britain and France. the desission of Lincoln would put the war into victory.
        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频