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        #103: At Bull Run, a Terrible Defeat for the North

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-25-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        Two summers had gone by since the start of the American Civil War, and the North had not yet won a major battle in Virginia. The Army of the Potomac -- the strongest of the Union armies -- had tried to seize Richmond, the Confederate capital.

        美國南北戰爭爆發后的第二個夏天過去了,北軍在維吉尼亞沒有打過一場大勝仗。北軍最強大的軍團--由麥克萊倫將軍率領的波托馬克軍團,曾試圖奪取南方邦聯首都里士滿。

        General George McClellan moved the army up to the very gates of the city. But then, General Robert E. Lee led his southern forces in a fierce attack. It smashed McClellan's army and drove them away from Richmond.

        麥克萊倫率兵兵臨城下,但就在此時,南軍將領羅伯特·李將軍率領南軍發動猛烈攻擊,重挫麥克萊倫的部隊,趕走了里士滿城外的北軍。

        This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Jack Moyles continue the story of the Civil War.

        VOICE ONE:

        General Henry Halleck
        General Henry Halleck

        President Abraham Lincoln and his new chief general, Henry Halleck, put together a new northern force. They called it the Army of Virginia. They gave command of it to General John Pope, a successful fighter in the West.

        林肯總統和新上任的最高指揮官亨利·哈勒克組建了一支新的北方軍團,取名維吉尼亞軍團,由在西部地區戰功卓著的約翰·波普將軍指揮。

        Pope began to move south toward Richmond. Halleck ordered McClellan to bring his army up to join Pope. Together, they could smash through the Confederate defenses around Richmond.

        波普率兵南下,直奔里士滿。哈勒克下令麥克萊倫跟波普會合,兩股部隊協手突破里士滿周圍南軍的防線。

        Lee decided to hit Pope before McClellan could join him. He left a few thousand troops to guard Richmond, then took the rest north. Lee moved up to the Rappahannock River, across from Pope's army.

        南軍將領羅伯特·李將軍決定,搶在麥克萊倫部隊趕到前,對波普軍團發動進攻。羅伯特·李將軍留下幾千人保衛里士滿,率領其余兵力北上,直到拉帕漢諾克河,與波普率領的軍團對陣。

        VOICE TWO:

        Lee sent Stonewall Jackson, with twenty-four thousand men, on a quick march around the western end of Pope's lines. Jackson and his men marched more than eighty kilometers in two days. They got behind Pope and seized a huge northern supply center at Manassas.

        李將軍派人稱“石墻”的杰克遜率領兩萬四千人急行軍,繞過波普西部陣線。杰克遜率兵,兩天行軍八十多公里,繞到波普軍團背后,奪取了馬納薩斯一個北方重要的供給中心。

        Pope moved to smash them. They burned the captured supplies. Then they moved a few kilometers away to a long, low hill just northwest of the Bull Run battleground, where southern forces defeated a northern army a year before.

        波普出兵進攻。南軍防火燒毀了供給中心的物資,后撤幾公里,來到一年前南軍打敗北軍的布爾溪戰場西北面一個狹長低矮的山崗。

        Jackson hid his troops in woods along the hill and waited for General Lee to arrive with the rest of the southern army.

        杰克遜下令部隊在沿著山崗的樹林里埋伏下來,等待羅伯特·李將軍前來接應。

        VOICE ONE:

        But before Lee could get there, Union troops -- thousands of them --marched down the road below Jackson. Jackson decided to attack, to hold them there until Lee arrived with help.

        結果,數以千計的北軍部隊卻先到了,從杰克遜部隊藏身之處俯視可見。杰克遜決定出擊,把他們牽制住,等待李將軍的增援部隊。

        The fighting was furious. Neither side broke. The fighting died down at the end of the day, and Jackson's men moved back to their positions on higher ground. They made their lines along a partly-built railroad on the side of the hill.

        這次戰役十分激烈,雙方都不肯撤退,直到天黑才偃旗息鼓,杰克遜率領部下返回山崗高地,以山崗一側只修了一半的鐵路為陣地。

        VOICE TWO:

        General John Pope
        General John Pope

        From his headquarters on the hill, Jackson watched the northern forces prepare for battle. Many thousands of the enemy were marching into position. Pope brought up all his soldiers, and others were on the way from bases near Washington. Several thousand of McClellan's troops, commanded by General Porter, were arriving from the South.

        杰克遜從山上的指揮所可以看到北軍為打仗做準備。數以千計的北軍人馬紛紛趕到。波普軍團全部出動,其它部隊從華盛頓附近的營地先后趕到。此外,波特將軍也率領麥克萊倫軍團的幾千名士兵從南方前來增援。

        It was a mighty force, much larger than Jackson's army. Jackson was worried. He sent an officer back to find General Lee. He sent a message: Lee must hurry. Jackson faced a big army.

        北軍人馬遠遠超過了杰克遜的力量,讓他深感不安。他派一名軍官回去報告羅伯特·李將軍,帶去口信說,李將軍必須立即增援,杰克遜面臨一支龐大的軍隊。

        VOICE ONE:

        Pope's army was large. But it was poorly organized. The men had been rushed into position. The order to attack was given before all the troops were ready.

        北軍將領波普手下人數雖多,但是組織松散,部隊貿然進入戰場,還沒做好準備,戰爭的號角就吹響了。

        So, the attack began slowly. And Jackson was able to fight it off. But then, more and more northern soldiers joined the fight. The two sides struggled for hours in the hot summer sun. Jackson's men almost broke. Men prayed for the long day to end. The sun seemed to stand still.

        北軍進攻速度緩慢,杰克遜尚有招架之力。隨著北軍部隊逐步到位,雙方戰斗越發激烈,在炎炎烈日下激戰好幾個小時。杰克遜的部隊眼看就要垮了,大家盼著漫長的一天趕快結束,但是太陽卻好像紋絲不動。

        VOICE TWO:

        General Fitz John Porter
        General Fitz John Porter

        Finally, the sun went down, and the battlefield became dark. Jackson's men had held, but they paid a terrible price. Thousands were killed or wounded. Northern losses were even greater.

        最后,太陽終于落山了,戰場上漆黑一片。杰克遜的部隊總算頂住了,但也付出了慘重代價,傷亡數千。北軍損失更大。

        Most of the Union troops had fought bravely. They had hit the Confederate lines time after time. But one large group of soldiers did not get into the battle at all that day. This was the group from McClellan's Army of the Potomac, led by Fitz John Porter.

        大多數北軍官兵都英勇作戰,對南方陣線發起一次又一次的攻擊。然而,北軍里也有一支部隊那天根本沒有投入戰斗,這支部隊屬于麥克萊倫的波托馬克軍團,由波特將軍率領。

        Pope had ordered Porter to strike at the right end of Jackson's lines. Porter took his troops several kilometers past Jackson's right and stopped them. His soldiers remained there all day, out of the battle. Porter said later he believed the Confederate forces were too strong for his men.

        波普下令波特率兵打擊杰克遜右翼防線,但是波特卻讓手下在距離杰克遜右翼幾公里處停下,在那里待了一整天,按兵不動。波特后來說,他覺得南軍力量過于強大。

        VOICE ONE:

        Other groups of McClellan's men were arriving in Alexandria, thirty kilometers to the east. Pope asked that they be sent to help him. McClellan was ordered to send them immediately. But he refused to do so. He said they were not in condition to fight, and he would not send them.

        此外,麥克萊倫領導的波托馬克軍團的其它部隊也陸續趕至戰場以東三十公里處的亞歷山德里亞。波普請求增援。麥克萊倫得到命令,立即出兵增援,但是他拒絕執行,理由是部隊沒有進入戰斗狀態,他不會貿然派兵。

        General Pope still thought he was facing only Jackson's army. He refused to believe reports that Lee had arrived on the battlefield with thirty thousand more southern soldiers. Pope thought Lee was still far to the west of Manassas.

        VOICE TWO:

        Pope knew that Jackson's army had taken a terrible beating in the two days of bloody fighting. And he was sure that Jackson would try to withdraw the next day, to retreat to the west.

        波普知道,杰克遜的部隊在過去兩天的激烈戰斗中損失慘重,以為杰克遜第二天一定會向西撤退。

        Pope divided his forces that night. He left thousands in place in front of Jackson's lines. The others were moved back. They were ordered to get ready for a march west to block Jackson's retreat.

        波普當天晚上將部隊一分為二,讓幾千人留守陣線,其它人向西移動,攔住杰克遜的退路。

        Pope made a terrible mistake. Jackson was not planning to retreat. He was waiting with Lee to smash the northern army. And that is what happened the next day.

        然而,波普犯了一個天大的錯誤。杰克遜沒打算撤軍。他在等待羅伯特·李的援兵,共同挫敗北軍,而這恰恰是次日所發生的一切。

        VOICE ONE:

        The Second Battle of Bull Run
        The Second Battle of Bull Run

        Northern troops attacked Jackson's lines. The fighting was bitter. Pope's forces almost smashed through. But then Lee ordered his men to move forward to help Jackson. Confederate artillery broke up the northern attack. When the northern troops began to retreat, Lee and Jackson attacked with all their might.

        第二天,北軍沖擊杰克遜的防線,雙方激烈戰斗,波普的部隊幾乎已經沖破了防線,可就在這時,羅伯特·李將軍出兵增援杰克遜。南軍大炮擊退了北軍的襲擊,北軍部隊開始撤退,杰克遜和羅伯特·李下令南軍發起猛攻。

        Many of Pope's men were not prepared for battle. They were standing together in groups, ready for marching. They could not stop the southern attack. The Confederates pushed Pope's army back across the Old Bull Run battlefield.

        波普手下的很多士兵并沒有做好打仗的準備,他們站在自己的小分隊里,還在準備行軍,這些人根本擋不住南軍的攻勢,在南軍壓力下,波普的部隊被迫在老布爾溪戰場上一路后退。

        VOICE TWO:

        Near the end of the day, northern forces succeeded in organizing a stronger defensive line. The southern attack slowed down, then stopped. Lee sent Jackson around the north end of Pope's line to try to stop the northern retreat. Lee did not want the defeated Union army to escape. He wanted to destroy it.

        天色將晚時,北軍終于形成了強大防線。南軍攻勢逐漸減弱,最后停了下來。羅伯特·李將軍讓杰克遜率兵繞過波普的左翼防線,攔住北軍退路,他不想讓北軍逃走,希望能一舉殲滅他們。

        But heavy rain held up Jackson's troops. They were discovered and attacked by a strong northern force. Jackson could move no farther. He could not stop Pope's retreat to Centreville and Washington. The northern army escaped.

        然而,杰克遜的部隊受到暴雨阻礙,目標暴露后,遭到一股強大北軍的襲擊,杰克遜無法前進,沒能攔住波普的退兵。波普率兵退到森特維爾和華盛頓。

        VOICE ONE:

        But it left behind thousands and thousands of dead and wounded. Confederate doctors treated their own men, then tried to help the wounded soldiers of the other side. General Lee permitted northern medical wagons to return to the battlefield. And they began to carry the wounded back to Centreville.

        北軍跑了,但留下了成千上萬的尸體和傷兵。南軍醫生給自己人療傷后,也來救助北軍傷員。羅伯特·李將軍允許北方醫務車輛回來,把傷員運回森特維爾。

        Groups of McClellan's army, arriving from Alexandria, met Pope's men in Centreville. They laughed and shouted at the tired, beaten soldiers. Many said they were glad that Pope had lost.

        從亞歷山德里亞來的麥克萊倫的部分隊伍在森特維爾跟波普的部隊會合,對這些疲憊不堪的敗兵大呼小叫,百般嘲弄。很多人還說,波普打了敗仗,他們十分高興。

        One of McClellan's Generals, Samuel Sturgis, greeted Pope at Centreville: "I always told you, Pope, that if they gave you enough rope, you would hang yourself."

        麥克萊倫手下的一名將領在森特維爾迎接波普時說,“波普,我早就告訴過你,如果他們給你足夠長的繩子,你就會把自己吊死。”

        VOICE TWO:

        What happened at Bull Run created bitter anger among the people of the North -- anger against their military leaders. People felt that a year had been wasted, that thousands had died for no real purpose. The year before, southern troops sent a northern army fleeing from Bull Run. Now, it was happening again. The Army of the Potomac was back where it started.

        布爾溪一戰,讓北方人怨氣十足,目標直指軍事將領。北方人覺得這一年是白白浪費了,數千名士兵也死得毫無意義。一年前,南軍就在布爾溪把北軍打得落荒而逃,一年后又是一樣的結果。波托馬克軍團跟一開始比,沒有任何起色。

        As the facts of the battle became known, cries of anger became even louder. The people demanded answers. Why did McClellan and his men move so slowly? Why did they refuse to go to Pope's aid? Why did Pope let Jackson get behind him? Why were fourteen thousand soldiers lost?

        戰斗細節逐漸清晰后,憤怒的呼聲越發高漲。人們要求得到答案:麥克萊倫部隊的行動為什么如此緩慢?為什么拒絕增援波普?杰克遜為什么能繞到波普部隊的背后?為什么會有一萬四千人命喪黃泉?

        VOICE ONE:

        Most members of Lincoln's cabinet believed McClellan was responsible.

        Secretary of War Edwin Stanton
        Secretary of War Edwin Stanton

        Treasury Secretary Salmon Chase said McClellan should be shot. War Secretary Edwin Stanton said he should be dismissed immediately. He and three other cabinet members signed a note demanding that Lincoln remove McClellan as Commander of the Army of the Potomac.

        林肯內閣大部分人都認為,錯在麥克萊倫。財政部長蔡斯提出,應該槍斃麥克萊倫。戰爭部長斯坦頓認為,應該立即解除麥克萊倫的職務。他跟另外三名內閣成員共同上書,要求林肯解除麥克萊倫波托馬克軍團總指揮的職務。

        Lincoln agreed that what McClellan had done was shocking. He said it was clear that McClellan wanted Pope to fail. But Lincoln said he would not remove McClellan. He said he knew that McClellan was not an aggressive general. But he said McClellan was a good organizer who could build the defeated army into a strong force.

        林肯承認,他也對麥克萊倫的所作所為感到震驚,麥克萊倫顯然是希望波普打敗仗。但林肯表示,他不會解除麥克萊倫的職務,因為他知道,麥克萊倫雖然不是一位進攻型指揮官,但有很強的組織能力,能把一支敗軍改造成一支勁旅。

        VOICE TWO:

        General Robert E. Lee, however, would not wait while McClellan rebuilt the army. He decided to carry the war to the North.

        與此同時,南軍部隊總指揮羅伯特·李將軍不會等待麥克萊倫重整旗鼓,他決定,打到北方去。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Jack Moyles. Our series can be found online with transcripts, podcasts and historical images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow our weekly programs on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #103 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(2條):
        作者:Alumni
        10-6-2013 21:10:38
        Pope fought Jackson and Lee who were southerners. Pope needed McClellan's aid but McClellan refuesed to do so due to his jealous to Pope.
        作者:鄭烈波
        12-31-2013 11:19:51
        life and blood paind the war
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