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        #102: South Defends Its Capital

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-24-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        In any war, the enemy's capital city is an important target. To capture the enemy's capital usually means victory.

        在任何戰爭中,敵方首都必是重要目標,占領了敵人的首都,往往就意味著戰爭的勝利。

        In the American Civil War, the North hoped for a quick victory by capturing the southern capital at Richmond, Virginia. Northern forces were strong enough. There were about one hundred fifty thousand Union soldiers in and around Washington. General George McClellan led this Army of the Potomac. It was the biggest, best-trained and best-equipped of the Union armies.

        在美國南北戰爭中,北軍希望奪取南軍首都里士滿,速戰速決。當時,華盛頓附近的波托馬克兵團有大約十五萬人,由喬治·麥克萊倫將軍率領,是北軍中最強大、最訓練有素、裝備最精良的隊伍。

        This week in our series, Larry West and Tony Riggs report on McClellan's move against Richmond.

        VOICE ONE:

        General George McClellan
        General George McClellan

        For the first year of the Civil War, the Army of the Potomac did not fight. General McClellan kept making excuses for his failure to act. He had a plan, he said. And he would not move until he was sure his men were ready.

        南北戰爭爆發的第一年里,波托馬克兵團沒有參加任何戰役,麥克萊倫將軍為自己按兵不動制造了各種借口,說他自有安排,在能夠肯定兵團人馬已經做好準備充分前,不會采取行動。

        McClellan's plan was to put his army on boats in the Potomac River. They would sail down the river to where it emptied into the Chesapeake Bay. Then he would land the boats on the coast of Virginia, east of Richmond.

        麥克萊倫的計劃是,讓自己的兵團乘船沿波托馬克河南下,穿過切薩皮克灣,在里士滿以東靠岸。

        President Abraham Lincoln wanted to capture the Confederate capital. But he did not like the idea of moving all of McClellan's men. That would leave the city of Washington without protection.

        林肯總統希望攻打南軍首都,但又不愿意讓麥克萊倫帶走所有人馬,因為這樣一來,首都華盛頓就失去了保護。

        McClellan tried to calm Lincoln's fears. He said that as soon as he marched toward Richmond, any Confederate soldiers near Washington would withdraw. They would be needed to defend their own capital.

        麥克萊倫安慰林肯說,一旦他率部南下,華盛頓附近的所有南軍都會撤退,趕回里士滿,保衛自己的首都。

        VOICE TWO:

        The Army of the Potomac began to move on March seventeenth, eighteen sixty-two. Within two weeks, more than fifty thousand had reached Fort Monroe, southeast of Richmond. They were equipped with one hundred big guns and tons of supplies. Day by day, the Union force at Fort Monroe grew larger.

        1862年3月17號,波托馬克兵團開始行動。兩周不到,就有五萬多人到達里士滿東南的門羅要塞。他們還帶來了一百門重炮和不計其數的槍支彈藥。接下來的日子里,北軍人馬陸續抵達。

        McClellan had planned to move quickly to Yorktown, then push on to Richmond. He would move along the finger of land between the York River and the James River.

        麥克萊倫原計劃迅速進駐約克敦,然后穿過約克河跟詹姆斯河之間的地帶,直逼里士滿。

        He soon learned, however, that he could not move as quickly as planned. Heavy spring rains had turned the dirt roads into rivers of mud. McClellan's men could push through. But there was no way they could bring their big guns. McClellan decided to wait. He did not want to attack Yorktown without artillery.

        然而,他后來發現,行動無法像他預計地那么迅速,因為春天的大雨把土路變成了泥塘,雖然部隊可以行軍,但是大炮卻拉不過去。麥克萊倫不想在沒有火炮支持的情況下發動進攻,所以決定等待。

        VOICE ONE:

        The Battle of Williamsburg
        The Battle of Williamsburg

        President Lincoln was not pleased. He sent a message to McClellan. "You must strike a blow," Lincoln said. "You must act." But still McClellan delayed. By the time his artillery had arrived and was in place, Confederate troops had withdrawn. They moved to the woods outside Williamsburg. McClellan chased them. For the first time, his army went into battle.

        林肯很生氣,傳信給麥克萊倫,告訴他必須行動,但麥克萊倫還是一拖再拖,等大炮運到的時候,南軍已經撤退,躲進了威廉斯堡郊外的樹林里。麥克萊倫率兵追擊,這是波托馬克兵團參加的第一場戰斗。

        The fighting was strange. The woods were so thick that the two sides could not often see each other. Soldiers fired at the flash of gunpowder, at noises, anything that moved. Their aim was good enough. About four thousand soldiers were killed.

        這場仗打得很奇怪。由于樹林茂密,交戰雙方往往看不到對方,只要敵軍方向有開槍的亮光,聽到或是看到任何動靜,就開槍射擊,結果命中率居然很高,一共有大約四千人被打死。

        VOICE TWO:

        In his reports to Washington, McClellan claimed great victories at Yorktown and Williamsburg. Yet he was worried. He believed the Confederate force around Richmond was much larger than his. He demanded more men.

        麥克萊倫戰報華盛頓,說自己在約克敦和威廉斯堡取得了重大勝利,但是他也很擔心,因為他覺得,南軍在里士滿附近的實力比他雄厚,所以請求增援。

        The Confederate force was, in fact, much smaller than the Union force. But it was deployed in a way to make it seem much larger.

        事實上,南軍人馬比北軍少得多,但是由于部署有方,所以顯得很多。

        The trick fooled McClellan. By the middle of May, eighteen sixty-two, his army was only fifteen kilometers from Richmond. Still, he did not attack. He continued to wait for more men and equipment.

        麥克萊倫被假象蒙蔽。1862年5月中旬,他的部隊已經前進到距離里士滿只有15公里的地方,但他還是遲遲不肯進攻,等待增援的部隊和軍備。

        Confederate President Jefferson Davis was worried. He knew the Confederate army was smaller than the Union army. Davis' military adviser, General Robert E. Lee, offered a plan. Lee proposed that General Stonewall Jackson lead his army up Virginia's Shenandoah Valley. The North would see the move as a threat to Washington. Union troops would be kept near Washington, instead of being sent to Richmond. President Davis agreed. Orders were sent to Jackson.

        南方邦聯總統杰斐遜·戴維斯憂心忡忡,因為他知道,南軍實力遠不如北軍。軍事顧問羅伯特·李將軍提議,讓人稱“石墻”的杰克遜將軍率部沿雪蘭多山谷北上。北軍會覺得這是對華盛頓的威脅,因此讓部隊留守華盛頓,不增援里士滿。戴維斯欣然接受,立即下令杰克遜采取行動。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        General Stonewall Jackson
        General Stonewall Jackson

        Stonewall Jackson was one of the South's best generals. He was a forceful leader. And he could make his men march until they dropped.

        人稱“石墻”的杰克遜是南軍最優秀的將領之一,雷厲風行,能讓部下日夜兼程,直到倒下為止。

        He got the name "Stonewall" at the Battle of Bull Run in the summer of eighteen sixty-one. Southern soldiers were withdrawing. A Confederate officer tried to stop them. He urged them to follow Jackson's example, to stand and fight. He shouted, "There stands Jackson -- like a stone wall."

        杰克遜將軍是在1861年夏天布爾溪一役中獲得“石墻”這一稱號的。當時,南軍士兵紛紛撤退,一位南方邦聯指揮官試圖阻止敗兵,讓他們學習杰克遜的榜樣,誓死堅守陣地。他大聲喊道,“看,杰克遜就站在那里,好像一堵石墻。”

        General Jackson faced three large Union forces in and around the Shenandoah Valley. Yet he struck hard and fast, and soon had control of the valley's main towns.

        杰克遜將軍在雪蘭多山谷附近面對三支強大的北軍部隊,但是他采取了迅速猛烈的攻擊,很快就控制了山谷主要城鎮。

        His campaign is still studied at military schools around the world. It is considered an excellent example of how to move troops quickly to where they are most needed.

        他的這場戰役至今仍然是世界各地軍事院校學習的案例,是以最快速度調兵遣將的典范。

        VOICE TWO:

        Jackson's raids produced the exact effect Robert E. Lee had wanted.

        杰克遜的行動達到了羅伯特·李想要的效果。

        Everyone in Washington feared an immediate attack on the city. Soldiers were hurried to the capital from Baltimore and other nearby cities. And President Lincoln sent thousands of troops to chase Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley, instead of helping McClellan at Richmond.

        首都華盛頓人心惶惶,擔心南軍對華盛頓發動攻擊。駐扎在巴爾的摩等附近城市的北軍部隊迅速趕往首都,林肯總統也派遣數千部隊追擊杰克遜的部隊,而不是到里士滿去增援麥克萊倫。

        The Union army outside Richmond was deployed on either side of the Chickahominy River. The Chickahominy was not a big river. It could be crossed easily at several places.

        里士滿城外的北軍駐守在奇克哈默尼河兩岸。奇克哈默尼是一條小河,好幾處地方都很容易過河。

        While McClellan waited to attack the Confederate capital, heavy rains began to fall. The little river began to rise. The commander of Confederate forces in Richmond saw this as a chance to smash a large part of McClellan's army.

        麥克萊倫等待進攻時機時,突然下起了大雨,河水上漲。里士滿的南軍指揮官覺得,這是挫敗麥克萊倫兵團的一次大好時機。

        VOICE ONE:

        The flooding river would soon cut the Union force completely in two. When that happened, the Confederates would attack. They expected to destroy at least half of McClellan's army.

        上漲的河水眼看就要將北軍部隊攔腰切斷。南軍等待著在這千鈞一發之際發動進攻,打算至少將麥克萊倫的部隊消滅一半。

        The plan seemed good. And after the first few hours of battle, the Confederates were close to victory. But one bridge remained over the Chickahominy River. Union soldiers were able to cross it. The Confederates were forced to withdraw to their earlier positions. No ground was gained. And more than eleven thousand men were killed or wounded. Among the wounded was the commander of all Confederate forces, General Joe Johnston. General Robert E. Lee would take his place.

        這個計劃聽起來天衣無縫,戰斗打響幾小時后,南軍眼看就要勝利。然而,奇克哈默尼河上還剩下一座橋梁,北軍士兵仍舊可以過河。南軍被迫撤回原來的位置,沒能搶占任何地盤。雙方共有一萬五千人在這次戰斗中傷亡,傷員中還包括南軍部隊總指揮喬·約翰斯頓將軍。羅伯特·李接替了他的職務。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Confederate officer Jeb Stuart
        Confederate officer Jeb Stuart

        Lee wasted no time. He wanted to push the Union army far away from Richmond. First, however, he wanted more information about his enemy. He sent a young officer -- Jeb Stuart -- to get it.

        李將軍沒有耽誤任何時間,他希望盡快把北軍從里士滿趕走。不過首先,他希望進一步了解敵情,并把這項任務交給一個叫杰布·斯圖爾特的年輕軍官。

        Stuart set off with more than a thousand men on horseback. Theirs was a wild ride around the edge of the Union army. When they reported back three days later, General Lee knew exactly where he would attack.

        斯圖爾特率領一千多名騎兵出發。他們克服重重危險,沿著北軍營地四周巡查,三天后回來匯報,讓羅伯特·李將軍選中了進攻目標。

        It would be the first in a series of battles known as the Seven Days Campaign.

        這將是美國南北戰爭中著名的“七天戰役”中的第一仗。

        VOICE ONE:

        Lee took a big chance. He moved most of his men into position to attack what he now knew was the weak, right side of the Union line. He left only a few thousand men to defend Richmond. He hoped the Union commander, McClellan, would be fooled by this plan. For if McClellan discovered how few men were left behind, he could smash through easily and capture the city.

        羅伯特·李將軍采取大膽行動,讓手下大部分人馬進攻北軍右翼的薄弱陣線,只留下幾千人保衛里士滿,希望北軍指揮官麥克萊倫不要看穿他的計劃。因為如果麥克萊倫發現沒有多少人留守的話,他輕而易舉地就能占領里士滿。

        With the help of Stonewall Jackson's army, Lee's plan worked. McClellan was fooled. And after a day of fierce fighting, he was forced to withdraw from the area.

        在人稱“石墻”的杰克遜將軍的幫助下,羅伯特·李的計劃成功了,沒有被麥克萊倫識破。經過一天的激戰,麥克萊倫被迫撤退。

        VOICE TWO:

        The Battle of Malvern Hill in Virginia
        The Battle of Malvern Hill in Virginia

        Lee chased McClellan for a while. They clashed at such places as Mechanicsville, White Oak Swamp, and finally Malvern Hill. The South won the Seven Days Campaign. The threat to Richmond was ended. The Confederacy was saved.

        羅伯特·李率兵追擊,雙方先后在梅卡尼克斯維、懷特奧克沼澤,以及莫爾文山等地交戰。最終,南軍贏得了“七天戰役”的勝利,里士滿受到的威脅被解除,南方邦聯也得到了挽救。

        But victory came at a terrible price. Twenty thousand Confederate soldiers were killed or wounded. As both the North and South were learning quickly, the Civil War was becoming more costly than anyone had imagined.

        不過,南軍也為勝利付出了慘痛代價,傷亡總計兩萬人。交戰的南北雙方都開始意識到,這場內戰的代價超過了所有人的想象。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Tony Riggs. Our series can be found online with transcripts, podcasts and historical images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow our weekly programs on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #102 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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